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NORTH CAROLINA LIBRARY COMMlbSlU! 

RAl ,^TH M Q 



North Carolina 
Department of Conservation and Development 

R. Bruce Etheridge, Director . 



NORTH CAROLINA: 
TODAY AND TOMORROW 



Division of Commerce and Industry 

Paul Kelly, Division Chief 



Compiled under the direction of 

Theodore S. Johnson, Chief Engineer 



RALEIGH, N. C. 
193(i 



North Carolina State Library 
Raleigh 



N.C, 



Printed By 

Winston Printing Company 

Winston-Salem, N. C. 



Price 50 cents per copy 



PREFACE 

This volume is the product of the joint effort of many persons on the staff of the 
Department of Conservation and Development, of the staff of the North Carolina State 
Planning Board, and many State officials. All have shown the utmost spirit of co-oper- 
ation, devoting time and thought to the preparation of material contained herein. 

Special acknowledgement is made to Robert N. Woodworth for the chapter on Pop- 
ulation Studies; to W. Clyde Dunn for the studies in Governmental Service and Finance; 
to Miss Emily Vaughn for the review of Public Welfare Work; to W. H. Richardson, 
Frank Jeter, and Robert H. Ruffner for contributions to the chapter on Agricultural 
Resources. In the chapter on Industrial Development, much of the material there pre- 
sented has been taken from the excellent records of the Department of Labor, which 
were made available through the courtesy of Mr. A. L. Fletcher, Commissioner. 

Frequent use has been made of figures made available by the U. S. Census Bureau 
and the U. S. Department of Agriculture and the Bureau of Labor Statistics. The neces- 
sity for withholding figures where they would reveal the operations of individual com- 
panies serves occasionally to give an inadequate report of activities. In the tabulation 
of establishments, it has sometimes been impossible to obtain complete data on those of 
small capacity, but the totals shown will not vary greatly from the true amount. 

The difficulty that has been encountered in securing factual material points very 
definitely to the necessity for the establishment and maintenance of agencies which will 
set up the means for securing regular and complete reports and making them available 
for public use. 

It is proposed to prepare separate reports for each county in the State, giving 
more detailed information concerning the resources and development to be found therein, 
together with such additional data as may be found available. This work will proceed as 
rapidly as possible. 

Mr. Paul Kelly, Assistant Director of the Department of Conservation and Devel- 
opment and Chief of the Division of Commerce and Industry, has actively collaborated 
in the preparation of this volume. His long experience in this field, his familiarity with 
the resources and industries of the State, has made his counsel and assistance most 
valuable. 

It is proposed that this present volume will be the first of a continuing series, pre- 
senting at regular intervals a record of the progress and development of North Caro- 
lina. The Department of Conservation and Development will seek to keep the informa- 
tion up to date and constantly available to inquirers. The Division of Commerce and In- 
dustry, to which this special function is assigned, offers its services and interest to any 
interested parties. 



in 



72594 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

LYRASIS Members and Sloan Foundation 



http://archive.org/details/northcarolinatod1936nort 



NORTH CAROLINA: TODAY AND TOMORROW 



CONTENTS 

Page 

Preface iii 

Foreword ix 

Chapter 

I. Physical Characteristics of the State 1 

II. The People of North Carolina 17 

III. The Government of North Carolina: Its Structure and Services 37 

IV. Education in North Carolina 71 

V. Public Welfare and Health in North Carolina 87 

VI. Agricultural Resources of North Carolina 99 

VII. Forest Resources of North Carolina 117 

VIII. Mineral Resources of North Carolina 143 

IX. Water Resources of North Carolina 169 

X. Wildlife Resources of North Carolina 179 

XI. Commercial Fisheries of North Carolina 191 

XII. Recreation in North Carolina 207 

XIII. Industrial Development of North Carolina 217 

XIV. Power Resources of North Carolina 239 

XV. Transportation and Communication in North Carolina 245 

XVI. Economic Statistics and Indices for North Carolina 255 

XVII. Future Progress in North Carolina 261 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



Plate I. 

II. 

III. 

IV. 

V. 

VI. 

VII. 

VIII. 

IX. 

X. 

XL 

XII. 

XIII. 

XIV. 

XV. 

XVI. 

XVII. 

XVIII. 

XIX. 

XX. 

XXI. 

XXII. 

XXIII. 

XXIV. 

XXV. 

XXVI. 

Figure 1. 

2. 
3. 

4. 
5. 
6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 



Page 

Map of North Carolina x 

Mean Annual Temperature Isotherms 6 

Mean Annual Rainfall Isohyetals 9 

North Carolina Per Cent Increase Population 1890-1930 19 

North Carolina Per Cent Increase Population 1920-1930 20 

North Carolina Per Cent Increase White Population 1890-1930 24 

North Carolina Per Cent Increase Negro Population 1890-1930 26 

North Carolina Population Per Square Mile 1930 31 

Congressional Districts, North Carolina 38 

Judicial Districts, North Carolina 40 

Representation in General Assembly 41 

North Carolina Public Welfare Agencies 88 

Land Condition Map of North Carolina 99 

Crops Adapted to Various Classes of Soil in North Carolina 102 

Map of Forest Regions and National Forests 118 

Public Facilities for Co-operative Forest Management 127 

Ceramic Industry in North Carolina 157 

Mining Operations in North Carolina 144 

Stream Gaging Stations and River Basins in North Carolina 170 

Public Water Supplies in North Carolina 172 

Wildlife Resources of North Carolina 178 

Public Recreational Areas, Municipal Parks and Play Fields 210 

Production and Distribution of Power in North Carolina. 238 

Highway System of North Carolina 246 

Railroad System of North Carolina 248 

Airways and Waterways of North Carolina 250 

Population Growth and Per Cent Increase in North Carolina 

1790-1930 18 

Growth of Population by Principal Races 1790-1930 23 

Per Cent Distribution of Negro Population in North Carolina 

by Types of Communities 25 

Urban Growth in North Carolina by Size of Cities 28 

Bonded Debt Outstanding in North Carolina 63 

Annual Payments on State Bonded Debt 64 

Forest Fire Control in Co-operating Counties 129 

Production of Lumber in North Carolina 136 

Production Value of Principal Fin Fish and Shell Fish 196 

North Carolina Industries 219 

All Industries in North Carolina 220 



vn 



FOREWORD 

In announcing his candidacy for the governorship of North 
Carolina in 1932, Governor J. C. B. Ehringhaus made a statement 
of his program and of the policies which he would follow if elected. 

In part these were as follows : 

"We need to spend more of our time and energies in constructive 
thought and effort. We must build, not break, the commonwealth. 
We need a program of progress and of rehabilitation. 

"There should be a continued insistence upon the enlargement of 
our live-at-home program; an added emphasis upon the profitable 
utilization of our waste areas in timber growing, game breeding, 
public hunting preserves and like usages; a definite movement 
towards discovering new uses and new markets for all our products, 
and meeting the challenge of our undeveloped resources. 

"I propose to mobilize, co-ordinate and make actively available 
all the energies and resources of the State in one real comprehensive 
and co-operative effort toward a realization upon these possibilities. 

"To this end we shall seek and doubtless obtain the active 
interest of every organization, public and private, which looks toward 
civic growth and enterprise, every source of information, and every 
fount of learning, every citizen with dollars to invest and faith in 
the commonwealth. 

"We should have a comprehensive survey of every county in 
the State, with detailed information as to its possibilities imme- 
diately available to inquirers .... A bit of reasoned optimism, a 
fair share of confident courage and a lot of conscientious work, and 
we shall set the world an example in constructive conservation that 
will excite anew its admiration and see a new day dawning in the 
State which we love." 

To the fulfillment of that promise, the present volume on "North 
Carolina: Today and Tomorrow," is dedicated. 



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NORTH CAROLINA 



PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS 



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PLATE No I 
CHAPTER I 



Chapter I 



PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE STATE 



PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS 

The State of North Carolina is situated on the eastern slope of the Appalachian 
Mountains, and is bounded on the north by Virginia, on the south by South Carolina, 
and on the east by the Atlantic Ocean. It lies between 34° and 36° 30' north latitude. 
In its east to west direction, it extends from 75° 30' west longitude to approximately 
84° 15' west longitude, the greater proportion of the State lying, however, between the 
82° and 76° meridians. The extreme length of the State is over 500 miles, and its greatest 
width 188 miles. The total area of the State is 52,286 square miles, of which 48,666 
square miles is in land. 

The topography can perhaps best be described as one vast slope, extending from 
the mountains of the west, with altitudes of nearly 7,000 feet, to the level of the Atlantic 
Ocean. The State easily divides itself into three physiographic regions: in the west is 
the Mountain Region, composed of the broad Appalachian Plateau, bounded on the west 
by the Great Smoky Mountains and on the east by the Blue Ridge ; the second, a sub- 
montane or Piedmont Plateau Region, extends from the foot of the mountains on the 
west to what is known as the "fall line," which runs in a northeast-southwest direction 
through the counties of Northampton, Halifax, Wake, Lee, Hoke, and Scotland; the 
third, or Coastal Plain, extends from the Piedmont section to the coast. A fourth area, 
sometimes designated as the Tidewater section, and comprising all that area of eastern 
Carolina within the barrier reefs, extends to the head of the sounds and rivers which 
form the determining physiographic features of this section. 

From the Mountain section to the Piedmont the transition is very sharp, there 
being a drop of not less than 1,500 feet within a very few miles. The Piedmont, as well 
as the Coastal Plain, slopes gradually to the ocean, the average slope being approxi- 
mately 1 foot to the mile. 

THE MOUNTAIN REGION 

This is so sharply and distinctly defined, and embraces so large a portion of the 
territory of North Carolina, as to merit a somewhat extended reference to its magni- 
tude, its elevation and its characteristics. Broadly considered it may be treated as a 
high plateau, bounded on the east by the irregular chain known as the Blue Ridge, 
extending across the State in a general direction from northeast to southwest, until. 
reaching the southeastern border of Henderson County, it turns to the west and forms 
for a long distance part of the southern boundary of the State, passing at length by 
a southwest projection into the State of Georgia, and again reuniting with the chain 
of the Great Smoky Mountains, to which it had made near approach on its entry into 
North Carolina in the counties of Ashe and Watauga. 



2 North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 

The average elevation of the Blue Ridge is nearly 4,000 feet, though on the south- 
ern and northern extremities it drops to 3,000 feet, its lower gaps being a little above 
2,000 feet over the main level of the Piedmont country. Seen from the east, the chain 
presents the aspect of a steep and rugged escarpment springing suddenly from the 
Piedmont Plateau to an altitude of from 2,000 to 3,000 feet above it. From the west 
the appearance is that of a low and ill-defined ridge, in some places, as in parts of 
Henderson and Macon counties, presenting almost a smooth, unbroken horizontal line; 
again uplifting itself in bold prominence, attaining the height of nearly 6,000 feet, as 
in the Grandfather and the Pinnacle, the conspicuous summits so attractively visible 
near Round Knob, on the Western North Carolina Railroad. 

The western boundary of this division is that long chain known under the various 
names of the Iron, the Smoky, and the Unaka Mountains, and forming the dividing line 
between North Carolina and Tennessee, and enclosing with marked definiteness the 
plateau of Western North Carolina. The area of this division approximates 6,000 square 
miles. The plateau is the culminating region of the Appalachian system, and contains 
not only its largest masses, but also its highest summits. It is divided by a number of 
cross ridges, and consequently into a number of smaller plateaus or basins, each 
bounded on all sides by high mountains and having its own independent system of 
rivers or drainage. It is this connection or interlacing of the outside bounding chains 
by the agency of the numerous cross chains that gives Western North Carolina its 
marked mountain character, its alternation of high mountain ranges with correspond- 
ing valleys and their attendant rivers, and the numerous lateral spurs, penetrated also 
by their valleys and their mountain torrents, and all arranged with an order and a 
symmetry as rare as it is beautiful. 

The chief of these cross ranges in exceptional elevation is known as the Black 
Mountains, consisting of a single short ridge extending in a northerly direction from 
the point where it leaves the Blue Ridge. Its total length is only about fifteen miles, but 
within this short distance there are a dozen peaks that rise to an elevation of more than 
6,000 feet above the sea, and one of these — Mitchell's Peak — the highest mountain on 
the eastern half of the continent, has an altitude of 6,684 feet. Between the French 
Broad and the Pigeon rivers stretches the long ridges of the Pisgah and the New Found 
Mountains, interrupted by the valley of Hominy Creek, the opening of which offers 
convenient passway to the next parallel ridge, the Balsam Mountains, which extends 
in unbroken continuity from the South Carolina line on the south to the Great Smoky 
Mountains on the Tennessee border on the north. This range has a mean elevation of 
about 5,500 feet, with fifteen summits exceeding 6,000 feet; and across the range are 
only two passways or gaps suitable to the passage of wheeled vehicles, one of which, 
traversed by the Western North Carolina division of the Southern Railway, is 3,357 
feet above sea-level; the other, Soco Gap, being 4,341 feet high. Then comes the 
Cowee Mountains, extending nearly across the State, and separated from the Great 
Smokies by the narrow valley of the Tuckaseegee River. The mean height of this ridge 
is about 4,800 feet, the highest summit, at the southern end, being Yellow Mountain, 
5,133 feet. Then succeeds the massive and very bold double chain of the Nantahala and 
Valley River Mountains, with a mean height of 5,000 feet, the two branches of which 
lie in close parallelism from the Georgia State line on the south as far as the Red 



North Carolina : Today and Tomorrow 3 

Marble Gap on the north, where they separate, one branch directed westward and known 
as the Long Ridge, and uniting itself with the Great Smoky Mountains in Cherokee 
County; the other extending to the northeast, under the name of the Cheoah Mountains, 
and ending without definite connection in undefinable ridges or isolated peaks. 

On the east side of the Blue Ridge and extending into the Piedmont region are a 
series of short and irregular ridges or spurs. Among these are the Saluda, Green River, 
Tryon and Hungry Mountain masses, with all more or less separated from the Blue 
Ridge by the deep valleys or gorges carved by the river torrents which have cut through 
them and thus unite with the waters flowing toward the Atlantic; the waters on the 
west of the Blue Ridge, on the contrary, all directing their courses toward the Missis- 
sippi or its tributaries. Two other and more prominent ridges extend into this Pied- 
mont Plateau for considerable distance. The South Mountains, commencing as foot 
hills of the Blue Ridge in western McDowell, extend in a general easterly direction, south 
of the Catawba River to western Catawba County, a distance of some fifty miles. They 
reach their maximum development near the junction of Burke, McDowell and Ruther- 
ford counties, where several knobs have an elevation of nearly 3,000 feet. The other of 
these two ridges, the Brushy Mountains, cut off from the Blue Ridge at the west by sev- 
eral tributaries of the Catawba, assumes definite proportions in eastern Caldwell County 
and extends northeast more or less parallel to the Yadkin Valley and Blue Ridge on the 
north, as far as the Sauratown Mountains in Stokes County, a distance of some eighty 
miles. In Yadkin and Surry counties these mountains nearly disappear, but they 
reappear in Pilot, Eaton and Moore's Knobs to the northeast. 

The Linville Mountains, though a distinct spur from the Blue Ridge, are so coinci- 
dent with it in perspective and in general characteristics as to need no mention as a dis- 
tinct ridge. 

The above embrace the whole mountain system of North Carolina, and in the 
western section unmistakably present the culmination of the great Appalachian system, 
as illustrated by the highest summits lifted up in all the territory of the United States 
east of the Rocky Mountains, and also as the source from which many large rivers 
radiate to flow toward the opposite directions of the Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico, 
and the Mississippi River and its tributaries. 

There are in this mountain area forty-three peaks which attain an elevation of over 
6,000 feet, and eighty-two mountains which exceed 5,000 feet in elevation, most of which 
closely approximate 6,000 feet. Among these may be named the following: Clingman's 
Dome, 6,660; Mount Guyot, 6,636; Mount Buckley, 6,599; Mount Henry, 6,373; Mount 
Love, 6,443; Mount Alexander, 6,447. These are all located in the Great Smoky Moun- 
tains. In the Balsam Mountains, the most notable peaks are: Double Spring Mountain, 
6,380; Richland Balsam, 6,370; and Chimney Peak, 6,234. In the Black Mountains will 
be found Black Dome, 6,502; Mount Gibbs, 6,591; and Hairy Bear, 6,681; while tow- 
ering above these and other high peaks is Mount Mitchell, the highest elevation of 
eastern United States, with a height of 6,684 feet. 

The contours of all the mountains are gentle, the summits usually presenting 
smooth, rounded outlines, and except on the southern border presenting but few 
precipitous slopes. With the notable exception of Caesar's Head and Whiteside Moun- 



4 North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 

tain, where sheer perpendicular rock faces 1,800 feet in height are to be found, the 
mountains are usually covered with deep rich soil and clothed with massive forests to 
their tops. To this general condition there is one remarkable exception in those moun- 
tains locally called balds, which are marked with natural open meadows covered with 
rich herbage or grass. 

In the Mountain Region will be found some of the most attractive contrasts between 
high wooded mountains and deep fertile valleys. Most important of these are the upper 
French Broad and Mills River valleys, the Swannanoa valley, in Buncombe County, the 
Pigeon River and those of the Valley River and Hiwassee in the extreme southwestern 
part of the State. 

Rich in timber and mineral resources, finely adapted in its open spaces for grazing 
and for meadow cultivation, the mountain section has within the last few years rapidly 
developed. This development has taken place largely because of the penetration of the 
entire area with a network of paved roads, which have opened up to the outside world 
the marvelous resources and attractiveness of this region. 

PIEDMONT REGION 

This region is intermediate between the mountains and the Coastal Plain, and com- 
prises nearly one-half of the territory of the State. Distinctive in topography, pro- 
ductivity, and industrial development, this region has developed into the most prosper- 
ous and densely populated section of the State. The bold outline of the mountains is 
transformed into a series of gentle hills and valleys, which presents a variety and charm 
of landscape, different on the one hand from the mountains to the west, and on the 
other from the even monotony of the plains or levels of the east. Through this Piedmont 
region run a great abundance of streams, whose headwaters lie in the mountain slopes 
and which run in a general southeast direction, gradually uniting into distinct river 
valleys, such as the Chowan, the Roanoke, the Neuse, the Cape Fear, the Yadkin, and 
the Catawba rivers. It is in this section of the State that most development has taken 
place. Scattered throughout this entire area are large numbers of thriving villages and 
towns, some of which have grown to truly metropolitan size. Here is presented a min- 
gled development of industrial, agricultural and urban life. In this region have been 
developed the great water powers of the State, which have furnished an abundance of 
power for industrial development. 

Elevations in the Piedmont Plateau vary from nearly 1,000 feet in the northwestern 
section, to approximately 300 feet in the Sandhills of the southern Piedmont. 

COASTAL PLAIN REGION 

East of the "fall line" lies the vast plain of the State, which averages some 150 miles 
in width and extends from the north to the southernmost part of the State. Vast areas of 
this Coastal Plain are found to be practically level, and in the lower reaches of the Plain 
adjacent to the sounds are to be found many low-lying areas filled with swamps and 
lakes. Over this entire section the primitive basal rocks are covered with deep strata 



North Carolina : Today and Tomorrow 5 

of sand, clay, and gravel, frequently mixed with a quantity of shells. The upland areas 
are for the most part sandy loam, easily worked and very productive in the crops there 
cultivated. 

The streams which extend deeply into the Coastal Plain are navigable throughout 
much of their lower extent. 

RIVERS AND SOUNDS 

A distinctive feature of the physiography of North Carolina is the streams which 
traverse its entire area. The State naturally divides itself into the following river 
basins: the Chowan, Roanoke, Tar, Neuse, Cape Fear, Yadkin, Catawba, and Broad, all 
of which drain into the Atlantic Ocean; while the Hiwassee, the Little Tennessee, 
French Broad, and New River basins drain into the Tennessee and the Gulf of Mexico. 
On the eastern coast is a remarkable succession of sounds, lying behind the barrier 
reef, or outer banks which form such a distinctive boundary to the State on the east. 
Beginning at the Virginia line with the Currituck Sound, followed by the great reach of 
fresh water known as the Albemarle Sound, these two join through the channels of 
Roanoke and Croatan sounds to the vast area of salt water known as the Pamlico Sound. 
South of the Pamlico, and narrowing as the mainland approaches nearer to the main 
ocean barrier, are found Core and Bogue sounds, while south of these will be found 
an innumerable series of sounds, connected to the ocean through many inlets and pro- 
viding a channel for the Intracoastal Waterway, which traverses the entire eastern 
boundary of the State. 

These sounds furnish an immense area in which is to be found an abundance of 
shellfish and fin fish in wide variety. 

Comprising as it does mountain, piedmont, and coastal lands, the State presents 
a wide diversity of natural resources, agricultural and industrial development, scenic 
and recreational opportunities, which make it almost unique. 

CLIMATE 

In general, the climate of North Carolina may be said to be typical of that 
usually found in the warm temperate zone. The State lies approximately at the same 
parallel of latitude as the Mediterranean basin, but is affected largely by its position 
with relation to the ocean on the east and the high mountain area on the west. In the 
east, the ocean acts to lessen the changes in temperature, both diurnal and seasonal, and 
at the same time tends to increase the amount of precipitation. Contrary to prevailing 
impression, the nearness of the Gulf stream, which lies some 50 to 70 miles off-shore 
from Cape Lookout and Cape Hatteras, has a minimum effect on the climate in the east, 
both because the prevailing winds throughout most of the year are either from the south- 
west or the northeast and because the Gulf stream is separated from the land by 50 
miles of colder water. 

TEMPERATURE 

The mean temperature of the Mountain Region is approximately 56.5°, varying 
from 48.4° at Linville, to 61.4° at Rockingham. The variations in minimum temperature 



w 

< 







North Carolina : Today and Tomorrow 7 

are greater than for maximum temperature, due partly to local topography as well as 
to striking differences in elevation. There is comparatively little severe cold weather 
until the middle of December over this area. January and February are usually the 
coldest months, while July is the warmest. The mountain ranges serve as partial bar- 
rier to cold waves, which therefore reach the Piedmont area in somewhat modified 
form. Practically all parts of the area have experienced temperatures slightly below 
zero, but severe cold weather seldom lasts more than three or four days. Nearly all the 
Piedmont stations have records of 100° in the months of June, July and August, but the 
number of days in which the temperature exceeds 95° is comparatively small. The crop 
growing season varies considerably throughout the western portion of the State. At 
Charlotte, for example, the average date of the last killing frost in the spring is March 
25, and the first frost in autumn is November 5, a period of 225 days ; while at Banners 
Elk the similar period is from May 11 to October 5, or 157 days. In the central and south- 
eastern portion of the State, the mean annual temperature varies somewhat uniformly 
from the northern to the southern boundary. The mean annual temperature for this area 
averages 60.6°, and ranges from 56.9° at Saxon to 64.1° at Southport. 

January is the coldest month, the lowest average for twenty years or more being 
37.4° at Saxon. The warmest month is July, and the highest July average is 80.4° at 
Southport. Zero temperatures are of rare occurrence, especially in the southern portion, 
and there is no record as low as zero in the coast counties or in the interior of the Coastal 
Plain as far south as Lumberton. Almost every station in the area has a maximum record 
of 100° or slightly above for the months of June to September. Cold periods are usually 
of short duration, and the ground is seldom frozen more than a few inches. Outdoor work 
is carried on practically throughout the year. 

The average date of the first killing frost in autumn for a period of twenty years or 
more varies from October 17 in the north to November 16 in the south. The earliest 
killing frost in a few of the northern stations occurs as early as October 1. The average 
length of the growing season along the northern border of the cotton belt through- 
out portions of Durham, Chatham, and Randolph counties, is about 195 days ; but the 
main cotton producing area within the central section of the State has a growing 
season of from 205 to 220 days. In the northeastern section of the State the average 
annual temperature varies but little from that of the central, the figure being 60.4° for 
the period from the establishment of stations to 1930. The lowest annual temperature in 
the northwest portion is 58°, while that on the southern coast near Beaufort is 64°. 

Comparatively little cold weather prevails over this area until the latter part of 
December. Zero weather has been recorded occasionally in the northwestern portion of 
this area, but there is no record of zero weather within twenty or thhiy miles of the 
coast, and some winters pass without temperatures much below the freezing point along 
the southern seaboard. 

The average length of the growing season for the section as a whole is 216 days, 
varying from 197 at Weldon to 270 at Beaufort. It is to be noted, however, that there are 
limited areas in the lower Coastal Plain, such as the N. C. State Experiment Farm at 
Wenona, where the average growing season is perhaps two weeks shorter than at any 
other station. 



I 



8 North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 

The following table gives the data for selected stations throughout the State. 

Average Highest , Lowest Length Length 

Station Temperature Temp. Temp. Growing Season Record 

Days Years 

Beaufort. 71.1 97 4 269 35 

Elizabeth City 72.5 104 — 2 208 24 

Hatteras 67.7 93 295 62 

Henderson 69.0 106 8 208 43 

Littleton 68.8 104 — 4 202 

Tarboro 73.1 106 — 2 203 51 

Greenville 72.9 103 207 31 

Washington 73.7 105 3 210 

Southport 64.1 103 1 242 81 

Chadbourn 63.2 104 10 213 

Southern Pines 61.7 107 — 4 210 41 

Raleigh 60.0 103 — 2 223 65 

Greensboro 59.0 104 — 3 205 55 

Reidsville 57.6 105 — 2 199 37 

Roxboro 58.1 102 — 7 200 

Charlotte 60.3 103 —5 225 60 

Statesville 58.8 103 — 3 * 196 34 

Mt. Airy 56.2 104 — 15 174 47 

Jefferson 52.2 97 — 20 162 28 

Asheville 55.1 96 — 6 193 57 

Andrews 57.1 99 — 6 174 

Hendersonville 55.6 99 —9 177 39 

Temperature observation stations are now maintained in eighty-seven places in North Carolina. 

PRECIPITATION 

Records of precipitation in North Carolina have been kept at ninety-three stations, 
thirty-five of which are in the western part, twenty-two in the eastern, and thirty-six in 
the central and southeastern portions of the State. Eight of these stations have records 
covering more than forty years, thirty-one have records of thirty years or more, and 
fifty-eight stations have continuous records of twenty years or more. 

The isohyetal lines for the State have been determined on the basis of these records, 
and those of nearby stations in neighboring states. While the pattern of distribution is 
somewhat irregular, certain interesting facts stand out. 

The highest rainfall in the State is found in Macon County near Highlands and 
Rock House, where a forty-year record indicates an average annual rainfall of 81.72 and 
82.41 inches, respectively. At Highlands the annual rainfall has varied from a maximum 
of 111.20 inches in 1915, to a minimum of 53.44 inches in 1925, while the rainfall has 
been in excess of 90 inches in nine years out of the total record period. 

At Rock House station the all-time maximum annual rainfall is 113.85 inches in 
1906, the minimum year being 1925, when the rainfall was only 50.69 inches. 

Strangely enough, the lowest rainfall in the State is found within fifty miles of High- 
lands, near Asheville and Marshall. At the latter place, the average annual rainfall, the 
lowest found in the State, is 39.08 inches. 1925 was the minimum year at this station 
also, the precipitation being 25.71 inches for that year. 

Another area of high annual rainfall is to be found in the vicinity of Linville, 
where the station average is 62.72 inches. 



10 North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 

On the eastern coast near Wilmington is found a well defined area of lower rainfall, 
while New Bern is the approximate center of higher rainfall, the annual rainfall being 
56.10 inches. 

The characteristics of each of the three districts of the State as summarized by the 
U. S. Weather Bureau follow: 

For the northeastern section of the State, the annual precipitation averages 48.47 
inches, the largest average monthly amount being 6.1 inches in July, and the least, 2.56 
inches in November. The rainfall increases from the northern border counties southward, 
being heaviest along and near Pamlico Sound. The average number of days with .01 or 
more inches of rainfall is 100. The average annual snowfall varies from 1 inch in the 
southeastern portion, to 13 inches in the northwestern part of this section. Some winters 
pass with little or no snow, and the heaviest amounts seldom remain on the ground 
more than a few days. 

In the central and southeastern section, the annual precipitation is slightly lower 
than that in the east, being 47.26 inches. At New Bern, as noted above, the rainfall is 
approximately 56 inches, being the heaviest rainfall of any station east of the Blue Ridge. 
The distribution of rainfall is normally very good, and the lighter rainfall of autumn is 
favorable for harvesting crops, especially in picking cotton. In July and August, days in 
which precipitation takes place are greatest, and least in November. Snowfall ranges 
from less than 2 inches on the coast, to perhaps 11 or 12 inches in the extreme northern 
portion. Snow very rarely falls until after Christmas, especially in the southern portion. 
Sunshine over this section averages about 62 % of the possible amount, the highest per- 
centages being in May and October. Consideration of rainfall in the western portion of 
the State brings at once to the attention the sharp contrast between the localized high 
rainfall in certain sections of the mountains, and the markedly lower rainfall in the lower 
and southern Piedmont Region ; while the average for the Piedmont and the Mountain 
Region is 58 inches, there are marked variations according to location with respect to 
the higher ranges and cross chains of mountains in relation to the normal currents of 
rain-bearing winds. All of the valleys or basins between the cross chains of mountains 
have less rainfall, as indicated in the French Broad valley, at Waynesville in the Pigeon 
River valley, and at Cullowhee, in the Tuckaseegee valley. On the mountain slopes and 
tops, the rainfall is much heavier, especially on the Blue Ridge and its eastern and 
southern slopes. Moisture-laden winds from the South Atlantic and Gulf Coast are cooled, 
and have their moisture condensed and largely exhausted in passing over the mountain 
heights. They then descend to less elevated or enclosed areas, such as the French Broad, 
with a greater capacity for moisture and in comparatively dry form. Attention has 
already been called to the area of high rainfall near Rock House and Highlands, and at 
the Linville region in the neighborhood of Linville and Blowing Rock. It should be noted 
that the Rock House and Highlands stations are on a rough abrupt southern slope, at 
an elevation of more than 3,000 feet, and overlooking a considerable portion of Georgia 
and South Carolina. Within a short distance of the Rock House station there is a nearly 
perpendicular drop of more than 600 feet. It is estimated that the annual precipitation 
along this portion of the Blue Ridge is 70 inches, or more, for a distance of about 25 
miles. The heaviest rainfall of the year occurs in July and August, the rains being mostly 
local in character and frequently accompanied by thunder storms. But few tornadoes have 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 11 

been recorded, and none with great damage or loss of life. Rainy days are slightly more 
frequent than in other sections of the State, the average for the year being 112 inches. 
As in other parts of the State, the largest number of rains occur in mid-summer, and the 
least in late autumn. The snowfall varies from 4 inches near Monroe, to a maximum of 
47 inches in Ashe County, near the Tennessee line. Except in parts of the Mountain 
Region, it seldom remains on the ground more than three or four days, and it is com- 
paratively unimportant in so far as floods are concerned. 

Following is given a table for some of the stations in North Carolina. 

Table II 
35-Year Rainfall Normals for North Carolina for the Period 1898-1932 

(Western) 

Asheville 38.64 Linville Falls 59.70 

Bryson City 54.81 Marshall 39.29 

Cullowhee 44.30 Montreat 56.10 

Hendersonville 59.42 Mount Holly 52.10 

Hickory 49.90 Rock House No. 1 84.07 

Highlands 84.90 Rockingham 47.43 

Jefferson 49.00 Statesville 48.10 

Lincolnton 48.10 Waynesville 46.33 

Winston-Salem 44.88 

(Eastern) 

Beaufort 51.60 Hatteras 47.17 

Elizabeth City 48.10 Scotland Neck 44.40 

Greenville 48.50 Tarboro 47.01 

Wilmington 44.48 

(Piedmont) 

Albemarle 48.10 New Bern 55.70 

Chapel Hill 47.36 Pinehurst 46.40 

Charlotte 44.19 Raleigh 45.47 

Durham 42.20 Reidsville 43.60 

Fayetteville 47.35 Roxboro 44.40 

Goldsboro 48.74 Salisbury 48.59 

Greensboro 47.05 Southern Pines 49.92 

Lumberton 47.75 Southport 49.25 

GEOLOGY 

The State of North Carolina presents to the student of geology one of the most com- 
plex areas in the eastern United States. The wide variety of formations, the extremely 
irregular arrangement of strata, the large number of unconformities, all give mute but 
certain evidence that this area has been the scene of great and prolonged changes, 
wherein all the range of geologic forces and processes have had full sway. 

The structure, texture, and position of the rocks tell to a great extent the condi- 
tions under which they were formed. Igneous rocks tell of volcanic activity, and, whether 
found in great masses or in smaller dikes and intrusions, show where great pressure 
drove the molten lava through the overlying strata. Metamorphic rocks tell of the 
intense heat and pressure exerted during the folding, gnarling and squeezing of former 
rocks. Sedimentary rocks also tell much of the conditions under which they were 



12 



North Carolina : Today and Tomorrow 



formed, the fine-textured limestones and shales having been deposited in deep water, 
while the coarser sandstones and conglomerates were deposited in shallow waters near 
the shores of earlier seas. 

Certain it is that the area within which North Carolina lies has been the arena 
within which great convulsive movements have taken place, raising great areas to 
heights far greater than any existing elevations, the attendant crumpling, folding, and 
breaking resulting in confusing rearrangements and irregularities. In this area, too, 
these forces were so great as to blot out much of the fossil evidence upon which geol- 
ogists have learned to depend, in assigning geologic dates and classifying formations. 

These great convulsive liftings of mountain masses were frequently interrupted 
with long periods of erosion, the sediments accumulating in ancient seas. Later these 
sedimentary areas would be lifted above the waters and in turn would be subject to 
long erosion superimposing great beds of sands, gravels and clays upon the older 
formations. 

Therefore, the observer need not be surprised to find a wide Variety of soils, rock 
outcrops, and irregular arrangements of mountains, plains, and valleys, as a result of 
these long and powerful geologic processes. 

In Table III below is given a table of the geologic time divisions through which 
the earth surface has passed, and of formations to be found in North Carolina which 
are believed to be typical of these periods. The table is arranged with the earliest eras 
first, and the most recent periods last. 

Table III 
GEOLOGIC TIME DIVISIONS 



Eras 


Period (time term) 

or 
System (rock term) 


Character of Rocks 
in North Carolina 


Archeozoic 
"Oldest Life" 


Great Granitoid 
Series 


Granite gneisses 


Proterozoic 
"Early Life" 


Huronian 


Igneous and sedimentary slates, 
lava flows and volcanic ash 


Paleozoic 
"Ancient Life" 
Era of Invertebrate 
Animals and non- 
flowering plants 


Cambrian 

Ordovician 

Silurian 

Devonian 

Mississippian 

Pennsylvanian 

Permian 


Limestones, shales, sandstone 

and conglomerates 

Absent 

Absent 

Absent 

Absent 

Absent 

Absent 


Mesozoic 
"Middle Life" 
(Age of Reptiles) 


Triassic 

Jurassic 
Cretaceous 


Conglomerates, sandstones, 

shales and coals 

Absent 

Loose sands, clays and marls 


Cenozoic 
"Recent Life" 
(Age of Mammals) 


Paleogene 
Neogene 


Sands and gravels 
Sands, gravels and boulders, some- 
times marls and diatomaceous earth 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 13 

As one travels from the extreme western limits of the State, eastward, one first 
encounters a large area in Cherokee, Graham, Swain, Haywood, and Madison counties 
where rocks and formations of the Cambrian period predominate. 

Eastward of that area, covering most of the mountain section and extending well 
into the Piedmont, is an area, approximately one-fourth of the area of the State, where 
rocks of the Archeozoic Era predominate. Frequent occurrences are found throughout 
this area, of rocks of later periods, notably a narrow strip, extending entirely across 
the State, roughly parallel to the Blue Ridge, composed largely of metamorphic slates, 
schists, limestones, quartzites and conglomerates, all belonging to the Cambrian Age. 

Continuing eastward, one encounters a broad belt, some fifty miles in width, in 
which rocks of the Proterozoic Era are to be found. This belt is bounded on the west 
by a line lying, roughly speaking, east of the cities of Shelby, Statesville, Winston- 
Salem, and Yanceyville, and extending eastward to an irregular line, passing through 
or near the eastern edge of Person, Orange, Chatham, Montgomery, and Union 
counties. 

Another large area of these formations is found in Granville, Vance, Warren, 
Franklin, and Wake counties, marked on the east by the "fall line," or commonly 
accepted division between the Piedmont and the Coastal Plain regions. 

Between the southern portion of this Proterozoic area and the Coastal Plain lies 
a narrow broken belt of sandstones and shales, cut by diabase dikes belonging to the 
Triassic period. 

The entire Coastal Plain Region, except where modified by erosion in the stream 
valleys, is that belonging to the later Mesozoic Era, and more particularly to the Cre- 
taceous period of that era. These are the loose sands, clays, and marls, so characteristic 
of the eastern portion of the State. 

The eastern border of the State is no less interesting than the central and western, 
because here is the battleground between the land and the ocean. Lying but a few feet 
above mean tide level, marked by broad estuaries, swamp areas and great inland 
sounds, this region tells of periods of submergence and emergence of the shore line, and 
the effects of land and wave erosion. 

The most notable feature of this coast line, making the Carolina coast unique above 
all other coastal states, is the long stretch of barrier reef or "banks," extending from 
the Virginia line southward to Cape Hatteras, and then in long south-westward arcs 
about Raleigh Bay to Cape Lookout and Onslow Bay to Cape Fear. Behind these bar- 
riers, cut only at intervals with the inlets, lie the sounds — Currituck, Albemarle, Roanoke, 
Pamlico, Core, and Bogue — teeming with fish and game, a region of great commercial 
and recreational importance. 

It must be realized that this attempt to present the distinctive geological charac- 
teristics of the State is only approximate. Amid such complexity, with older and newer 
formations so frequently intermixed, the story is not complete. 

Hereafter will follow a brief discussion of the formations in North Carolina repre- 
senting the various eras and periods of geologic history. 



14 North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 

The oldest rocks in North Carolina, those from the Archeozoic Era, are the granite 
gneisses which form most of the rocks of western North Carolina, with the exception of 
the area in the extreme western part in Cherokee, Clay, Graham, Swain, Haywood, 
and Madison counties. There are also scattered areas of younger rocks, beginning in 
Watauga County and extending in broken units to the South Carolina line. These 
gneisses are frequently cut by intrusions, which must have continued for very long 
periods. The periods of intrusion were probably interspersed with great movement 
causing many overlays and confusion of formations. Some of these contain large 
amounts of graphite, particularly in McDowell and Buncombe counties. 

In these formations also are the many dikes in which are to be found the feldspar, 
kaolin, and mica deposits, found so extensively in Mitchell, Avery, Yancey, Jackson, 
and Macon counties. Closely associated with these minerals are the abrasive materials, 
corundum, spinel, and garnet and the magnetite ores, as at Cranberry Mines. Manganese, 
chromite, nickel and soapstone, are also found in these older formations. 

The most important material taken from these old formations is the granite used 
so extensively for building, and structural stone, crushed stone, etc. The outstanding 
example of this stone are the granites mined at Mount Airy, N. C. 

The Proterozoic Era is represented by an outcrop area perhaps twenty miles wide, 
in Person and Granville counties, extending in a belt of variable width across the State, 
covering parts of Anson, Union,- and Mecklenburg counties. 

These rocks also underlie a considerable portion of the Coastal Plain, as shown by 
exposures due to erosion. The igneous rocks in Granville, Warren, Franklin, Wake, and 
Orange counties, are represented by rhyolite, granite, andesite, diabase, and gabbro, 
these being the typical rocks. From this era also comes the deposits of volcanic ash, in 
Montgomery and Moore counties, and the volcanic tuff of Orange and Chatham counties. 

Here, too, is the "slate belt," where occur some of the best gold mines of the State, 
such as the Portis and Arrington mines in Nash County, and the lola and Montgomery 
mines in Union County. 

Other than gold, minerals containing such metals as silver, copper, iron, and pyro- 
phyllite have been mined from these slates. 

Of the long era of the Paleozoic, only the Cambrian period is represented in North 
Carolina. The Cambrian rocks are those found in the extreme southwestern area above 
referred to, with scattered and narrow strips found eastward of the Blue Ridge. It is 
possible that the limestones found near Hot Springs, Madison County, belong to the 
Ordovician period, which occurred just after the Cambrian. 

The Mesozoic Era is represented in North Carolina by several formations of the 
Triassic period, and very widely over the eastern portion of the State in the various 
subdivisions of the Cretaceous period. 

The Triassic rocks are found in the Dan River and the Deep River areas. 

No rocks of the Jurassic period are found in North Carolina. 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 15 

More than half of the State is covered by deposits laid down during the various 
phases of the Cretaceous period. The Patuxent formation is the earliest, lying on the 
eroded edges of the basement rocks. This formation is essentially a mixture of sands 
and clays, light gray or greenish-gray in color, though locally stained by iron. 

The Black Creek sands and clays and the Pee Dee sands are representative forma- 
tions of the Upper or later Cretaceous period. 

Deposits representing all epochs of the Cenozoic period occur widely throughout 
the Coastal Plain area. The Eocene period is represented by the Trent and Castle Hayne 
marls and shell rock; the Miocene by numerous formations of the lower plain, such as 
St. Mary's, Yorktown, Duplin and Waccamaw; the Pliocene by the Lafayette; the Ple- 
istocene time by the Coharie, Sunderland, Wicomico, Chowan and Pamlico formations. 

The full account of these various periods may be found in the publication of the 
Department of Conservation and Development, "The Story of the Geologic Making of 
North Carolina," by Herman J. Bryson, State Geologist, from which the above data 
was obtained. 



NORTH CAROLINA LIBRARY COMMIT- 
RALEIGH, N. C. 

Chapter II 

THE PEOPLE OF NORTH CAROLINA 

No statement of the resources of a State would be complete that did not set forth 
the essential characteristics of its population, and the significant changes that have 
taken place in the past. The very remarkable growth of North Carolina within the last 
two decades is accompanied with significant changes in areal distribution, racial pro- 
portions, farm and urban residence, and age distribution. 

This chapter presents the result of population studies, based upon the United 
States Census, the proper understanding and interpretation of which is basic to any- 
correct estimate of the future development of North Carolina. For that reason, consid- 
erable space is given to the presentation of these facts. 

INCREASE IN POPULATION 1890 TO 1930 

The period 1890 to 1930 marked a very rapid growth of population in the State 
of North Carolina. Numbering only 1,617,949 in 1890, the population of the State grew 
to 3,170,276 by 1930. This represents an increase of 1,552,327 persons, or 95.9 per 
cent. Figure 1, which shows the increase of population by decennial periods from 1790 
to 1930, together with the corresponding percentage increases, makes it evident that 
the largest part of population growth in the State occurred after 1870. From 1870 to 
1880 the rate of growth was greatest, 1 while from 1920 to 1930 the growth in numbers 
was greatest. The rate of growth since 1890 was least rapid from 1910 to 1920. 

To get a clearer concept of the growth of population in North Carolina, it is essen- 
tial to make comparisons of the data presented above with those for the other states of 
the nation and those for the nation as a whole. Between 1890 and 1930, the population 
of continental United States (exclusive of Alaska) increased by 95.0 per cent. This 
rate, it is noticed, is slightly under that for North Carolina. On the other hand, 21 states 
and the District of Columbia grew more rapidly. But, it should be noted, of these 21 
states, 14 were in the sparsely settled, most recently opened areas of the west and 
southwest — Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, 
Oklahoma, Oregon, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming. Six others 
were in the highly industrialized and urbanized northeast and middle states — Connec- 
ticut, Illinois, Michigan, New Jersey, New York, and Rhode Island. In the entire south, 
only Florida, a state highly specialized occupationally and noted as a resort region, 
increased more rapidly than North Carolina. Furthermore, while there were 15 states 
with larger populations than North Carolina in 1890, there were only 10 in 1930. 

The data presented above shows that the population increase in North Carolina 
has been in tune with the very rapid rate of increase for the United States as a whole. 
But in order to grasp the full situation, two further points must be kept in mind. This 
increase of population in North Carolina has taken place in spite of the fact that the 
State has received the smallest part of the immigration to the United States from 
foreign countries, and has contributed more migrants to the other states of the nation 
than it has received from them. 



'This may not be valid, since the Census of 1SS0 lias l>eon generally ilsri edited. 



18 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 



The relatively insignificant role in respect to population growth played by migra- 
tion to the State from foreign countries is easily shown. In 1930, only 0.4 per cent of 
the population of North Carolina was foreign-born, including 8,788 persons classed as 
foreign-born white. This was the lowest ratio of foreign-born found for any state in the 
nation. In South Carolina, with the next lowest ratio, 0.6 per cent of the population 
was foreign-born. In Florida the ratio was 5.7 per cent; in California, 16.1; in New 
York, 26.3 ; and in continental United States, the ratio was 12.3 per cent foreign-born. 

Figure 1 
POPULATION GROWTH AND PERCENTAGE INCREASE 



THOUSANDS 
3300 



3000 



NORTH CAROLINA 

1790-1930 



PERCENT 




1790 1800 



50 60 70 

YEARS 



In 1930 there were 554,912 people born in North Carolina living in other states, 
while only 315,278 people born in other states were living in North Carolina. This 
indicates a net loss in population through interstate migration of 239,634. Of these, 
110,799 were negroes. Expressed in another way, 16.3 per cent of the people born in 
North Carolina were living elsewhere in the United States, while only 10.0 per cent 
of the people living in North Carolina were born in other states. 



GROWTH OF POPULATION BY AREAS 

The growth of population has advanced at very different rates in various parts of 
the State. In two counties the population in 1930 was more than four times the popu- 
lation in 1890. In two more counties the population more than trebled; and in twenty- 



< 
PL| 







North Carolina : Today and Tomorrow 21 

seven other counties the population more than doubled during this forty-year period. 
On the other hand, in three counties the population decreased, while in eleven others 
the increase was less than twenty-five per cent. In the four major regions of the State, 
as exhibited in Table IV, there are found different rates of increase. The Piedmont 
region 2 , with the largest population in 1890, gained most rapidly, while the Tide- 
water region 2 had the slowest rate of growth. Data showing the changes in the popu- 
lation of each of these regions are given in the following table. 

Table IV. 
INCREASE OF POPULATION BY MAJOR REGIONS OF NORTH CAROLINA 

1890-1930 



Region 


Population 
1890 1930 


Number 
Increase 


Per Cent 
Increase 


Highlands 


250,376 


457,455 


207,079 


82.7 






Piedmont 


723,384 


1,560,741 


837,357 


115.7 


Upper Coastal Plain 


423,319 


839,781 


416,462 


98.4 






Tidewater 


220,868 


312,299 


91,431 


41.4 







Plate IV depicts graphically the changes in population that have taken place in the 
various counties and sections of the State. Four of the counties which increased by 175 
per cent and over were in the Piedmont region. Only one, Buncombe County, was located 
in the Highlands region, while there were none in the Upper Coastal Plain or Tidewater 
regions. Nine counties in the Upper Coastal Plain gained by more than 125 per cent 
and less than 175 per cent. Six counties in the Piedmont region and one in the High- 
lands were in this same category. All three counties showing population losses were in 
the Atlantic Tidewater section. 

Two areas of rapid growth stand out. The first is made up of counties which have 
experienced rapid industrialization in the past forty years, stretching from Durham to 
Rutherford in the Piedmont region, and including Caldwell, Burke, Buncombe, and Hay- 
wood in the Highlands. The second is comprised of the principal cotton and tobacco 
counties in the Upper Coastal Plain. This latter area is a segment of the "Old Cotton 
Belt." Areas of slower growth are found in the Atlantic Tidewater, along the eastern 
border of the Piedmont region, and in those strictly rural counties of the Southern 
Appalachian system. 

The speed with which the State has become urbanized since 1893 3 makes it natural 
that the counties containing cities with a population of 10,000 or more should show rapid 
gains in total population. All of the counties that increased by more than 175.0 per 
cent had cities with a population of 10,000 or more. Iredell, Wake, and Edgecombe 
counties, not increasing as rapidly but at the same time having cities with a population 
of 10,000 or more in 1930, gained at a rate of increase only slightly under that for the 

These regions have been adjusted to county lines. 

3 7.2 per cent of the population was urban in 1890, 25.5 per cent in 1930. 



22 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 



State as a whole. New Hanover, Pasquotank, and Craven, Tidewater counties, each with a 
large city in 1930, likewise did not have a rate of population increase as rapid as that 
for the State as a whole. However, each of these counties gained at a more rapid rate 
than did the Tidewater area as a whole. 

While industrialization may be closely correlated with urbanization, it is well to note 
that Forsyth, Durham, Guilford, Rockingham, Gaston, Mecklenburg, Cabarrus, Stanly, 
Alamance, Rowan, Davidson, Buncombe, Catawba, Rutherford, Iredell, and Cleveland 
counties are the most important industrial centers of the State. Each of these counties 
is among those which have experienced the most rapid gains in population. 

The split-up of large farms, the increase in farm tenancy, and the growth of storage 
and exchange centers, all associated with the expansion of the cash-crop system of farm- 
ing, may be assigned as causes for the rapid increase of population which we have cited 
for the principal cotton and tobacco counties of the Upper Coastal Plain region. 

The changes in the population of these tobacco and cotton counties of North Caro- 
lina, since they comprise a major portion of the State which was in the "Old Cotton Belt," 
should be contrasted with the changes in the population growth of South Carolina and 
Georgia counties of the "Old Cotton Belt." From 1890 to 1910 these counties in all three 
states grew at relatively the same rate. Since 1910, North Carolina Cotton Belt counties 
have increased from 30 to 60 per cent, while the population for all cotton counties in 
South Carolina and Georgia have increased by 19.4 and 9.6 per cent, respectively. 4 

Table V 
PER CENT INCREASE IN POPULATION OF COTTON BELT COUNTIES 



1890-1900 

Wayne County, N. C 20.1 

Wilson County, N. C 26.5 

Johnston County, N. C 18.3 

Cotton Belt Counties, S. C 21.3 

Cotton Belt Counties, Ga 21.2 



1900-1910 


1910-1930 


13.8 


48.5 


19.8 


58.8 


28.4 


39.0 


16.0 


19.4 


18.5 


9.6 



During this same period all of the North Carolina cotton counties showed an increase 
in farms, while the cotton counties of Georgia and South Carolina all showed decreases. 5 
This fact has been explained by the severity with which the boll-weevil devastated South 
Carolina and Georgia, and the more rapid recovery experienced in North Carolina, 
owing in part to the greater diversity of occupation in this State. Part of the increase in 
the population of the cotton and tobacco counties of North Carolina undoubtedly came 
through the immigration of farmers from the cotton areas of South Carolina and Georgia 
most affected by boll-weevil infestation. 

Changes in the population during the decade 1920 to 1930 differ but slightly from 
those for the entire period 1890 to 1930. Lenoir, Wilson, Johnston, and Rockingham 
counties did not gain as rapidly from 1920 to 1930 as they did from 1890 to 1930. Jack- 
son, Henderson, and Caldwell counties gained more rapidly for the shorter period. Alle- 
ghany, Yancey, Swain, and Perquimans counties, which show an increase from 1890 to 

'Cotton counties include those counties wherein 25 per cent or more of the crop land is harvested in cotton. 
'Migration and Economic Opportunity, Page 139. 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 



23 



1930, lost population from 1920 to 1930. Camden and Hyde counties, two counties that 
lost population over the larger period, registered slight increases during the 1920 to 
1930 period. It should be added, that though the expansion of industry in the Piedmont 
region is largely responsible for the large population increases there, from 1890 to 1930, 
the growth of small truck farms from 1920 to 1930 around the urban industrial foci has 
given an added impetus to population increase. 

GROWTH OF POPULATION BY PRINCIPAL RACES 
There are two important racial elements in the population of North Carolina, white 
and negro, and only an insignificant proportion of other races. The foreign and mixed 
whites in the population are too small in number to be considered, except to point out 
that they have in recent years continuously decreased in proportion to the total popu- 
lation. As has already been pointed out, North Carolina has never been an important 
area of absorption of European immigrants. In fact, what foreign-born elements that 
have been in the population have largely come through a secondary migration from 
other states of the Atlantic seaboard, mainly Virginia. 

The negro population of North Carolina increased faster than the white population 
down to 1880. Since then, the situation has been reversed. Down to 1880 in only one 
decade, 1830 to 1840, there is found a greater rate of growth for the white population 
than for the negro. Making up 73.19 per cent of the population in 1790, the white pop- 

FlGURE 2 



GROWTH OF POPULATION BY PRINCIPAL RACES 

1790- 1930 





2000 


WHITE (Thousand 
1600 1200 




800 


400 





YEARS 





400 


NEGRO (Thousands) 
800 1200 1600 


2000 




1 












1790 


























^■H 1600 B 
























1810 H 
































1820 ■ 




































1830 ■ 


















i 












| 1840 ■ 


























I85oB 






































I8 60 






































1870 |H 


























1 ' ■ ' 1HKBHI 
























1890 
































EEE29 ^"^CVi^>*'!fji 1900 ■" ' ^ -\.[ 






















1910 
1920 




^^i^^ 
















































1930 























w 

H 
< 

PL, 




North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 



25 



Figure 3 



PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF 
NEGRO POPULATION IN NORTH CAROLINA 
BY TYPES OF COMMUNITIES 



1910 
1920 
1930 









«^ 










»« 






1 1 


1 











20 



40 60 

PER CENT 



80 



100 



FARM 
NON FARM] 



RURAL 




2,500-/0.000 ^ 

> URBAN 
10,000 OR MORE) 

ulation decreased in relative significance to comprise only 61.96 per cent of the popu- 
lation in 1880. Since then, as we have pointed out, the white population has grown 
faster than the negro population, so that in 1930 it comprised 70.49 per cent of the 
total population of the State. 

From 1790 to 1880 the white population increased by 200.9 per cent and the negro 
population by 403.8 per cent. Since 1880 the white population has increased by 157.7 
per cent, while the negro population has increased by only 72.9 per cent. Perhaps the 
comparative increases would be understood more easily if it is stated that there were 37 
negroes to every 100 white people in 1790, 61 per 100 in 1880, and 41 negroes per 100 
white people in 1930. 

From 1890 to 1930, while the negro population increased faster than the total popu- 
lation of the State as a whole in only thirteen counties, the white population had a larger 
rate of growth than the total population of the State as a whole in thirty-nine counties. 
Out of 100 counties in the State, in only twenty did the negro rate of growth exceed the 
rate of growth of the white population, and of these twenty counties, only a half dozen 
were counties that are included in that group with the most rapid rate of growth. 
Definitely, the negro race is becoming a less significant element of population in North 
Carolina, from the point of view of numbers. 

In each of the major regions of the State the white rate of increase from 1890 to 
1930 was decidedly larger than the rate of increase of the negro population. In contrast- 
ing these four areas, the negro population grew fastest in the Upper Coastal Plain and 



w 

H 




North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 27 

slowest in the Atlantic Tidewater region, although, if Buncombe County were excluded, 
the rate of negro growth for the Highlands would be only 11.31 per cent as contrasted 
with the rate of growth of 20.60 per cent for the Atlantic Tidewater region. Eighty-four 
per cent of the negro increase in the Highlands was confined to Buncombe County. The 
white population grew fastest in the Piedmont region, and slowest in the Atlantic Tide- 
water region. 

The negro population has decreased or shown the lowest rates of increase in those 
counties wherein the proportion of the population that was negro was least. On the other 
hand, those counties with more than fifty per cent or the largest ratio of their population 
negro are not those counties that have shown the most rapid rates of negro growth. 

The most rapid gain in the negro population has occurred in counties containing 
large cities. From 1910 to 1930, the negro population increased in North Carolina by 
31.6 per cent. In cities with a population of 10,000 or more, the negro population 
increased by 233.6 per cent. The negro population that was urban increased by 112.3 per 
cent from 1910 to 1930, and the rural negro population decreased by only 15.4 per cent. 
Sixty-one and seven-tenths per cent of the negro increase from 1910 to 1930 took place 
in cities with a population of 10,000 or more. Smaller cities lost population over this 
twenty-year period, while from 1920 to 1930 the rural non-farm areas showed a greater 
rate of negro growth than rural-farm areas. 

It is evident that a large part of the negro growth in urban areas is due to migration. 
Should this migration continue at its present rate a further lowering of the negro rate 
of increase is expected, since urban life is less conducive than rural life to natural increase. 

Table VI 

PER CENT INCREASE OF POPULATION IN NORTH CAROLINA BY 

PRINCIPAL RACES 1890-1930 



Section White Negro 

Atlantic Tidewater 57.14 20.60 

Upper Coastal Plain 105.62 78.35 

Piedmont 140.35 74.78 

Highlands 86.02 51.66 

Highlands exclusive of Buncombe County 71.84 11.31 



POPULATION GROWTH BY RESIDENCE 

Perhaps two of the most dynamic forces in the growth of population in North 
Carolina since 1890 have been the rapid rate of natural increase for the farm population 
and the equally rapid movement of this same farm population to urban areas of indus- 
trial opportunity. In fact the movement from farm to city has been so rapid that, were 
it not for the migration from farms in other states of the southeast to farms in North 
Carolina, the farm population of North Carolina may have shown an actual numerical 
decrease over the last few decades — this in spite of an extremely high effective fertility. 

Forty-five per cent of the increase of population from 1890 to 1930 was in urban 
territory, and only twenty per cent was due to an increase in farm population. 



28 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 



In 1890 there were only 18 urban places in the State, eleven of which were in the 
2,500 to 5,000 classification. There were no places with a population above 25,000, and 
only four and three respectively with populations of 10,000 to 25,000, and 5,000 to 
10,000. Only 7.2 per cent of the State's population was urban in 1890. Of this, more than 
45 per cent was located in the four towns of Asheville (10,235), Raleigh (12,678), Char- 
lotte (11,551), and Wilmington (20,056). 

Figure 4 
URBAN GROWTH IN NORTH CAROLINA BY SIZE OF CITIES 

POPULA TION IN 1 890-1 930 

THOUSANDS 
600 

500 

400 



300 



200 



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1890 



1900 



1910 
YEARS 



1920 



1930 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 29 

By 1930, a little more than a fourth of the population (25.8 per cent) was residing 
in urban places. There were eight places with a population of more than 25,000, five of 
which have a population of more than 50,000. There were thirteen places with popula- 
tions from 10,000 to 25,000; and thirty places containing from 2,500 to 5,000 people. The 
seventeen places in 1930, each with populations of from 5,000 to 10,000, housed only 
2,000 fewer people than all of the eighteen urban places in 1890. There were only seven- 
teen counties in 1890 and fifty-four in 1930 wherein a part of the population was urban. 
There were seven counties in 1930 wherein fifty per cent or more of the population was 
urban, and none in 1890. 

In evaluating these changes in the rural-urban composition of the population of 
North Carolina, it is important to note that the rate at which the urban population grew 
was more than ten and one-half times the rate of increase in rural districts. Thus the 
rural gain was 57.1 per cent as compared with 600.0 per cent in the urban districts. This 
is reflected in the relative proportions of the rural and urban classes in the population. 
While there were only 77 urban to every 1,000 rural people in 1890, by 1930 the ratio 
was 343 to 1,000. 

The percentage increases, according to the size of the city, cast additional light upon 
the subject. If cities with populations of 25,000 or more are combined with those with 
populations of 10,000 to 25,000, there is found an increase from 1890 to 1930 of 987.2 
per cent for the combined classification, that is, for cities with populations of 10,000 or 
more. Furthermore, a glance at the figures in Table VII show conclusively that the largest 
part of this increase was in the population of cities of 25,000 or more people, there being 
no places in this classification in 1890, and 420,142 people residing in such places in 1930. 
Towns with populations of 5,000 to 10,000 increased by 432.7 per cent, and those with 
populations of 2,500 to 5,000 increased by 159.1 per cent. In contrast, the rural popula- 
tion of the State grew by only 57.1 per cent from 1890 to 1930. It is evident that many 
small towns grew into larger places. But even the smallest urban places increased 
rapidly, further emphasizing the rapidity with which urbanization has taken place in the 
State. A distinct correlation stands out here — the population in urban places has been 
increasing relative to the size of the place — the largest places increasing most rapidly. 

Table VII 
DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION IN NORTH CAROLINA, 1890-1930 

By Census Years, By Types of Communities Per Cent 

Increase 
TYPE OF COMMUNITY 1930 1920 1910 1900 1890 1890-1930 

Urban 809,847 490,370 318,474 186,790 115,759 600.0 

Places 25,000-100,000 . 420,142 159,609 59,762 H^I ZZZ 

Places 10,000-25,000 . . 172,672 153,903 89,283 87,447 54,526 987.2 

Places 5,000-10,000 ... 113,693 89,970 96,184 42,181 21,346 432 7 

Places 2,500-5,000 .... 103,340 89,888 73,245 51,162 3 9,887 159.1 

Rural 2,360,429 2,068,753 1,887,813 1,707,020 1,502,190 57.1 

Incorporate Places .... 275,918 240,753 218,182 148,299 98,148 181.1 

Places 1,000-2,500 .... 141,572 116,921 93,584 53,705 39,389 310.2 

Under 1,000 134,346 123,822 124,898 94,594 58,759 128 6 

Unincorporated 2,084,511 1,828,000 1,669,331 1,558,721 1,404,042 48 5 

Rural Non-Farm 487,291 328,054 

Rural — Farm 1,597,220 1,499,946 



30 North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 

Even within the rural population there has been the tendency for people living in 
the incorporated non-agricultural areas to increase faster than the number residing in 
unincorporated non-farm areas or farm areas. Incorporated places with populations of 
1,000 to 2,500 increased from 39,389 in 1890, to 141,572 in 1930, for a percentage gain of 
310.2. Incorporated places with populations under 1,000 increased from 58,759 in 1890, 
to 134,346 in 1930, or by 128.6 per cent. This was in contrast to a percentage increase 
of 48.5 per cent for unincorporated places. 

Within the unincorporated places the rural-farm population from 1920 to 1930 grew 
by only 6.5 per cent, while the non-farm unincorporated population increased by 48.5 
per cent, or by as much as the entire unincorporated population from 1890 to 1930. 

In 1890, urban places for the most part were located in the Piedmont region and 
along the Atlantic coast line in the Tidewater region. The former were small industrial 
nuclei, the latter important shipping points. Four urban places, two being of the larger 
variety, were located in the Atlantic Tidewater region, and two in the Upper Coastal 
Plain. Eleven urban places, including four of the larger class, were located in the Pied- 
mont region. Asheville, the only urban center in the Highlands region, contained 10,235 
people. There was an increase of 27 places in the Piedmont region; 14 in the Upper 
Coastal Plain; 6 in the Highlands region; and only 3 in the Atlantic Tidewater area, 
from 1890 to 1930. Six of the eight places with populations of 25,000 or more in 1930 
were in the Piedmont region. 

To be specific, the urban population of the Piedmont region grew from 62,590 in 
1890, to 539,154 in 1930. It was in this region that the majority of the urban population 
of the State was located both in 1890 and 1930. Fifty-four per cent of the urban popula- 
tion was here in 1890, sixty-seven per cent in 1930. The Upper Coastal Plain, another 
region where the urban population gained rapidly in relative significance, contained 
8,239 urban people in 1890, the smallest number of any region in the State. In 1930, 
the urban population in this region numbered 129,226, representing sixteen per cent of 
the State's urban residents. The Tidewater region, while showing an eighty-seven per 
cent increase in urban population, contained only eight per cent of the urban population 
of the State in 1930, as contrasted with thirty per cent in 1890. The Highlands region 
just barely held its own in this respect, containing nine per cent of the urban population 
of the State both in 1890 and 1930. The Piedmont region had the most urban people in 
1890, the Upper Coastal Plain the least. In 1930 the Piedmont region still had the largest 
urban population, while the Upper Coastal Plain had the next largest and the Tidewater 
area the least. 

The rural population increased fastest in the Upper Coastal Plain and slowest in the 
Tidewater region. The percentage increase from 1890 to 1930 was 71.7 in the Upper 
Coastal Plain, 32.9 in the Tidewater, 54.6 in the Piedmont, and 50.3 in the Highland 
region. 

The fact that the major part of population increase in North Carolina has con- 
sistently for the past few decades been urban growth, leads one to believe that the urban 
population will continue to grow at the expense of rural areas. Perhaps this urban growth 
will proceed more slowly for a time, as it has been for the past few years; but it may 
be predicted that with the passing of the economic depression, those people who have 



w 

H 




32 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 



been backed up on the farm will find their way urbanward. Evidences of population 
movements since 1933 show that this is already slowly commencing. 

Table VIII 
GROWTH OF URBAN POPULATION OF NORTH CAROLINA, BY REGIONS 

1890-1930 



1890 



1930 



Number 
Region 

Tidewater 34,695 

Upper Coastal Plain 8,239 

Piedmont 62,590 

Highlands 10,235 



Per Cent 
State Total 


Number 


Per Cent 
State Total 


30 


64,886 


8 


7 


129,226 


16 


54 


539,154 


67 


9 


76,581 


9 



Table IX 
GROWTH OF RURAL POPULATION OF NORTH CAROLINA, BY REGIONS 

1890-1930 



Region 1890 

Tidewater 186,173 

Upper Coastal Plain 415,080 

Piedmont 660,794 

Highlands 240,141 



1930 


Per Cent 
Increase 


247,413 


32.9 


710,555 


71.7 


1,021,587 


54.6 


360,874 


50.3 



POPULATION GROWTH AND AGE 

It is reasonable to say that changes in the birth and death rates and migration are 
the factors which underlie changes in the age composition of a population. 

Obviously, a high birth rate, free from the nullifying character of a correspondingly 
high death rate in the early age groups, would make for a high proportion of young 
people in the population. On the other hand, a declining birth rate would reduce the 
proportion. Should the birth and death rates remain stationary, the proportion of young 
people in the population would not perceptibly change. 

A declining death rate, would, in the beginning, increase the proportion of infants 
and young people, since advances in the life expectancy and declining death rates are 
largely the results of a saving of child lives rather than an increase in the life span. 
Later, however, the saving of youthful lives will increase the number of survivors in 
the middle and old age groups; and this fact, if accompanied by a declining birth rate, 
would be most ideal in forming an old population. 

In an area of immigration our young adult groups are enlarged, depending upon 
the extent of immigration. This, when coupled to low death rates, would in the long run 
tend further to expand the older age groups, beyond the natural conditions of an 
entirely native population. In an area of immigration the situation is reversed. 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 33 

North Carolina is an area wherein high birth and death rates are maintained. This 
may be largely ascribed to the way of life of its large rural and negro population, and 
that of its isolated mountain folk. 

It has already been pointed out that North Carolina is not an area of immigration, 
that North Carolina has never been an absorption point of foreign immigrants, and that 
there has been a net loss of population in the State through internal migration. This 
being so, it would be expected to find that the population of North Carolina was relatively 
youthful. The State should contain a high proportion of infants and young people, a nor- 
mal proportion of those in the middle ages, and a few in the older age groups. A survey 
of the relevant statistics will serve to bear this out. 

There has been a gradual yet steady trend during the past 40 years toward having 
less young people and more older people in North Carolina. While 54.2 per cent of the 

Table X 

AGE DISTRIBUTION OF NORTH CAROLINA POPULATION 

SHOWN AS PER CENT OF TOTAL POPULATION IN SPECIFIC AGE 

GROUPS FOR EACH CENSUS YEAR 1890-1930 

Age Group 1930 1920 1910 1900 1890 

Total 100.0 

0-4 12.3 

5-9 13.5 

10-14 12.1 

15-19 11.4 

20-24 9.6 

25-29 7.6 

30-34 6.2 

35-44 10.8 

45-54 8.1 

55-64 4.7 

65-74 2.5 

75 and over 1.1 

Unknown 0.1 

0-19 49.3 

20-44 34.2 

45-64 12.8 

65 and over 3.6 

Unknown 0.1 

Table XI 

AGE DISTRIBUTION OF NORTH CAROLINA POPULATION 

AS COMPARED WITH OTHER STATES AND 

THE UNITED STATES — 1930 

0-19 

United States 38.8 

Pennsylvania 39.4 

Illinois 34.9 

Texas 42.6 

California 30.4 

North Carolina 49.3 



00.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


14.0 


15.1 


15.0 


14.4 


13.9 


13.4 


13.9 


14.7 


12.5 


12.1 


12.4 


13.7 


10.5 


11.0 


11.3 


11.4 


9.1 


9.5 


9.8 


8.7 


7.3 


7.6 


7.1 


6.5 


5.9 


6.0 


5.4 


5.9 


10.7 


9.4 


9.2 


9.7 


7.5 


7.3 


7.7 


6.9 


4.7 


4.9 


4.4 


4.3 


2.8 


2.5 


2.4 


2.4 


1.1 


1.0 


1.0 


1.2 


0.1 


0.2 


0.3 


0.2 


50.9 


51.6 


52.6 


54.2 


33.0 


32.5 


31.5 


30.8 


12.2 


12.2 


12.1 


11.2 


3.9 


3.5 


3.4 


3.6 


0.1 


0.2 


0.3 


0.2 





45 years 


0-44 


and over 


38.3 


22.8 


37.4 


23.0 


41.3 


23.9 


38.9 


18.4 


42.0 


27.4 


34.2 


16.4 



34 



North Carolina : Today and Tomorrow 



population was under 20 years of age in 1890, only 49.3 per cent of the population was 
under 20 in 1930. The proportion of the population over 65 years of age was the same in 
1930 as it was in 1890. 

The relative decrease in children and young people can be ascribed almost entirely 
to the general decrease in the birth rates that has been experienced throughout the nation. 
In fact, the relative importance of young people in North Carolina would undoubtedly 
be less than it is were it not for the negative migration of people in the next older age 
groups. Advances in sanitation and health which have lowered the death rates in the 
State, have made it possible for more people to survive into maturity from the younger 
age groups. 

While the decreasing numerical importance of the child-youth group in North Caro- 
lina has been pointed out, it can be readily seen from Table X that the population of 
North Carolina is still composed of a high proportion of persons under 20 years of age. 
At the same time, the proportion of persons in the main productive and reproductive ages 
(20 to 44) and older, is relatively small. The nation as a whole has a 28 per cent greater 
proportion of its population 45 and over than North Carolina. This State, on the other 
hand, has a 27 per cent greater proportion of its population under 20 than the nation as 
a whole. 

It is evident that, though the birth rate is falling over the entire nation, North 
Carolina will continue to show a high proportion of young people or an age distribution 
associated with a growing population, for some years after the population of the nation 
as a whole has ceased to grow. 



Table XII 

AGE DISTRIBUTION OF NORTH CAROLINA POPULATION 
BY PRINCIPAL RACES — 1930 



Age Group 



White 



Negro 



0-4 12.3 

5-9 13.2 

10-14 11.7 

15-19 10.9 

20-24 9.3 

25-29 7.5 

30-34 6.4 

35-44 11.1 

45-54 8.4 

55-64 5.1 

65-74 2.8 

75 and over 1.2 

Unknown 0.1 

0-19 48.1 

20-44 3 !.3 

45-64 13.5 

65 and over 4.0 



12.5 

14.2 

12.8 

12.5 

10.3 

7.6 

5.6 

10.0 

7.6 

3.9 

1.9 

0.9 

0.1 

52.0 

33.5 

11.5 

2.8 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 35 

There are certain differences in the age distribution between certain classes of the 
population of the State that deserve mention here. The age distribution in the white 
population and negro population is different. Likewise there are large differences in age 
distribution between the urban, rural non-farm, and rural-farm population in the State. 

A little over 48 per cent of the white population is under 20 years of age, while 52 
per cent of the negro population is in this age classification. Approximately 17.5 per cent 
of the white population and only 14.3 per cent of the negro population is 45 years of age 
and over. 

Over 54 per cent of the rural-farm population is under 20 years of age, as contrasted 
with 47.6 per cent and 41.0 per cent of the rural non-farm and urban populations, 
respectively. Forty-two and a half per cent of the urban population is in the main pro- 
ductive age groups (20-44), while only 36.7 per cent of the rural non-farm and 28.7 of 
the rural-farm population are in this age group. 

Table XIII 

AGE DISTRIBUTION OF NORTH CAROLINA POPULATION 

BY TYPE OF COMMUNITY— 1930 

Age Group Urban Rural Non-Farm Rural — Farm 

0-4 10.2 

5-9 11.2 

10-14 9.5 

15-19 10.1 

20-24 11.3 

25-29 10.0 

30-34 8.1 

35-44 13.1 

45-54 8.7 

55-64 4.5 

65-74 2.2 

75 and over 0.9 

Unknown 0.1 

0-19 41.0 

20-44 42.5 

45-64 13.2 

65 and over 3.1 

Unknown 0.1 

EXPECTED POPULATION IN 1940 

Throughout this chapter consideration has been given certain elements of popula- 
tion growth in North Carolina to 1930. Probable future trends have hardly been men- 
tioned. In conclusion there will be proposed an estimate of population that will be in the 
State in 1940. It should be borne in mind that this estimate is based upon the past, and 
can be nothing more than a rough guess. 

The method of computation used entails two steps. First, the survival rates of 
whites and negroes, male and female, as worked out by C. Horace Hamilton in Rural- 



13.1 


13.1 


13.4 


14.7 


10.8 


13.9 


10.3 


12.5 


10.2 


8.5 


8.7 


5.8 


6.9 


4.9 


10.9 


9.5 


7.6 


8.1 


4.4 


4.9 


2.4 


2.8 


1.1 


1.2 


0.1 


— 


47.6 


54.2 


36.7 


28.7 


12.0 


13.0 


3.5 


13.0 


0.1 


— 



36 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 



Urban Migration in North Carolina, 1920-1930, were utilized to estimate the survivors 
of the 1930 population in 1940. This presupposes a continuation of death rates as they 
existed from 1920 to 1930, and likewise a balance of migration in and out of the State 
as was roughly the case between 1920 and 1930. Then, by use of birth statistics, after 
allowing for an under-count of 15 per cent, and infant mortality, an estimate is gained 
of the population in 1940 under ten years of age. 

From this method, we locate 2,652,000 persons ten years of age and over, and 
835,000 persons under ten years of age in North Carolina in 1940. Therefore, from a 
population of 3,170,276 in 1930, we ,may expect an increase of close to 320,000 persons 
to a population of 3,487,000 in 1940. Since migration is apt to be toward North Caro- 
lina, owing to a return of those who left the State before the depression, and since the 
death rate has continued to fall since 1930, this estimate is more likely to be low than 
high. • •* 



Chapter III .. s 

THE GOVERNMENT OF NORTH CAROLINA: 

ITS STRUCTURE AND SERVICES ' ' • 

In keeping with the universal trend, North Carolina has expanded the structure of its 
government in all of its phases and multiplied the services which government is now called 
upon to perform for its citizens. This growth and expansion has resulted in an increasing 
consciousness of our relations with and dependence upon our various governments. This 
relationship is sometimes regarded as restrictive and inhibitory when the individual 
action would be contrary to its regulation, but far more frequently the individual looks 
to his government for services which, in simpler modes of living, he would expect to 
do for himself. 

North Carolina has gone far on the road of service to its citizens, and this chapter 
is presented to set forth as briefly as the subject will permit the structure of State and 
local government and the manifold services which each renders. Here is the machinery 
and here the product of the expenditure of the public revenues. If this be done with a high 
sense of civic responsibility, with efficiency and real vision of the results desired in the 
establishment of a richer and more safe civilization, then it is well done. North Carolina 
is justly proud of the long established tradition of fidelity to public trust which has been 
manifested in its public servants. The courage with which all have continued to serve 
during the trying day so recently passed will always stand in proof of this tradition. 

THE STRUCTURE OF GOVERNMENT 
STATE GOVERNMENT 

North Carolina, like the United States and each of its units, is a constitutional 
democracy. Organization of the three grand divisions of government — legislative, exec- 
utive, and judicial — is set out in the State Constitution. The legislative department is 
called the General Assembly, and consists of two houses: the Senate, with fifty mem- 
bers; and the House of Representatives, with a hundred and twenty members. Sena- 
torial representation is based upon population, election being by districts of one county 
or several contiguous counties. House representation is based upon the identity of 
counties, each of the one hundred having one seat, and the more populous ones, two or 
three seats. Both Senators and Representatives serve two-year terms, meeting in Raleigh 
biennially for regular sessions, early in January of each odd-numbered year. Compensa- 
tion is paid for travel expense and for sixty days' service at the capitol. Special sessions 
may be called by the Governor for twenty days' duration. The Lieutenant-Governor is 
ex officio president of the Senate, and the presiding officer of the House is elected by 
each session. Ninety-odd standing committees of the two houses prepare bills for passage, 
bills based upon specialized study by each group. 

To choose North Carolina's legislative agents, there are one and a half million per- 
sons of principal races over twenty-one years of age. Less than half that number cast a 
ballot for presidential electors in 1932, and less than a third voiced a vote on the repeal 
issue of that same year. Criminal and mental disfranchisement, together with illiteracy, 
contribute to the apparently small size of the actual electorate. The individual's neglect 
is possibly an additional factor. It should be noted that North Carolina's actual voters 
recently have increased moi*e rapidly than its eligible voters. 



X! 
i— i 

w 

H 
<! 

P4 




North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 39 

The executive department is designated by the Constitution as consisting of the 
Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, Secretary of State, Auditor, Treasurer, Superintendent 
of Public Instruction, and Attorney General, all of whom are elected by popular vote for 
a term of four years. Custom dictates that the Governor, "in whom shall be vested the 
supreme executive power of the State," be chosen alternately from the east and the west. 

A Council of State is set up in the Constitution, and is composed of the Secretary of 
State, Auditor, Treasurer, and Superintendent of Public Instruction, all ex officio. The 
Attorney-General is legal adviser to the executive department. The Council's broad duty 
is to advise the Governor in the execution of his office generally. Together with the 
Governor, the Council acts upon any problem of the State's property interests and 
internal improvements. 

The Governor's executive power is confined principally to pardon and reprieve, and 
to command of the militia. His "cabinet" is not appointed by him, and the Council of 
State has restrictive powers. His administrative power embodies a broad range of ap- 
pointments and servings ex officio, together with removals as permitted by statute. 
His legislative power revolves about the Governor's duty to inform the General Assembly 
on matters of public interest and to summon special sessions. Unlike all other states in 
the Union, North Carolina grants its Governor no possible veto of legislation. Judicial 
power is limited to minor appointments and to court administration: to appointing 
Justices of the Peace and special emergency Superior Court Judges; to filling Supreme 
Court vacancies in the interim between elections; and to calling special terms of court 
and transferring judges. 

The Lieutenant-Governor is president of the Senate, and succeeds to the office of Gov- 
ernor in case of absence, incapacity, or vacancy in that office. The other executive officers 
of the State will be treated with especial regard to their services, at a later juncture, 
as will the creating of the executive and legislative and administrative departments. 

The judicial department consists of a Court for the Trial of Impeachments, the 
Supreme Court, Superior Courts, Courts of Justices of the Peace, and other statutory 
courts inferior to the Supreme Court. In cases of impeachment, the Senate constitutes 
itself a trial court; the House of Representatives, the prosecutor. In cases against the 
State, the Supreme Court has original jurisdiction; on all matters of law or legal infer- 
ence, appellate jurisdiction. This court is composed of a chief justice and four associates, 
elected for eight years and required to hold two sessions annually in Raleigh. By stat- 
ute, three members constitute a quorum for the rendering of decisions by a majority. 
An amendment was recently adopted by the electorate whereby the Constitution is 
changed to increase the court from five to seven members and to permit the court to sit 
in divisions. 

Superior Courts are the principal trial courts of North Carolina. Two judicial 
divisions are designated by law, with ten districts in both the eastern and the western. 
A Superior Court judge is elected for each district by the popular vote of the whole 
State, but the judge must be a resident of the district for which he is elected. The judge 
serves an eight-year term, holding courts of the districts in his division in rotation. It 
is required that two terms of court be held in each county every year with additional 
terms as needed. Emergency judges are appointed by the Governor, who also orders 



X 




X 

13 

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Ph 




42 North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 

special terms as he deems necessary. A Solicitor is elected for a four-year term as prose- 
cuting officer for each district. A Clerk is chosen likewise, his principal power being in 
his final jurisdiction in special proceedings and probate matters. 

Justices of the Peace comprise another constitutional group of judicial officers. They 
are elected by a township for two years, or appointed by the Governor for four years. 
On demand, they hear causes involving civil, tort, and criminal cases up to two hundred 
dollars, fifty dollars, and thirty days imprisonment, respectively. A fee is charged. 

Since 1919, North Carolina's judicial system has become complex. Up till then, 
the system involved only the Supreme Court, the Superior Courts, and Justice of the 
Peace and Municipal Recorder's Courts. An increasing population and its complexity 
of social problems demanded an enlarged structure. As an alternative to expansion along 
horizontal lines, the State chose to create new courts. To relieve the congested Superior 
Court dockets, six sorts of County courts and several types of Municipal courts have 
been instituted. There remains, of course, the possibility of appeal through the Superior 
Court to the Supreme Court of the State. 

The County courts now authorized are these : County Criminal Court, County Civil 
Court, General County Court, District County Court, and County Recorder's Court. 
These courts are permissible upon the petition of the Board of County Commissioners. 

The law has made these the possibilities for separate courts for cities: Municipal- 
County Recorder's Court, permissible upon the joint action of the Board of County Com- 
missioners and the governing body of a municipality of more than two thousand inhab- 
itants; Municipal Recorder's Court, having to do principally with violations of city 
ordinances ; Domestic Relations Court, in cities of twenty-five thousand or more ; Juve- 
nile Court, as a branch of the Superior Court and in connection with the Welfare De- 
partment of the State, county, or city; and Justice of the Peace Courts. 

COUNTY GOVERNMENT 

Whereas the states formed the Union and surrendered certain absolute powers for 
certain substantial powers, the counties were formed by the states and were granted 
specific, limited powers of performing the primary functions of local government. County 
authority in North Carolina is vested in a Board of Commissioners, chosen by the 
electorate of each county for a two-year term. The number of Commissioners, consti- 
tutionally stipulated at five, has been varied by the General Assembly by special local 
legislation. The Board is legislative in so far as it makes alternative decisions as allowed 
by State law. The Register of Deeds, a constitutional officer, is ex officio clerk of the 
Board of County Commissioners. 

Administrative concerns of the county have been diminished by the State's assump- 
tion of all public schools and highways, large services in point of personnel and finance. 
There remains to the county, however, the important duty of co-operating with the 
various State departments, supplementing their organization to meet local needs. Too, 
there is the expanding tendency of local governments to undertake broader social serv- 
ices than have been comprehended as yet by larger units of government. The adminis- 
trative task belongs to the Board of Commissioners, whose specific services will be noted 
later with our consideration of departmental service generally. One may readily infer 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 43 

the wide variation in county administrative problems when one considers the wide dis- 
parity existant in point of area, population, and density. Of the one hundred counties, 
the averages are: an area of 488 square miles; a population of 31,703; and a density of 
65 persons per square mile. But the range is wide, from the largest to the smallest: 
Robeson has 990 square miles, and Chowan 165; Guilford has 133,010 inhabitants, and 
Tyrrell 5,164 ; Forsyth has a population density of 287.8 per square mile, and Tyrrell 13.2. 
Average county area runs highest in the Coastal Plain section and lowest in the Appa- 
lachian Highlands ; population and density, highest in the Piedmont section and lowest in 
the Tidewater. 

The Sheriff is the executive officer of the county. His office is designated in the 
Constitution as elective, and his province is to enforce, with the aid of the constabulary 
and tax officials, the rulings of the Board of Commissioners. Other elected county offi- 
cials are the Register of Deeds, Treasurer, Surveyor, Coroner, Constables (by township), 
Clerk of Superior Court, Justices of the Peace, and a few statutoiw officers. A large ap- 
pointive power rests by statute with the Board of Commissioners, and State departments 
designate the remainder of county official personnel. Payment of county officials is tend- 
ing to change from a fee to a salary basis. 

The judicial department of the county has been alluded to in the above treatment 
of the State judiciary. The newer county courts were seen to be permissible to the 
petition of the Boards of County Commissioners. In the case of Recorders' Courts and 
Juvenile Courts, the county often acts in conjunction with a sizeable municipality within 
the county domain. The Clerk of the Superior Court is the most important judicial officer 
of the county, in view of his final jurisdiction in certain special matters. The district 
Superior Court, as it meets semi-annually in the county-seat, is the heart of both civil 
and criminal jurisdiction in the county. 

CITY GOVERNMENT 
General laws of incorporation have superseded special charters organizing munici- 
palities in North Carolina. The Municipal Corporation Act of 1917 outlines the four prin- 
cipal types of city government in the State, of which types combinations and variations 
are rather universally in effect. The effect of the Act is broad, affecting more than a 
third of the State's population. Some measures of diversity in character of populous 
places in the State might indicate the wisdom of our flexible city structure. 

Of the approximately five hundred incorporated places identified, populations range 
from nearly ninety thousand in Charlotte to ten persons in Bellview. Two thirds of 
those places have a constituency of less than a thousand. Twenty-one incorporated places 
have more than ten thousand inhabitants, totalling more than half a million people, 
about a sixth of the State's population. 

It is interesting to note incorporated places in their relation to counties. Five county- 
seats are unincorporated, and thirty-one are not the largest towns in their counties. Five 
counties embrace unincorporated places of more than twenty-five hundred inhabitants. 
two counties sharing such a community of more than twelve thousand. 

The four plans of municipal government have certain common characteristics. The 
Council is the legislative department, and the Mayor the executive head of the munici- 



44 North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 

pality. The Council is also the administrative agent of the town or city, except in the 
managerial scheme, which makes city employees answerable directly to the Manager, 
a Council appointee. The government is elected biennially and receives compensation for 
official services. Except in the commission form, the Council acts as a unit in administra- 
tive matters. 

Structural variations appear in the line of responsibilitiy to the people and in the 
number of Council members. Under three plans, the voters choose the mayor directly; 
under one plan, he is chosen by the Council from its members. Two plans offer a sliding 
scale of Council membership in accordance with the population of the municipality ; two 
have a constant number. 

The Council-Manager plan is the most advanced in structure and is in force in eigh- 
teen cities of the State, ranging in population from Charlotte's 82,675, to Chapel Hill's 
2,699, and dating back, in the earliest instances, to 1913 (Hickory and Morganton). 

For places with more than ten thousand inhabtaints, there are interesting facts 
available. The land area of the twenty-one towns concerned ranges from 12,390 acres in 
Charlotte, to 922 in Kinston. The number of members on the City Council in these 
places ranges from three in Raleigh and Wilmington, both of which have a commission 
form of government, to thirteen in Rocky Mount, with a council-manager form. Char- 
lotte's city personnel, at 590, is largest of the group; and Thomasville's, at 45, the 
smallest. 

The Municipal Recorder's Court was the first inferior court provided for by the 
General Assembly under the Constitution's judicial section. It remains the principal city 
judiciary, and concerns itself with enforcement of city ordinances in and about the 
municipality. The increase of city courts has been mentioned before, with reference to 
the Municipal-County Recorder's Court, the Domestic Relations Court, the Juvenile 
Court, and other special courts. 

Our government has been seen now in structural relation to the rules — State, County, 
City. The structure as agent provides the individual with services so profuse that they 
tend to become an important aspect of the life of the North Carolina citizen. Let us look 
at the services, how effectuated and how effective. 

EDUCATION 

The benefits accruing from public education are not confined to certain groups or 
individuals, but are the inviolable possessions of all the people as a common heritage of 
democratic government. An enlightened citizenry, aware of the workings of government 
and society, and capable to the fullest possible extent, of a wise enjoyment of life and 
liberty, is one of the major goals of any political division ; and is a prerequisite to all that 
any government may ever hope to accomplish. 

The training of a useful citizenry has always been a major concern of North Caro- 
lina. This is attested to not only by the stands taken by her progressive Governors but 
also by the very real progress attained in the improvements in her system of public 
education. The previous trends toward centralization have culminated in a State-sup- 
ported system in which lesser units of the county, the city, or the special district, and 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 45 

the people themselves still remain important co-operating factors and retain the admin- 
istrative functions connected with the State-wide system of public education. The six- 
months term, formerly provided for by law, has been lengthened to eight months by the 
General Assembly, this full term to be financed by the State and lengthened at the will 
of each local unit. High standards of teacher-efficiency and of building-adequacy have 
been maintained, even throughout the worst part of the depression. 

Fully realizing the importance of education, the framers of the State Constitution 
provided for the nucleus around which the present system operates. The Superintendent 
of Public Instruction, elected for a term of four years, performs, together with his staff, 
a multitude of services as chief educational officer of the State. To county and city super- 
intendents of schools he offers co-operation toward the solution of their many problems in 
organization, transportation, building facilities, teacher training, and finances. To institu- 
tions of higher education he offers assistance in matters pertaining to teacher training 
and in other problems affecting both the colleges and the department. To parents and other 
interested citizens he offers assistance in organization and financial problems. In addi- 
tion, the Superintendent's office collects and disseminates information pertaining to the 
school system and performs a variety of miscellaneous services as well. 

Also provided for by the Constitution is the State Board of Education, an ex officio 
body which manages the Literary Fund and passes, subject to the approval of the Gen- 
eral Assembly, regulations in relation to the school system and the State Educational 
Fund. 

What the Constitution provided for as the basis of an efficient system of public edu- 
cation, the people, through the medium of the General Assembly, have added to by 
degrees. The natural interest in agriculture, home economics, trade, and industry is 
fostered and directed by the Board of Vocational Education. The need for wise decisions 
in the selection of textbooks has led to the creation of Textbook Commissions, both for 
the grammar schools and for high schools. In 1935, the Textbook Rental Commission 
was established for the purpose of achieving economies in the purchase and distribu- 
tion of textbooks and supplies and establishing uniformity in rental charges. 

Of primary importance to the achieving of all that an efficient system means, is 
the State School Commission, created in 1933 and consisting of fifteen members ap- 
pointed by the Governor, and serving in some cases ex officio. The services which it per- 
forms are in the interests of economy, equality, and efficiency; and consist of the 
redisricting of counties into a convenient number of districts, the classification of dis- 
tricts and city administrative units, the allotment of teachers to the school districts, the 
fixing of a salary schedule for teachers and principals, the making of rules governing 
costs of operation and of allotments covering the same, the control of transportation 
facilities, and the approval of supplementary county budgets. Some of these duties 
previously were exercised by the State Board of Equalization. 

As supplementary agencies, two additional bodies have been created recently. The 
North Carolina State Thrift Society, established in 1933, offers valuable service in the 
teaching and practice of thrift. The State Board of Commercial Education, created in 
1935, passes on the application of any business or commercial school to operate within 
the State, and generally supervises such schools. 



46 North Carolina : Today and Tomorrow 

In co-operation with all these State agencies, the lesser political units round out 
the system of public school education through the exercise of administrative powers. 
In each county a Board of Education, nominated by the people and appointed by the 
General Assembly, has general control over the educational affairs of the county unit, 
supplementing in these matters the State School Commission. The Board also appoints 
the County Superintendent of schools, who is the chief administrative officer for the 
county. 

Similarly, for the city administrative units, of which there are sixty-nine, Boards 
of Trustees or Boards of Education are elected or appointed, with powers over budget- 
ary affairs, their decisions being subject to the approval of the County Board of Edu- 
cation and County Board of Commissioners. A City Superintendent, appointed by the 
City Board of Education, acts as chief administrative officer for the city. 

Finally, special districts, approximately 812 in number, are administered by local 
committees, appointed by the County Boards of Education. These committees select the 
teachers and principals, subject to the approval of the County Superintendent and the 
County Board of Education, and have general custody and care of the school property in 
the district. 

In addition to the services performed in grammar and high school education, the 
State operates various institutions of learning described more fully hereafter. Sup- 
plementing the work done by these many agencies, there are additional agencies in 
library and general informational service. The State Library acts as depository for 
government publications of Federal and State units. The Law Library collects legal 
treatises, law reports, and other related publications. The Historical Commission collects 
historical data pertaining to North Carolina and issues publications devoted to the State's 
history ; and also the Commission has control of the Legislative Reference Library, which 
collects general information for the use of the General Assembly and county and munici- 
pal officers. Finally, the Library Commission provides assistance in the establishment 
and maintenance of libraries throughout the State. 

PROTECTION TO PERSON AND PROPERTY 

North Carolina adequately performs that primary function of government-as-agent, 
the protection of person and property against infringement and injury. However, the 
State must go further than this. Prevention of crime in all its forms and the reforma- 
tion of criminals are recognized as primary steps in the solution of the problem of pro- 
tection. North Carolina performs a broad, universal service in the field of personal and 
property protection. 

The Adjutant-General's Department, chief State agency in this connection, is headed 
by an appointed officer and consists principally of the National Guard, performing the 
service of general protection in emergency, especially on strike duty. The National 
Guard consists of 58 units, with a maximum strength in personnel of 275 officers, 5 
warrant officers, and 3,220 enlisted men, a total of 3,500. The strength fluctuates be- 
tween 3,300 and the maximum, and on the last day of 1935 totalled 3,346. Expenditures 
for the fiscal year 1934-35 were $166,061.84. 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 47 

But the State's services with this regard do not end with that protection just 
mentioned. The rehabilitation of the reformed criminal and his return to society as a 
useful citizen is effectuated whenever possible. The Commissioner of Paroles and the 
Advisory Board of Paroles, the latter created in 1935, assist the Governor in the per- 
formance of his pardon and parole powers. In each of the years 1933 and 1934, 
approximately 500 paroles were granted, 40 were revoked, and 5 pardons given. 

In 1935 the General Assembly established within the Revenue Department an 
administrative unit known as the Division of Highway Safety. This Division has the 
duty of examining applicants and issuing licenses to drivers, and directs the work of the 
State Highway Patrol. This Patrol now numbers 121 men and officers, who, during the 
year ending September 30, 1936, travelled over 3,700,000 miles, investigated 3,204 acci- 
dents. They recovered 285 stolen cars, and made nearly 30,000 arrests. The value of 
property recovered, fines and costs paid during the year amounted to $606,771.67. They 
also collected revenue amounting to $696,849.47. A modern radio control system is now 
being set up, with several broadcasting centers. Each motorcycle and car will be equipped 
with receiving sets, and the Patrol will be under direct control of headquarters at all 
times. 

County participation in protection is provided for almost entirely by the Constitution. 
The Sheriffs, Constables, Coroners, Clerks of Superior Court, all elective officers, perform 
duties connected with the judicial system, as does also the Public Administrator, ap- 
pointed by the aforementioned Clerk. 

In the cities, the police department prevents commission of offenses against the 
laws of North Carolina and against the ordinances and regulations of the city, preserves 
good order, and protects the individual as well as his property against injury. In co- 
operation with police departments, the State Bureau of Identification disseminates in- 
formation on criminals and the causes and costs of crime. The fire department similarly 
performs a service which speaks for itself. 

SERVICE TO CITIZENS AS CONSUMERS 

Just as the individual requires protection against crime, so also does he require 
protection as a consumer of whatever services or goods he may purchase. Regulation 
of trade, industry, and the professions in the best interests of society, examination and 
licensing of those who desire to manufacture or market services or goods, and the 
education of the people through assembled information are all a part of the State's func- 
tion as a well-rounded division of government. State agencies and the agencies of the sub- 
divisions thus aim at protection to the interests of all concerned. 

The Utilities Commission of three members, derived in 1933 from the Corporation 
Commission, is headed by the Utilities Commissioner. It requires not only that public 
utility corporations furnish service to the citizens of the State but that they charge 
reasonable rates therefor. 

The Insurance Department which, also in 1933, developed out of the Corporation 
Commission, is headed by the Insurance Commissioner. This department protects the 
purchase of insurance through the enforcement of the insurance laws and of building 
codes and inspection laws. 



48 North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 

Many miscellaneous examining and licensing boards serve the consumer. Most of 
these operate for the benefit of the health of the citizen, laying down regulations which 
are strictly enforced and, for the most part, willingly lived up to. These boards, whose 
purposes speak for themselves, are listed as follows: 

PERSONAL SERVICE REGULATION 

Board of Medical Examiners 

Board of Embalmers 

Board of Veterinary Medical Examiners 

Board of Pharmacy 

Board of Osteopathic Examination and Registration. 

Board of Examiners in Optometry 

Board of Dental Examiners 

Board of Chiropractic Examiners 

Board of Chiropody Examiners 

Board of Nurse Examiners 

Board of Barber Examiners 

Board of Cosmetics Examiners 

ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION REGULATION 

Board of Architecture Examination and Registration 
Board of Registration for Engineers and Land Surveyors 
Board of Examination of Plumbing and Heating Contractors 
Building Code Council 
Board of Boiler Rules 

LEGAL PRACTICE REGULATION 

Board of Law Examiners 

Also of recent origin are certain agencies which co-operate with Federal agencies in 
the interests of the consumer and are parts of the very comprehensive program of the 
National Administration. The State Board of Housing, created in 1933 and consisting of 
five members appointed by the Governor, supervises and regulates the approval of hous- 
ing projects, fixes their rental and purchase prices, and studies housing conditions. In 
the same connection, the Housing Authorities Law, passed in 1935, provides for the 
remedy of unfavorable housing conditions in towns of over 15,000 population through 
the establishment of local housing authorities. 

The Board of Rural Rehabilitation, created in 1935, is composed of three members 
appointed by the Governor, for the purpose of supervising rural community projects and 
rehabilitation corporations and of making such recommendations as are found necessary 
for the effectuation of a higher standard of living among rural communities. 

The Rural Electrification Authority, also created in 1935, is composed of six mem- 
bers appointed by the Governor. Its duty is the securing of electrical services for the 
rural districts of the State where such service is not already rendered, and it is em- 
powered, in the performance of this duty, to make investigations and surveys, to dis- 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 49 

seminate information, and to supervise the Electric Membership Corporations (provided 
for in another law) organized for the purpose of providing the required electrical 
services. 

A special temporary State Commission, also created in 1935, is entrusted with the 
duty of studying the question of Alcoholic Beverage Control. In the performance of this 
duty it is their purpose to investigate conditions in the State relative to the sale, manu- 
facture, and use of alcohol for beverage purposes, to consider the control laws of other 
states, and to make its report at the next session of the General Assembly. 

The county and city also perform certain services in the interest of the consumer. 
An official appointed by the Board of County Commissioners exists in some of the 
counties, who is entrusted with "the safe-keeping of weights and measures, stamps, 
and brands." In addition the Board may appoint inspectors for any particular article of 
commerce. The cities operate electrical departments, which inspect wiring and apparatus 
and issue permits for the installation thereof; and also building and plumbing depart- 
ments, which inspect buildings, issue permits for their construction, repair, or demolition, 
and issue permits for the installation of plumbing. 

HEALTH AND WELFARE 

These vital services, so important in the life of the individual, are treated hereafter 
under a separate chapter. 

SERVICES FOR LABOR 

To the laborer in his relations with his employer, the State offers assistance of in- 
estimable value. Improvements of working conditions, settlement of disputes, regulation 
of child labor, and assistance in the securing of employment are all services performed 
by the State agencies in the interest of the working-man. The State supplies a link be- 
tween capital and labor, between the bargaining power of the employer and the more 
deficient bargaining power of the employee, achieving, to a certain extent, the unity of 
purpose necessary to harmony and to efficient production. 

The chief agency providing services to labor is the State Department of Labor, 
headed by the Commissioner of Labor, an elective officer. Within the Department, there 
are eleven divisions, each with a specific task to perform: the maintenance of high 
standards of working conditions through regulation and inspection; the settlement of 
strikes and disorders; the inspection of mines and quarries; the welfare of employed 
children; the maintenance of safe working conditions; assistance to war veterans in 
prosecuting claims for disability compensation and for hospitalization ; the welfare of 
the deaf ; the collection of statistics on labor ; the inspection of boilers ; the employment 
service; and the settlement of workmen's compensation claims. 

The Board of Boiler Rules, performing the service of boiler inspection, was created 
by the 1935 General Assembly, being composed of five members, appointive and ex officio. 
The State Employment Service, whose organization was amended in 1935 in the interests 
of greater service and co-operation with the Federal program of re-employment, is headed 
by the State Employment Director, who is appointed by the Commissioner of Labor. 



50 North Carolina : Today and Tomorrow 

The Industrial Commission, established in 1929 and made a division of the Depart- 
ment of Labor in 1931, administers the Workmen's Compensation Act, holding hearings 
and making awards, examining claims, compiling accident statistics, and making safety 
inspections. In the fiscal year 1935-36, 32,568 claims were adjusted by the Commission, 
the total compensation awarded amounting to $901,009, and the medical costs approved, 
to $455,953. 

The Child Welfare Commission, an ex officio body, administers the laws relating to 
child labor and makes whatever inspections and collections of statistics that are necessary 
for the performance of its duties. 

SAFEGUARDING OF BANKING FACILITIES 

At the head of the State agency in regulation of banking stands the Commissioner 
of Banks, appointed by the Governor. This has been a separate administrative office 
since 1931, when the office became one distinct from the Corporation Commission. His 
duties are in connection with the supervision of banks, as well as of trust departments 
of commercial banks. An Advisory Commission composed of five members, appointive 
and ex officio, advise with the Commissioner on questions of the administration of bank- 
ing laws. 

Under the supervision of the Banking Commissioner there are 169 commercial 
State Banks with 86 branches, 29 industrial banks with 2 branches. State Building and 
Loan Associations, under the inspection of the Insurance Department, number 178, 
being located in 130 towns and cities and 71 counties. Federal Building and Loan As- 
sociations number 12, being located in 9 places in the State. 

AID TO AGRICULTURE 

To the farmers of North Carolina, who make up by far the preponderance of the 
people who are engaged in gainful occupations, the State, and to a smaller extent, its 
subdivisions, offers many and varied services. The importance of efficient production 
and distribution to the welfare of those engaged directly in agriculture, as well as to 
those engaged in related industries, and indeed to all the people of the State, is and has 
been recognized by the State. 

In the furtherance of the benefits of education in agriculture, the Constitution pro- 
vides for an elective Commissioner of Agriculture, in charge of the very comprehensive 
Department of Agriculture. Within this Department there are fifteen divisions, each of 
which provides a distinct service to the farmers, among these being the extermination 
of insects, inspection against animal and plant diseases, tests and anlayses, financial 
loans, dissemination of information, co-operative marketing, and the maintenance of test 
farms. The Department operates entirely on its own receipts from an inspection tax, 
the expenditures in the fiscal year 1934-35 amounting to $326,120.76, and receipts to 
$416,385.19. 

Further services are provided to agriculture by other State agencies. An advisory 
body, the Board of Agriculture, acts also as the Crop Pest Commission, providing in- 
formation on crop pests and methods of extermination. The Joint Committee on Agri- 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 51 

cultural Work promotes co-operation between the Department and North Carolina State 
College of Agriculture and Engineering. The Board of Farm Crop Seed Improvement, 
established in 1929, controls and supervises the production, distribution, and certification 
of pure-bred crop seeds. The Commission for the Investigation of Fertilizer Costs, created 
in 1935, is an appointive body consisting of eight members, charged with the duty of 
studying reasons for the great increase in the retail price of fertilizer, and of 
recommending the enactment of legislation for remedying this situation, making a final 
report to the next General Assembly. 

County co-operation in the performance of services to agriculture consists of the 
work of Farm and Home Demonstrators, who are usually paid by both the county and 
the State College Extension Service. 

CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT 

This department has as its chief aim the conservation, wise use and increased 
development of the natural resources of the State. Seven main divisions are set up as 
described below. 

The Division of Commercial Fisheries regulates, advises and stimulates interest in 
the large and productive fishing industry along the coast and sounds of eastern North 
Carolina. It enforces regulations, sets up areas within which such fishing may be carried 
on, issues licenses and seeks to protect and develop the food fish and shell fish resources. 

The Division of Forestry has supervision of State Parks, carries on Forest Fire 
Prevention work, operates forest nurseries, supervises the work of forest wardens, and 
co-operates with Federal, local and private efforts to conserve, use, and develop forest 
resources. The Division of Game and Inland Fisheries regulates hunting and fishing, 
operates fish and game hatcheries, maintains game and wild life reserves and sanctuaries, 
and interests itself in wild life conservation. 

The Division of Mineral Resources collects and disseminates data on the location 
of the many valuable mineral deposits in the State, receives reports of mining operations, 
co-operates with and advises operating companies, and seeks to develop wider use and 
production of the abundant mineral wealth to be found throughout the State. The 
Division is under the direction of the State Geologist, who also renders frequent and 
valuable service in supplying geologic data for well location, public construction and 
other purposes. 

The Division of Water Resources and Engineering, in co-operation with the U. S. 
Geological Survey, maintains nearly 100 stream gaging stations, and carries out exten- 
sive surveys for stream discharge, ground water resources, public water supplies. This 
Division also collects information relative to power development and distribution, car- 
ries on studies in Beach Erosion, Stream Pollution, Flood Control, and performs various 
engineering services for the Department. 

The Division of Commerce and Industry co-operates with the other divisions, State 
departments and local interested parties in promoting the commercial and industrial 
development of the State, through publication of facts, advertising the State's advan- 
tages. 



52 North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 

The publication of this volume is largely the work of the various divisions of the 
Department of Conservation and Development, and exemplifies the service it seeks to 
render. 

THE ORDERING OF ELECTIONS 

For the citizen as a voter, the State, together with the several counties, provides 
such regulation of elections as will insure fairness and equality of opportunity. The 
State election laws are administered by disinterested agents. 

The State Board of Elections, consisting of five members appointed by the Gov- 
ernor, is the chief agency for the enforcement of the State and county election laws. 
In the performance of its duties, this Board prepares election forms, orders elections, 
tabulates returns, makes recounts, and appoints a board of elections in each county. 
These county boards administer in turn, the election laws for each of the counties. 
Reports of all elections in the State, with the exception of municipal votings, are filed 
at the office of the Secretary of State. 

HIGHWAYS AND PUBLIC WORKS 

The importance of good roads to the welfare of the citizens has been well recognized 
by North Carolina. The extensive road building program of the late twenties, on the 
part of the State and the counties, demonstrated this fact. More recently, when the 
necessity arose for a centralized control of highways, the State assumed responsibility 
for construction and maintenance of all highways in the State, and today continues these 
services satisfactorily. The highway fund, through which the work is accomplished, is 
self-sustaining, being sufficient to withstand a transfer of $1,000,000 each year to the 
general fund. 

The principal agency in charge of highways is the State Highway and Public Works 
Commission, reorganized in 1933, and consisting of seven members appointed by the 
Governor. Its duties consist of the maintenance and construction of all public roads and 
the custody of all prisoners. For the purpose of administrative efficiency, there are five 
divisions within the State, and each division is in turn divided into five districts. Total 
revenues for the fiscal year 1935-36 amounted to $37,359,946.59, of which 50.3 per cent 
was received in gasoline taxes, and 33.4 per cent received in Federal allocations. Expen- 
ditures in the same year totalled $35,876,576.88. As of July 1, 1935, the total highway 
mileage in the State was 58,212, representing a total investment of $269,738,572. 

In the Prison Division of the Highway and Public Works Commission, there were on 
July 1, 1934, 7,546 prisoners, the average number during the fiscal year ending on the 
same date being 7,650. Of these, 570 were at the Central Prison and 6,140 at camps, the 
remainder being at the two additional prison farms. 

The Division of Highway Safety, a unit within the Department of Revenue, has 
among other duties the issuing of drivers' licenses and the responsibility of directing 
the work of the State Highway Patrol. 

Among other State agencies in this field is the Transportation Advisory Commis- 
sion, consisting of twelve members, with the duties of making complete surveys of 
freight rates to, from, and within the State, in order to ascertain if there is discrim- 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 53 

ination, of determining the probable causes thereof and of recommending a remedy, and 
of ascertaining if the State can aid in the development of water transportation to and 
from North Carolina ports in co-operation with the Federal Government or otherwise. 

The Commission to Investigate County Claims for moneys spent on State highways 
was created in 1935, and consists of nine members appointed by the Governor, with the 
duty of reporting on or before November 1, 1936, on the fair and reasonable amount 
of money that should be refunded to each county for expenditures on State highways, 
in order to place it on an equitable parity with each other county. 

With relation to water transportation, the Board of Commissioners of Navigation 
and Pilotage, composed of five members appointed by the Governor, controls pilotage 
services and other matters relating to the navigation of the Cape Fear River. 

The cities, in their performance of services related to highways, and public works, 
operate public work departments, which are charged with the construction and mainte- 
nance of streets, sidewalks, bridges, and viaducts, the cleaning and sprinkling of streets, 
and the construction and maintenance of a sewerage system. In addition, public utilities 
of various sorts are operated, including a water works system, and in some cases public 
markets, airports, gas systems, and abattoirs. 

SERVICES TO DEPARTMENTS 

In addition to the broad field of governmental services directly to the citizens of 
North Carolina, there is a sphere of rather indirect service to the individual, services 
by one governmental department to another, which in turn contribute to the general 
welfare. For example, the 1935 General Assembly created a Commission on Inter-State 
Co-operation, with certain purposes involving general contribution to the life of the 
State: to perfect the participation of the State in the Council of State Governments, 
for the purpose of establishing and maintaining governmental machinery to facilitate 
communication, negotiation, understanding and co-operation between North Carolina and 
the other states, regionally and nationally; to report on the first day of each regular 
legislative session and at other times as deemed proper. This Commission has fifteen 
members, appointed by the Senate, the House, and the Governor, serving without pay. 
Such an agency is typical of the many temporary ones which serve each unit of govern- 
ment. More importantly, there are permanent departments of government in each of the 
three spheres — State, county, city — which devote their energies to an indirect service to 
the citizen, through other departments. 

SUBORDINATE EXECUTIVE ACTIVITY 

The Attorney General is a constitutional State officer elected for four years. He is 
legal advisor to the Legislature and to the Governor, and represents the State in its 
legal interests of any sort. Further, he gives opinions on all questions of law submitted 
by any State official. Upon request, the Attorney General consults with and advises 
Solicitors. His counterpart is found in the county and city attorneys, who, appointed by 
the local governing bodies, advise and defend the unit's interests in all legal matters. 

The Secretary of State is designated by the Constitution, elected for a four-year 
term. He serves on important coordinating boards. His functions include: custody of 



54 North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 

all statutes and resolutions, rolls of registered voters, and other State and official rec- 
ords; enrollment for ratification of all laws passed by the General Assembly; distribu- 
tion of statutes and Supreme Court reports ; and issuance of grants on public lands, as 
well as issuance of certificates of incorporation and registration of trade-marks. 

In point of record-keeping, county and city have similar officers in the Register of 
Deeds and the City Clerk. Each records the activity of its local governing body. The 
former is a constitutional officer, elected by the county; the latter, locally created and 
appointed. While the City Clerk has only general duties in addition to serving as recorder 
for the governing body, the Register of Deeds has additional specifically enumerated 
duties and powers, among which are these: to register all instruments in writing 
delivered to him for registration; to index and cross-index such registrations; to 
make tax lists; and to issue marriage licenses. 

CONTROL OF PERSONNEL AND PROPERTY 

Since 1931, a Department of Personnel has functioned for the State government, 
superseding the old Salary and Wage Commission. Under the direction of the Governor, 
an active Assistant Director is appointed to function for the Governor, as follows: to 
make, with the heads of departments, bureaus, and commissions of the State, investiga- 
tion of needs for personal service ; classify employees ; fix, with approval of the Advisory 
Budget Commission, standards of salaries and wages ; to adopt rules relative to holidays ; 
and to classify applicants for jobs. The functions do not apply to the Supreme Court, nor 
to employees of the State Highway on an hourly basis, nor to school teachers. For 
all other categories, however, the Department must approve all payrolls before payment. 
It might be observed that the Department comprehends 12,703 State employees and an 
annual payroll of over $12,000,000. More than half of the personnel and slightly less 
than half of the payroll are attributable to the Highway and Public Works Commission. 
Educational instiutions and executive and adminstrative departments are the two groups 
next in importance. 

In the difficult depression years, no policy of personnel reduction was embraced. 
Salary adjustments have been the rule. From the old level of State salaries maintained 
till January, 1933, three cuts reduced the scale to the low point of May, 1933. In July, 
1933, a readjustment of the wage base aided the lower brackets considerably and raised 
the level a bit all along the line. For two years, remuneration remained at that level. At 
July, 1936, the State salary scale stood at about 80 per cent of the January, 1933, figure. 

Control of property starts with the purchase. As a section of the Governor's 
Office, the Division of Purchase and Contract has functioned since 1931 under a Director 
appointed by the chief executive. The Advisory Budget Commission serves ex officio 
as the Board of Award for the Division. The functions of the Division are to provide 
for centralized purchasing and contracting of supplies, space, and services for the State 
departments, institutions, and public schools. 

By its service in four major divisions — Printing, Public Schools, Institutions, High- 
way — results are readily apparent for the first four years' operation of the Division of 
Purchase and Contract: actual saving to the tax-payers of from a half to one million 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 55 

dollars; keeping within the State a larger part of State business than ever before; as a 
result of research and study, much progress in eliminating "expensive specialties" and 
simplifying needs of the using agencies; acting as clearing house of information on 
State-used products. 

As a sort of corollary to the service of the Division just described, the 1935 Legis- 
lature created a Commission on Gasoline and Petroleum Supply, five persons appointed 
by the Governor to make a study of the probable cost of petroleum terminal facilities, 
and the cost of such additional equipment as may be desirable and necessary for distri- 
bution of the State's supply of petroleum products; to inquire into the advantage or 
disadvantage of the State's undertaking such an enterprise; to inquire into the entire 
field of petroleum sales to the public at retail in North Carolina, and to ascertain whether 
the State is being discriminated against; and to make such reports to the Governor and 
to the next General Assembly as might be deemed proper. 

A department of purchase is permitted by statute to both county and city, charged 
with the duty of purchasing all supplies, materials, and equipment required by the 
various official departments. 

The State Board of Public Buildings and Grounds is an ex officio body composed of 
the Governor, Secretary of State, Treasurer, and Attorney General. Its function is to 
supervise the care and upkeep of the public buildings and grounds in the Capitol City. 
The Board appoints a superintendent who has charge of the work, done by about fifty 
employees. Somewhat related with reference to properties is the County Surveyor, a 
constitutional officer elected for two years and compensated by fee. 

FISCAL POLICY 

The budget, the audit, the treasury — about these three terms revolve the function- 
ing of government's finances. Tax collection is the means to the ends with which these 
three policy-connotating terms deal. Brief considerations of governmental finance will be 
given in that order. 

The Budget Bureau and the Advisory Budget Commission were created for the State 
by statute in 1929. The Commission consists of four members: the chairmen of the 
House Appropriations and the Senate Finance Commitees, and two other persons 
appointed by the Governor. The Bureau is in the office of the Governor, as ex officio 
Director. An Assistant Director, responsible to the Governor, is actually in charge. 

The duty of the Director is to transmit certain prepared items to each biennial 
session of the Legislature, the budget document and the budget message, the budget 
appropriation bill, the budget revenue bill, and a bill containing methods and machinery 
for collection of taxes and listing of property for taxation. The activity of the Bureau 
is in preparation of the Directors' discharge of that duty ; preparing the legislative items, 
making field surveys and studies of governmental agencies, receiving and studying all 
departmental accounting reports each month, and authorizing of all allotments and trans- 
fers. A specialized duty of the Bureau is to keep in touch with farming operations of 
the State through reports of State-owned farms and to direct the operations of the State 
Fair. The Budget Director has the joint duty with the Auditor of determining what 



56 North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 

accounts and accounting systems shall be kept by the State and its departments. Further 
relation to the Auditor's office is apparent in the Bureau's auditing of that department 
and in advising concerning payments into sinking funds. The ends and means of State 
government meet in the Budget Bureau; here is the final administrative judge of State 
operations, here is the final adviser on manners of maintaining, expanding, or adjusting. 

At its adoption, the Constitution designated the office of Auditor, elective, for a 
four-year term. In superintending the fiscal affairs of the State and in keeping and 
stating all accounts in which the State is interested, the Auditor both lays the grounds 
of budget action and carries into effect certain phases of the budget adopted. For these 
purposes, the present organization embraces divisions of receipts, disbursements, gen- 
eral accounts, and field audits. A duty rather unto itself is the Auditor's direction of 
the Pension Bureau, administering a State-wide system. 

Budgeting by local government units is becoming the rule. The increase of State 
control over local debt is largely the cause of the tendency, together with the lessons 
learned severally by the counties from their over-loading in disregard for the future. 
In certain cases, a Finance Committee has been formed from the Board of County Com- 
missioners to concern itself with solely financial problems. City governing bodies have 
been forced by circumstance to attend their debts with increasing diligence. The super- 
visory powers of the Local Government Commission are encouraging to local budgeting. 

Annual audits are required of local units by the statute enabling the performance 
of the duties of the Local Government Commission. Independent audits are necessary 
in the case of contemplated financial re-arrangements, and are in some cases maintained 
regularly. The offices of County and City Auditor are both provided by law, having in 
most actual cases duties extended to accounting, bookkeeping, and tax listing. The 
insufficient records of local government units and the inadequate running account of 
their present operation attest to the need of stricter supervision of their accounting 
systems and auditing services. 

The Treasury is in charge of a constitutional officer elected for a four-year term. 
The Treasurer is ex officio member of the Council of State and further commissions 
related closely to the discharge of his duties. His functions concern the handling of 
State funds and the procurement of State credit. 

The office of County Treasurer is constitutionally established, being elective for 
two years. In some counties, it has been permitted by statute that a bank or trust 
company act as financial agent under a two-year appointment by the Board of Com- 
missioners. Chiefly, the Treasurer keeps accounts of moneys received, held, and applied 
for the credit of the county. Incidentally, he administers all the real and personal property 
held in trust for the county. In city government, the Treasurer is appointed by the 
governing body and discharges the implied duties of handling and accounting for 
municipal funds, received and expended. The office of Accountant, where existent, serves 
largely to allay the excess of Treasury duties. 

REVENUE RECEIPTS 

North Carolina's Department of Revenue has the distinction of being the only 
State collection agency in the Union that collects all tax revenue of its unit. Its duties 
are to assess and collect all State taxes and deposit them daily to the credit of the 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 57 

State Treasurer. The Commissioner of Revenue heads the Department, being appointed 
by the Governor for a four-year term. In addition to the Revenue Department proper, 
there is supervised the Bureau of Motor Vehicles, which comprehends the Highway 
Patrol and the Division of Highway Safety, and a section in connection with the Oil 
Inspection Division. The Tax Commission, a special arm of the Department proper 
established in 1927, was abolished in 1933 ; but a skeleton of its organization remains, 
collecting comparative running data on local government taxation. 

The State Board of Assessments and Equalization and Review is under the chair- 
manship of the Commissioner of Revenue, who is empowered to exercise full func- 
tions of the Board when it is not in session. These functions of the Board concern 
supervision of the taxing system of the State, including counties and municipalities, and 
expression of final authority on tax appeals. 

Taxes are collected by the Sheriff in a majority of North Carolina counties. How- 
ever, specific Tax Collectors are provided by statute and Tax Supervisors are stipulated 
in each revenue act, selection being made by the Board of Commissioners. A County 
Board of Equalization and Review is constituted by the Board of County Commissioners' 
membership. City taxes are collected by appointees of the governing bodies, which 
persons are assisted often by a department charged with preparing tax bills. 

As a measure of the volume of Revenue Department business, it might be noted 
that for the fiscal year nearly $56,000,000 was received from all sources. This amount 
was about equally attributable to the Revenue Division and the Motor Vehicle Division, 
the former serving the General Fund and the latter the Highway Fund. Revenue 
Division items include principally the sales tax, income tax, franchise tax, and license 
tax; inheritance, beer, and a small miscellany of taxes relatively minor in importance. 
Receipts from these sources go chiefly to public schools and to debt service, demanding 
practically all of General Fund credits which serve in addition executive, legislative, 
and judicial expense, social welfare, higher education, and pension. The sales tax, now 
netting more than ten million dollars annually, is serving to replace adequately the old 
property tax no longer levied by the State. It is interesting to note that annual per 
capita retail sales in North Carolina amount to more than $125.00. 

Motor Vehicle Division items include chiefly gasoline taxes and automobile licenses ; 
inspection fees, bus franchises, and title fees constitute a small portion of the Division's 
total receipts. These revenues are credited, in gross amount, to the State Highway 
and Public Works Commission. Principal expenditures are there made for maintenance 
of the completely State-owned highway system ; incidental expenditures for construc- 
tion, for the expenses of the Motor Vehicle Division of the Revenue Department, and 
for an annual transfer of a million dollars to the General Fund. 

While the constitutional limitation as to the maximum income tax rate is the only 
restraint upon the taxing power of the State, the taxing abilities of the counties and 
cities are completely dictated by State law. The preponderant source of local govern- 
ment income is the property tax, a general ad valorem tax. In the case of counties, 
only slightly supplementary sources are present in fees for special services, poll taxes, 



58 North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 

license taxes, and court revenues. In the case of cities, sizeable collections often come 
from sale of public services, from licenses, and from street assessments, these supple- 
mented by a small miscellany of other items, such as tolls, fines, and forfeitures. 

Two propositions recently adopted as possible amendments to the Constitution con- 
cern important phases of local government taxation. The one calls for the allowance 
of limited property tax exemption for homes occupied by owners, $1,000. The other 
calls for the classification of property for taxation, as opposed to the old general prop- 
erty base. The first would restrict the principal source of local government revenue. 
The second would particularize general property taxation. 

The purposes of local taxation should be noted. Debt service is, by far, the largest 
consumer of local revenue, amounting easily to more than one-third. The State's assump- 
tion of public schools and highways has relieved cities of expense for the former and 
the counties of expense for the latter. Education still constitutes an important concern 
of the counties, in their debt service and capital outlays. Roadways still comprise an 
important item of city expense, in maintenance of streets and street lighting. Health and 
welfare are alike common to the budget of county and city. Public services are negligible 
in the county scheme, but increasingly important in the city picture. Protection of 
person and property through police and fire departments have long been expensive 
duties of municipal government. Operation of utilities — water, gas, electricity — has 
become common for cities, which services are often self-sustaining and sometimes con- 
tributory to the general fund of the unit. 

Consideration of local government finances would be quite incomplete without 
commendatory mention of the Local Government Commission. This body was created 
in 1931, and consists of nine members: the State Auditor, Treasurer, and Commissioner 
of Revenue, ex officio, and six others appointed by the Governor to hold office on this 
Commission. The Commission's functions are chiefly: to approve and sell all financial 
issues of local units of government; to supervise the sinking fund investments and 
other securities of local units; and to consult and advise with local units generally. 
Through its efforts, the debt structure of counties and cities of the State has been 
improved considerably through wisely planned and effectuated refunding operations. 
The relationship is now existant for an increase of these benefits to local governmental 
financial policy. 

MISCELLANY 

Government-as-agent has recently become the more conscious of itself. In 1931, 
there was created a State Commission for the Improvement of Laws, together with a 
Constitutional Commission. The work of the latter resulted in the presentation to the 
electorate recently of four propositions for the amendment of the Constitution. The 
former considers proposals for betterment of the law, and makes such investigations 
as necessary, recommending to the General Assembly changes in the law deemed expe- 
dient, with drafts of proposed bills and reasons for them. A particular Commission of 
that general sort is the one on Estate Law, established by the 1935 Legislature, and 
since then proposing a greatly simplified system. 

It has long been the custom of cities to plan for physical development, setting aside 
zones for business and residential buildings, and by so doing to promote the health, 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 59 

safety, morals, and general welfare of the community. The idea of outlining finances for 
the coming year or years has likewise been a common practice by all units of govern- 
ment. There has emerged recently an extension of this idea of planning. The 1935 Legis- 
lature approved the State Planning Board as an advisory agency of the State, under the 
direction of the Governor. The Board is charged with the duty to collect and arrange 
data concerning various projects in North Carolina that in the opinion of the Board 
may constitute proper and useful projects for development within the scope of the 
various agencies of the State or agencies of the Federal government. Authority is given 
to make investigation and to correlate information in all such matters as may be 
referred to it by the Governor or the various agencies of the State. In order to carry 
out the purposes of the Board, the Governor may from time to time make provision 
for any necessary expenses thereof not provided by the Federal government, out of the 
Contingency Fund appropriated for the use of the Governor's Office. The Board may 
accept and disburse, under approval of the Director of the Budget, any contributions 
made available by any State or Federal agency, or private or public endowment. At 
this point, Planning Board activities have justified the immediate usefulness of the Board 
as a clearing house of information on North Carolina as a whole and on the services 
of the State, county, and city governments. The ultimate service of the Board may be 
conceived as that of an advising and coordinating body, composed of experts in research 
and students of State culture, looking to a greater future for North Carolina. 

COST OF GOVERNMENT 
FUNDS 

The government of North Carolina is paid for out of three separate funds : the Gen- 
eral Fund, the Highway Fund, and the Agriculture Fund. The latter two are self-sustain- 
ing, the Highway Fund even making a transfer of $1,000,000 each year to the General 
Fund. 

The Agriculture Fund, which in 1935-36 received $382,177 and expended $345,901, 
gets the major portion of its revenues from a fertilizer tax and the remainder from a 
multitude of other taxes, sales of seeds, serum, etc., test farm operations, etc. The major 
portion of its expenditures goes to the operation of the Department of Agriculture, and 
the remainder to the operation of the State Fair and the North Carolina State College 
Experiment Station, and to seed improvement. 

The Highway Fund, in 1935-36, received a total of $38,359,946, and expended 
$36,876,577. Of its receipts, Motor Vehicle Revenue, including receipts from the gaso- 
line tax and registrations, and Federal Aid allocations make up practically the total. 
Its expenditures include the costs of maintenance and construction of highways, the 
aforementioned transfer to the General Fund, debt service, and miscellaneous items. 

The remainder of the governmental cost is thus taken care of by the General Fund, 
which in 1935-36 had total receipts of $31,439,588, and total expenditures of $31,201,705. 
The receipts include those from inheritance, license, franchise, income, sales, and beer 
taxes, the transfer from the Highway Fund, and non-tax revenue (earnings, fees, divi- 
dends). The expenditures include the cost of maintaining the legislative, judicial, exec- 
utive, and administrative branches of the State government, the State educational insti- 



60 North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 

tutions, the charitable and correctional institutions, State aid and obligations (miscel- 
laneous services, including vocational education, mothers' aid, etc.), pensions, public 
schools, and debt service. 

TAXATION 

The State is limited, by Article V of the Constitution, in its taxing power. The 
General Assembly may levy a capitation tax, the proceeds of which are to be applied 
to education and the support of the poor; but actually this tax is not levied by the State 
but is reserved for counties and cities. All taxes on moneys, credits, investments in bonds, 
stocks, joint-stock companies, or otherwise, and on real and personal property, had, until 
now, to be levied uniformly, with exceptions in regard to certain notes and mortgages. 
A constitutional amendment, passed on November 3, 1936, changes this provision so 
that taxation need be uniform only on each class of property taxed, thus enabling the 
General Assembly to classify property for the purposes of the ad valorem tax. Here 
again, the State is not directly concerned, since it does not itself levy a property tax, 
but the limitations do nevertheless concern the control of the General Assembly over 
the taxation power of the minor subdivisions of the State. The State may, and does, 
however, in accordance with the Constitution, levy taxes on trade, professions, fran- 
chises, and incomes. 

The usual exemptions from taxation apply in North Carolina. The property specif- 
ically exempted includes that of the State or municipal corporations, while the Legisla- 
ture may exempt "cemeteries and property held for educational, scientific, literary, 
charitable, or religious purposes; also wearing apparel, arms for muster, household 
and kitchen furniture, the mechanical and agricultural implements of mechanics and 
farmers ; libraries and scientific instruments, or any other personal property, to a value not 
exceeding three hundred dollars." An amendment passed on November 3 adds to the list 
homes occupied by the owners thereof, up to $1,000 valuation. 

The greatest single tax, in point of income, is the gasoline tax, which in 1935-36 
provided revenues totalling $18,809,411. This tax, at the rate of 6c per gallon of gasoline 
sold or distributed within the State by producing or importing distributors, goes into 
the Highway Fund, to be spent on the construction and maintenance of State roads. 
All uses except in motors on the highways are exempt and the direct payer of the tax 
may thus claim refunds with respect to taxes paid on gasoline purchased for farm trac- 
tors, motor boats, and manufacturing processes. 

Next in size is the sales tax, first adopted in 1933, and providing in 1935-36 total 
revenues of $10,181,373, all of which go to the General Fund. It is a tax on the privilege 
of engaging in the business of wholesale or retail merchandising, and is based on the 
gross sales of tangible personal property, with certain exemptions; viz, gasoline, com- 
mercial fertilizer, farm, forest and mineral products when sold by the original pro- 
ducers, public school books, fresh liquid milk, and buttermilk. The rates are, for whole- 
sale merchants, one-twentieth of one per cent of gross sales, with a minimum tax, for 
any six-months period, of $12.50 ; and for retail merchants, three per cent of total gross 
sales. It is mandatory upon retail merchants to shift the tax to the consumers; and upon 
wholesale merchants to absorb the tax as an expense of operation. 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 61 

Table XIV 
GASOLINE TAX RATES AND REVENUES— 1922-1936 



Year 1936 1935 1934 1933 1932 

Rate 6c 6c 6c 6c 6c 

Revenue $19,182,868 17,673,571 16,482,000 14,769,602 13,903,646 

Year 1931 1930 1929 1928 1927 

Rate 5c-6c 5c 4c-5c 4c 4c 

Revenue 14,024,303 12,533,454 12,006,384 9,787,011 8,796,682 

Year 1926 1925 1924 1923 1922 

Rate 4c 3c-4c 3c lc-3c lc 

Revenue 7,786,473 6,082,378 4,604,768 3,086,981 808,085 



The income tax provided, in 1935-36, total revenues of $8,088,119, of which 19.5 per 
cent was collected from individuals, 25.8 per cent from domestic corporations, 48.5 from 
foreign corporations, and the remainder from miscellaneous sources. The individual 
income tax includes taxes on individual, estate, and trust incomes, and is at present levied 
at a rate graduated from three per cent to six per cent. A constitutional amendment 
passed November 3, 1936, raises the maximum rate to ten per cent, but does not make 
it mandatory. In the case of residents the tax is levied on the entire net income ; while 
in the case of non-residents the measure is the net income derived from sources within 
the State. The actual present rates, to be applied to the gross income less deductions less 
personal exemptions, are as follows : 

3 per cent of the first $2,000. 

4 per cent of the second $2,000. 

5 per cent of the third $2,000. 

6 per cent of the excess above $6,000. 

6 per cent of the income of resi dents from the stock of foreign corporations. 

As an aid in the administration of the tax, informational returns are required from 
persons controlling State, local, or private moneys in regard to amounts of $1,000 or 
more paid or payable during the year to any tax payer; and are also required from part- 
nerships and associations as regards the total income, names and addresses of partners, 
amounts of distributive shares, etc. 

The income of domestic corporations is taxed on the basis of the entire net income 
at a rate of 6 per cent, the net income figure being arrived at by a deduction, from gross 
income, of certain exemptions and deductions. The corporation may deduct, from the tax 
due, State income taxes paid on income in other states. The tax on foreign corporations, 
also at a rate of 6 per cent, is based on the net income allocable to the State on the basis 
of the physical property and manufacturing costs, physical property and gross sales, or 
gross receipts within the State, depending on the nature of the main business. 



62 North Carolina : Today and Tomorrow 

Franchise taxes are levied for the privilege of doing business within the State, and 
provide in some cases practical monopolies. They yielded, in 1935-36, total revenues of 
$7,245,754, of which 19.5 per cent was received from railroads, 24.3 per cent from public 
utilities, 18.3 on insurance premiums, 15.8 from domestic corporations, 11.4 per cent from 
foreign corporations, and the remainder from miscellaneous sources. 

The tax on railroads is based on the value of the total property, tangible and intan- 
gible, allocable to the State; and is levied at a rate of nine-tenths of one per cent. The 
tax on public utilities, including electric light power, street railway, gas, water, sewerage, 
etc., is based on gross intra-state income at rates of 4 per cent for water companies and 6 
per cent for all others. The insurance premium tax is based on gross premium receipts 
and is levied at a rate of 2 Vo per cent, with a retaliatory provision as regards foreign com- 
panies. The rate on premiums for liability under the Workmen's Compensation Act is 
4 per cent. 

The franchise taxes on domestic and foreign corporations are of two kinds: the reg- 
ular franchise tax on the privilege of doing business in the State, and a registration 
or organization tax. The franchise tax on domestic corporations is based on the appraised 
value of the capital stock, surplus, and undivided profits, at a rate of $1.75 per $1,000; 
while the organization tax is based on the total authorized capital stock and is levied at a 
rate of 40 cents per $1,000, with a minimum charge of $40. The latter tax is assessed 
and collected by the Secretary of State. The franchise tax on foreign corporations is based 
on the amount of capital stock, surplus, and undivided profits allocated to the business 
within the State, and is levied at a rate of $1.75 per $1,000. The registration tax, assessed 
and collected by the Secretary of State, is based on the total authorized capital stock, 
and is levied at a rate of 40 cents per $1,000, with a minimum charge of $40 and a 
maximum charge of $500. 

Other franchise taxes, of minor importance, include those on sleeping car, express, 
telegraph, telephone, and motor bus and truck companies. 

Auto registrations yielded, in 1935-36, total revenues of $6,914,609, all of which 
went into the Highway Fund. Licenses are issued for both passenger cars and trucks for 
the privilege of owning and operating within the State, each class being divided into 
three groups. The tax on private and for-hire passenger cars is based on the weight of 
the vehicle, being 40 cents per 100 pounds for the former, with a minimum of $12.50, 
and $1.90 per 100 pounds for the latter. The measure in the case of bus lines is gross 
earnings as well as weight, and is levied at a rate of 90 cents per 100 pounds plus the 
amount by which 6 per cent of the gross earnings exceeds this fee. In the case of trucks 
the tax on private and contract trucks is based on weight and capacity, being 60 to 70 
cents per 100 pounds on the private, and 80 cents to $1.30 per 100 pounds on the other. 
Franchise trucks are taxed on the basis of weight and gross earnings at a rate of 60 cents 
per 100 pounds, plus the amount by which 6 per cent of the gross earnings exceeds 
this fee. 

License taxes, levied for the privilege of carrying on specified kinds of business occu- 
pations, produced total revenues to the State, in 1935-36, of $2,323,866. These taxes are 
specified amounts, sometimes graduated according to the population for the municipality 
in which the business is done, the volume of business, and other criteria; and vary from 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 
Figure 5 



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n 


n 


n 







/9.J7 J5 JP ^0 4/ 42 4J 4rf 45 45 47 45 49 50 5/ 52 5J 54 55 55 57 55 59 SO 6/ 52 6J 64 55 66 67 68 69 70 71 73 

rEARS 

$5.00 up. They are levied not only by the State Commissioner of Revenue, but also by 
county and city authorities, and are collected by the Commissioner of Revenue and county 
sheriffs and local tax collectors. 

About sixty-five types of business and professional activity are subject to State 
license taxes. The rates of the more important State license taxes are as follows: chain 
stores, $50 to $225 for each store in excess of one, according to the total number of stores 
in the chain; branch or chain automotive service stations, $10 to $85 for each store in 
excess of one, according to the total number in the chain; professions (law, medicine, 
accounting, engineering, real estate, etc.), $35 per practitioner; automotive service 
stations $5.00 to $50, according to population; motor vehicle dealers, $25 to $200, accord- 
ing to population; tobacco and cigarette retailers and jobbers, $5.00 to $10, according 
to population; tobacco warehouses, $50 to $500, according to the volume of business; soda 
fountains, $10 per arm plus 3 per cent of gross receipts; wholesalers and jobbers of 
bottled drinks not engaged in bottling, $50 to $100; bottling works, $100 to $600 per 
machine; moving picture theatres, $25 to $425, according to population, plus 3 per cent 
of gross receipts; distribution of moving picture films, $625; hotels, 60 cents to $8.50 
per room, depending on rates charged plus 3 per cent of gross receipts of meals served : 
dealers in musical instruments, $10; contractors and constructors, $100 plus $50 to 
$1,250 on each project where the total contract price is in excess of $10,000; install- 
ment paper dealers, $100 plus one-fourth of one per cent of the face value of all obliga- 
tions purchased or discounted; building and loan associations, 13 cents per $100 of the 



64 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 



book of shares issued and outstanding ; brokers and security dealers, $25 to $300 for each 
office and $150 to $1,000 for each ticker or leased wire, according to the population of 
the locality; and amusement parks, $200 to $800, according to the number of months 
operated. 

The excise taxes on non-intoxicating beer yielded revenues, in 1935-36, of $623,815. 
This tax, provided for by a statute of 1933, is levied at a rate of $3.00 per gallon sold by 
wholesale distributors. 

Inheritance taxes produced, in 1935-36, a total of $530,617 in receipts. It is a single 
tax, levied on the transfer by will or intestate law or in contemplation of death, of 
property of a resident, or, in the case of a non-resident, of property over which the State 
has taxing jurisdiction. The measure of the tax is the clear market value of the property, 
and its rate varies from one per cent to twelve per cent, four per cent to twenty-four 
per cent, and eight per cent to twenty-five per cent, according to the class of the bene- 
ficiary and the size of the distributive interest. The estate tax is also a single payment 
one on the transfer of an estate. It is levied on the basis of the clear market value of 
the property at a rate of 80 per cent of the Federal Estate Tax under the 1926 rate. 

Figure 5 shows graphically the amount of State Funded Indebtedness outstanding 
for each year of the future, classified according to the ultimate purpose for which the 
debt was incurred. This is based upon the outstanding indebtedness of the State as of 
June 30, 1936. 

Figure 6 

ANNUAL PAYMENTS ON STATE BONDED DEBT 
NORTH CAROLINA 




1937 39 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 



65 



Table XV 



Source 



GENERAL FUND RECEIPTS 
1935-36 1932-33 






Inheritance Tax $ 530,617 

Licenses 2,323,866 

Franchise 7,245,754 

Railroads ... 1,448,155 

Utilities 1,595,129 

Ins. Premium . 1,366,784 

Dom. Corps. . . 1,187,486 

For. Corps 859,044 

Others 789,156 

Income Tax 8,088,119 

Individual .... 1,558,291 

Dom. Corps. . 2,091,376 

For. Corps. . . . 3,931,409 

Others 507,043 

Sales 10,181,373 

Beer 623,815 

Miscellaneous . . . 6,019 

Public School 

Refunds ....... 25,000 

Hwy. Fund Trans. 1,000,000 



1.7% 

7.4 
23.5 

4.6 

5.7 

4.3 

3.7 

2.7 

2.5 
25.6 

5.0 

6.6 
12.4 

1.6 
32.3 

1.9 



3.2 



477,867 

1,819,527 

6,095,861 

1,438,610 

1,349,120 

1,166,284 

740,740 

615,162 

785,945 

5,549,011 

959,686 

735,215 

3,849,279 

4,831 



2.0% 
10.5 
29.5 

7.3 

6.2 

5.6 

3.7 

2.9 

3.8 
34.4 

4.1 

6.7 
20.4 

3.2 



3,187,714 17.1 



1928-29 



922,172 

1,448,704 

3,678,911 

467,433 

176,458 

1,360,996 

606,391 

254,917 

812,716 

7,656,259 

2,467,908 

2,340,913 

2,847,102 

336 



2,500 



4.4% 

8.8 
23.3 

3.0 

1.6 

8.3 

3.7 

1.5 

5.2 
52.7 
15.7 
18.2 
18.8 



Total Tax Revenue 30,024,563 




17,129,980 




13,703,546 




Non-Tax Revenue 1,415,025 


4.4 


1,222,373 


6.9 


1,672,437 


10.8 


Total $31,439,588 




$18,352,353 




$15,375,983 





GENERAL FUND EXPENDITURES 



Item 



1935-36 



1932-33 



1928-29 



Legislative ... $ 13,965 0.4% $ 181,155 % $ 182,788 « 

Judicial 367,029 1.1 341,583 1.4 392,967 2.6 

Exec. & Admin. 1,550,507 5.0 1,120,266 5.0 1,950,399 11.8 

Dept. of Rev. 332,443 1.1 136,486 0.6 169,793 1.0 

Board of Health 282,301 0.9 225,275 1.0 422,362 2.8 

Others 935,763 3.0 758,505 3.4 1,358,244 8.0 

Educ. Insts 1,784,488 5.7 1,497,340 6.2 2,858,585 17.8 

U. N. C 1,133,804 3.6 884,966 4.0 1,810,415 11.4 

Others 650,684 2.1 612,374 2.2 1,048,170 6.4 

Char. & Cor. Ins.. 1,597,221 5.0 1,625,527 6.9 1,892,907 11.7 

State Aid Obligs. 803,882 2.6 107,949 0.8 506,891 3.1 

Voc. Education. 131,954 0.4 98,789 0.5 179,099 1.1 

Pur. Textbooks. 565,481 1.8 

Others 106,447 0.4 9,160 0.3 327,792 2.0 

Pensions 580,170 1.8 784,691 3.2 1,340,310 9.4 

Public School .... 20,223,211 64.7 16,840,561 63.0 3,255,839 21.8 

Debt Service ... 4,281,233 13.7 4,201,131 13.5 3,188,591 21.8 

Total $31,201,705 ... $26,762,953 ... $15,567,608 



66 



North Carolina : Today and Tomorrow 



Table XVI 



HIGHWAY FUND RECEIPTS 

Source 1935-36 1932-33 

Motor Vehicle Rev $25,872,283 67.6% $19,240,699 

Registration 6,914,609 18.1 5,005,610 

Gasoline Tax 18,809,411 49.1 14,165,026 

Title Registration 158,986 0.4 70,063 

Refunds 10,723 ... 

Other Revenue 4,875 . 129,258 

Federal Aid 12,482,788 32.4 5,470,693 

Proceeds of Bonds 

Total Revenue $38,359,946 . . . $24,840,650 



HIGHWAY FUND EXPENDITURES 

Item 1935-36 1932-33 

Maint. State Hwys $ 3,000,558 8.2% $ 2,026,476 

Maint. & Cons. Co. Hwys 6,078,597 16.5 4,846,243 

Improvements State & Co. . 3,831,721 10.4 

Cons. State Hwys. S.F 4,261,781 11.6 1,192,983 

Cons. State Hwys. F.A 5,465,963 14.8 3,504,524 

Trans, to General Fund 1,000,000 2.7 

Other Expenditures 3,603,272 9.8 609,620 

Debt Service 9,634,658 26.0 8,931,468 

Interest on Bonds 4,211,301 11.5 4,695,483 

Sinking Fund Interest 500,000 1.3 500,000 

Red. of Bonds 4,375.000 11.8 3,250,000 

County Loan Rep 548,357 1.4 485,985 

Total Expenditures ...$36,876,577 ... $21,111,314 



1928-29 



517,114,530 

6,836,823 

10,122,649 

155,058 

212,097 
1,716,916 



$19,043,543 



1928-29 



> 3,986,587 
13,191,356 



1,558,420 
8,477,498 
4,859,620 
500,000 
1,500,000 
1,617,878 



$27,213,861 



TABLE XVII 



AGRICULTURE FUND RECEIPTS 


Source 




1935-36 


1932-33 




1928-29 


Fertilizer Tax 

Other Taxes, serum sale, 
Test Farm operations, etc. 


. . $ 


203,566 53.8% 
178,611 46.2 


$ 176,297 
129,013 


$ 


261,007 
234,240 


Total Receipts 


. . $ 


382,177 


$ 305,310 


$ 


495,247 


AGRICULTURE FUND EXPENDITURES 


Item 




1935-36 


1932-33 




1928-29 


Dept. of Agriculture 


. . .$ 


315,001 91.1% 
30,900 8.9 


$ 211,341 
42,480 


$ 


405,083 
62,000 


State College Exp. Sta. & 
Seed Improvement 




Total Expenditures . . . 


..$ 


345,901 


$ 253,821 


$ 


467,083 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 67 

The present highway indebtedness will be retired by 1965, while the next highest 
type, that for educational, charitable, and penal institutions, will be retired four years 
later, or by 1969. The debt for county schools will be repaid by 1953. 

The second chart shows the amount required in each year for payment of interest 
and the retirement of the principal of the indebtedness. 

COUNTY TAXATION 

The greatest part of county receipts, for purposes of government, is in the form 
of property taxes. The Constitution, in Article V, provides that the total property tax, 
State and local, shall not exceed 15 cents per $100 valuation of property, except when 
the county tax is levied for a special purpose and with the special approval of the 
General Assembly. Actually, the State levies no property tax at all, and the right to 
levy such a tax is thus reserved entirely to the county and to the county suvdivisions (city, 
town, etc.). 

The total property tax levy, county-wide, amounted in 1935 to $19,379,586, at a rate 
of 88.7 cents, based on a total valuation of $2,184,062,652. Of this total, 71.6 per cent 
was made up of real estate, 19.8 per cent of personal property, and the rest of public serv- 
ice property. By counties, the assessed valuation ranged from $156,576,402 in Guilford 
County, to $1,788,966 in Clay County; and the rates ranged from $2.05 in Hyde County, 
to $0.36 in Cleveland County. 

Other county revenues in the form of taxes are receipts from poll taxes, licenses and 
permits, and miscellaneous taxes. The balance of revenues are certain non-tax receipts, 
including receipts from administrative departments, from service departments, grants 
from other governmental units, fines, gifts, income under the Alcoholic Beverage Control 
system, and capital receipts. 

Table XVIII 
COUNTY-WIDE PROPERTY TAX— 1926-1936 



Year Assessed Valuation 



1926 $2,794,931,069 

1927 2,934,415,126 

1928 2,963,302,911 

1929 2,971,338,814 

1930 2,974,464,650 

1931 2,830,758,193 

1932 2,726,373,672 

1933 2,089,209,188 

1934 2,152,443,146 

1935 2,184,062,652 





Weighted Average 


Levy 


Tax Rate 


$34,424,630 


123.2 


36,350,247 


124.0 


37,127,659 


125.0 


35,990,434 


121.1 


34,800,054 


117.0 


24,744,890 


87.4 


22,817,350 


83.7 


18,360,885 


87.9 


18,685,954 


86.8 


19,379,586 


88.7 



68 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 



Table XIX 
COUNTY-WIDE PROPERTY TAX BASE BY COUNTY— 1935 



County 



Assessed 



Rate Per 
$100 



County 



Assessed 



Rate Per 
$100 



Alamance 
Alexander 
Alleghany 
Anson .... 

Ashe 

Avery .... 
Beaufort . . 
Bertie .... 
Bladen .... 
Brunswick 
Buncombe 
Burke .... 
Cabarrus . . 
Caldwell . . 
Camden . . . 
Carteret . . 
Caswell . . 
Catawba . . 
Chatham . . 
Cherokee 
Chowan . . 

Clay 

Cleveland 
Columbus 
Craven . . 
Cumberland 
Currituck 

Dare 

Davidson 

Davie 

Duplin ... 
Durham . . 
Edgecombe 
Forsyth . . . 
Franklin . . 
Gaston . . . 

Gates 

Graham . . 
Granville . . 
Greene . . . 
Guilford . 
Halifax . . . 
Harnett . . 
Haywood 
Henderson 
Hertford . 

Hoke 

Hyde 

Iredell .... 
Jackson 



$30,039,523 

7,246,373 

3,998,305 

14,597,056 

3,748,554 

4,434,864 

19,975,585 

9,610,375 

10,300,377 

6,464,595 

80,953,134 

20,661,158 

. 38,625,212 

20,126,331 

3,067,595 

9,549,829 

7,164,094 

38,019,894 

15,273,380 

7,358,918 

6,745,192 

1,788,966 

28,703,049 

18,519,328 

13,164,100 

19,900,831 

4,447,249 

2,559,983 

32,336,932 

10,680,118 

15,622,075 

94,780,039 

23,915,261 

156,309,760 

11,219,477 

75,577,014 

5,076,246 

6,783,887 

16,633,993 

6,769,898 

156,576,402 

30,217,760 

18,228,552 

22,824,633 

20,639,365 

7,535,756 

7,319,081 

3,549,134 

31,574,713 

8,115,755 



P .95 

1.30 

.885 

.88 

1.40 

1.85 

1.07 

1.45 

1.20 

1.50 

.77 

.97 

.61 

.90 

.92 

1.50 

1.20 

.90 

1.10 

.90 

1.06 

1.95 

.36 

1.20 

1.60 

1.79 

.84 

1.75 

.62 

.75 

1.55 

.50 

.88 

.50 

1.00 

.51 

1.00 

1.20 

1.08 

2.00 

.68 

.80 

1.25 

1.31 

.90 

1.00 

.88 

2.05 

1.35 

1.41 



Johnston . . . . 

Jones 

Lee 

Lenoir 

Lincoln 

Macon 

Madison 

Martin 

McDowell . . . 
Mecklenburg 
Mitchell 
Montgomery . 

Moore 

Nash 

New Hanover 
Northampton 

Onslow 

Orange 

Pamlico 

Pasquotank . . 

Pender 

Perquimans 

Person 

Pitt 

Polk . 

Randolph . . . 
Richmond . . . 
Robeson . . . . 
Rockingham 

Rowan 

Rutherford . . 
Sampson . . . . 
Scotland . . . . 

Stanly 

Stokes 

Surry 

Swain 

Transylvania . 

Tyrrell 

Union 

Vance 

Wake 

Warren 

Washington . . 
Watauga . . 

Wayne 

Wilkes 

Wilson 

Yadkin 

Yancey 



$30,232,044 

3,965,763 

10,849,322 

17,510,554 

12,753,470 

5,678,767 

7,482,712 

10,890,231 

16,558,472 

134,431,410 

6,332,386 

13,482,181 

20,268,371 

25.,484,043 

50,857,900 

9,881,560 

6,864,980 

13,903,824 

3,392,463 

12,202,470 

7,560,355 

5,526,799 

9,883,865 

30,647,432 

5,206,156 

17,767,418 

21,852,759 

31,213,163 

39,968,549 

58,766,867 

22,384,118 

17,594,100 

11,436,156 

23,372,388 

8,596,368 

23,247,906 

5,974,185 

4,687,838 

2,591,509 

15,014,553 

16,525,638 

76,741,093 

9,067,745 

5,673,761 

7,805,822 

32,227,759 

12,488,243 

25,314,432 

7,909,930 

4,663,121 



$1.50 

1.35 

1.00 

1.65 

1.08 

1.00 

1.50 

1.43 

1.20 

.64 

1.78 

1.30 

.73 

.85 

.65 

1.00 

1.49 

.80 

1.75 

1.40 

1.30 

1.40 

1.15 

.83 

1.60 

1.24 

.79 

.80 

1.10 

.53 

1.25 

1.00 

.60 

1.00 

1.54 

.85 

1.25 

1.55 

1.00 

1.35 

1.03 

.75 

.66 

1.80 

1.20 

1.00 

1.00 

1.10 

.75 

.95 






North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 



69 



Table XX 
PROPERTY ASSESSMENTS BY CLASSES OF PROPERTY— 1932-1935 



Class of Property 


1932 


1933 


1934 


1935 


Amount 


Per 
Cent 
Total 


Amount 


Per 

Cent 
Total 


Amount 


Per 
Cent 
Total 


Amount 


Per 
Cent 
Total 


Real Estate: 

Land 


$ 899,830,252 

1,046,766,736 

128,016,386 


33.0 

38.4 
4.7 


$ 666,624,821 
770,055,004 
105,656,540 


31.9 

36.9 

5.1 


$ 689,460,562 

773,070,378 

95,659,749 


32.0 
35.9 

4.5 


$ 686,726,519 

778,661,617 

97,697,915 


31.5 
35.7 

4.4 


Town Lots 


Other 


Total Real Estate . . . 

Personal Property: 

Strictlv Personal (tax- 
able) 


$2,074,613,374 

$ 160,117,497 

245,546,791 
29,276,905 


76.1 

5.3 

7.9 
1.1 


$1,542,336,465 

$ 131,511,202 

188,792,989 
27,740,609 


73.9 

6.3 

11.0 
1.3 


$1,558,190,689 

$ 127,712,950 

231,894,218 
32,234,711 


72.4 

5.9 

10.8 
1.5 


$1,563,086,051 

$ 135,025,585 

260,209,245 
37,846,143 


71.6 

6.2 

11.9 
1.7 


Commercial and Man- 
ufacturing Items. . . . 
Other 

Total Personal Prop- 
erty 

Public Service Property 
Assessed by State 
Board of Assessment . 


$ 405,664,288 
$ 246,096,010 


14.9 
9.0 


$ 349,044,800 
$ 197,827,923 


16.6 
9.5 


$ 391,841,879 
$ 202,410,578 


18.2 
9.4 


$ 433,080,973 
$ 187,895,628 


19.8 
8.6 


Total 


$2,726,373,672 


100.0 


$2,089,209,188 


100.0 


$2,152,443,146 


103.0 $2,184,062,650 


100.0 



Chapter IV 

EDUCATION IN NORTH CAROLINA 

The last quarter century has been marked in North Carolina by an amazing growth 
and development of all phases of public education. The annual appropriation from State 
funds for schools has increased from $100,000 in 1899, to nearly $21,000,000 in the 
current year. 

The total value of school buildings has risen from $5,800,000, to $106,600,000, while 
the number of teachers and principals employed increased from 11,200 to 23,700, with 
a very marked improvement in their general educational and pedagogical training. The 
number of high schools has increased from less than 250 to more than 900, with enroll- 
ment of nearly 160,000 persons, of whom more than 21,000 are graduated annually. 

Perhaps the greatest achievement of recent years has been the establishment of a 
State-wide minimum school term of eight months, supported entirely by the State with- 
out resort to ad valorem taxes, and available to every child. North Carolina, with the 
possible exception of Delaware, is the only State in the Union to accept this responsibility 
of the state government as a state supported enterprise. 

Along with this advance has come a development of transportation for rural school 
children, under which more than 275,000 children are transported daily, to and from 
the schools, with an almost perfect record of freedom from accident. According to 
recent estimates, this represents one-seventh of all pupil transportation service rendered 
throughout the entire United States. 

Furthermore, under a sound budget plan, with careful administration, these great 
advances in public education have been carried out with the prompt payment of all cur- 
rent obligations for salaries and other operating expense. While the salary scale for 
teachers is low, compared with the national average, all salaries are paid in full and 
substantial increases have been made in the last biennium. 

It is therefore very fitting that the splendid educational facilities available through 
the whole range of educational endeavor, to every child in the commonwealth, be con- 
sidered as among the greatest resources of the State. In the following sections, more 
detailed account of the development fund extent of the facilities available in various 
phases of education in North Carolina will be presented. 

ELEMENTARY EDUCATION 

Prior to 1837, efforts at education in the colony and early State had been made 
chiefly by lay readers in the churches, and missionaries, such as those sent by the Society 
for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts. The apprentice system was in oper- 
ation. The University of North Carolina was established in 1789, and numerous 
academies, the forerunner of our public schools, were established by private persons or 
small groups. Forty-two such schools were established prior to 1800, and in the succeed- 
ing twenty-five years about one hundred and thirty-five others were established, at least 
one in each county, except Ashe, Columbus, and Person. 



72 North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 

In 1816, under the leadership of Archibald D. Murphey, reports were submitted to 
the Legislature, bearing on a plan for education. The Literary Fund was established in 
1825, and finally the Legislature in January, 1839, enacted its first State-wide public 
school law. Under this law, with small budgets, administered by the Literary Board, sub- 
ject to many difficulties, the school system slowly grew. In 1852 the first State School 
Superintendent was elected, and by the time of the beginning of the Civil War, North 
Carolina had progressed so far as properly to claim the distinction of being the leading 
State in the South as far as public education was concerned. 

In 1869 under the new constitution, the school law then passed provided a prescribed 
school term, made provision for a school tax, and for the education of the negroes. The 
difficulties of Reconstruction and adverse judicial decisions greatly retarded education 
in the next two decades, although there were some signs of improvement. In 1877, two 
normal schools, one for white teachers, at Chapel Hill, and one for colored teachers, at 
Fayetteville, were established. Between 1875 and 1885 free public graded schools were 
established in Greensboro, Raleigh, Salisbury, Goldsboro, Durham, Charlotte, Wilming- 
ton, Fayetteville, and Winston-Salem. 

The real growth of the public schools did not begin until the early days of the twen- 
tieth century. In the first fifteen years of the century the State enacted a compulsory 
attendance law, a child labor law, provided for public high schools, established the East 
Carolina Teachers College, farm-life schools, increased the school term from four to six 
months, provided for the State equalization fund, greatly strengthened the growing 
North Carolina College of Agriculture and Engineering, the State Normal and Industrial 
College at Greensboro, and greatly increased its support of the State University. 

This remarkable growth and betterment of schools has continued to this day. Im- 
provement in school buildings, in teacher certification, increased normal school facilities, 
better administration, consolidation of rural schools, bus transportation, increased ap- 
propriations, better sanitation, enlarged curricula — by all these criteria the advance in 
educational activities is shown to be great. 

SECONDARY EDUCATION 

The development of high schools in North Carolina dates almost entirely from 1907, 
when the Legislature authorized the establishment of rural high schools and appro- 
priated $45,000 per year for their maintenance. In the year 1899-1900, there were per- 
haps thirty public high schools in the State. These were almost entirely special charter 
schools, established and maintained by larger communities under special enactments. 
The enrollment was approximately 2,000, though there were probably an equal or some- 
what greater number in private high schools and academies. 

Following the act of 1907, and supported further by a Supreme Court decision in 
1917 which recognized the high school as an integral part of the public school system, 
the number of high schools increased very rapidly. By 1915, there was a public high 
school in every county. This year marked also the beginning of the Rosenwald Fund 
building program for negro schools. The following table shows the high school stand- 
ing for 1934-35 : 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 



73 



Table XXI 
HIGH SCHOOL STANDING FOR 1934-1935 





Rural 


City 


Total 




632 

596 

36 


84 
84 


716 

680 

36 










3,256 
1,598 
1,658 


1,179 
339 
840 


4,435 
1,937 
2,498 

131,983 

61,748 
70,235 










91,518 
42,319 
49,199 


40,465 
19,429 
21,036 










79,106 


36,026 


115,132 






86.4 


89.0 


87.2 






12,841 
5,190 
7,651 


5,706 

2,483 
3,223 


18,547 
7,673 

10,874 









PROGRESS IN SCHOOL BUILDINGS 

The development of school buildings in North Carolina follows the same general 
trend as outlined in the discussion of the development of elementary and secondary edu- 
cation. The first public school law directed the formation of school districts and required 
buildings for fifty pupils to be located on five-acre sites, the whole cost not to exceed 
$125.00. 

From this most humble beginning, progress was exceedingly slow for many years. 
In 1880, there were 3,766 school houses, with an average value of $47.67. By 1901, the 
number had grown to 7,111, valued at $1,153,986.00. 

Beginning in 1921, the Legislature made available nearly $18,000,000, borrowed by 
ninety-nine counties, and 1,081 projects were constructed. With this aid, and under the 
competent supervision of the Division of School House Planning, during the period of 
1921 to 1927 more than $65,000,000 was expended on school buildings, nearly half of 
which was spent on rural school buildings. This great expansion in physical plant was 
done in accordance with a sound policy of planning schools on a county-wide basis, of 
consolidation of small units and transportation of pupils, the buildings being constructed 
in accordance with well considered plans, of permanent materials. 

With the onset of the depression, expenditures for school buildings practically 
ceased. The various Federal Relief and Public Works agencies contributed greatly to the 
solution of the school building problem, contributing more than $12,000,000 towards 
the construction, maintenance, and repair and general improvement of school properties. 

As a consequence of these various movements, one may find scattered all over the 
State in North Carolina modern school buildings, of good design, well maintained, where 
will be found enrolled more than eighty percent of the total school population, with an 
average daily attendance of nearly 85%. Reference to the general statistical table will 



74 North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 

show how rapidly the number and value of these properties has increased. While there 
remains much yet to do, nevertheless North Carolina may justly be proud of the record 
of the last quarter-century in developing school plants, building and equipment, and in 
the beautification of grounds. With good roads, transportation at public cost, eight 
months schools, modern school plants available to every child in the State, public educa- 
tion may be said to be well established in North Carolina. 

SCHOOL TRANSPORTATION 

The history of public education in North Carolina for the past 20 years includes the 
development of one of the largest, if not the largest, school transportation systems in the 
world; and it is likely that the reports for 1934-35 will remove any question as to this 
State's first place in the number of children transported. Growing from six vehicles 
carrying 247 children in 1915, to a fleet of 4,000 modern school buses carrying approxi- 
mately 300,000 children to and from school daily for a term of 160 days in 1935, school 
transportation has become one of the most important functions in the operation of the 
public schools in North Carolina. From the accompanying table of statistical informa- 
tion one may get a very accurate account of the progress of the transportation of pupils 
at public expense. The growth has been rapid at times, with greater advancement being 
made within the period of 1925 to 1935. 

TRANSPORTATION AND CONSOLIDATION 

The transportation of pupils at public expense became a necessity when the educa- 
tional leadership decided that the small type school should be consolidated into larger 
units. Not unlike other changes, the progress of consolidation and transportation met 
with opposition. It would be difficult to determine that the objection to pupil transpor- 
tation caused the opposition to consolidation, but to say the least there were many who 
fought school consolidation by reciting the hazards and inconveniences to their children 
in being transported to the larger schools. Naturally the opposition made the early prog- 
ress rather slow, as will be noted by referring to the table giving the advancements 
from 1915 to 1930. 

Today there is a wide-spread demand on the part of all small school centers for 
transportation to larger centers. This is true for the remaining small schools for the 
white race, and particularly true for the colored race, for the consolidation of the small 
schools. 

PUPILS TO BE TRANSPORTED 

In the beginning of school transportation, it was not necessary to designate by 
legislative enactment, or otherwise, those to be transported. As the State assumed 
greater responsibility for the support of public education, it became necessary for the 
same agency to exercise some control over the pupils to be transported. In 1933, when 
the State assumed the responsibility for the operation of a uniform eight months school 
term throughout the State, legislation was enacted providing for the transportation of 
all children who lived more than two miles from the school to which they were assigned. 
It further provided that a school bus should be operated within one and a half miles of 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 75 

all children who lived more than two miles from the school, unless road or other condi- 
tions made it impractical to do so. In 1935, the General Assembly provided for the 
operation of the school bus within one mile of all children living more than one and a 
half miles from the school to which they are assigned, unless conditions make it inad- 
visable to do so. In so far as has been determined, this is the most generous average 
transportation service provided by any state in the Union. 

CONTROL AND MANAGEMENT OF TRANSPORTATION 

Along with the other operations in public education, the responsibility and control 
of school transportation have gradually changed from local district to county, and 
recently to State. The School Machinery Act of 1935 places with the State School Com- 
mission the authority and the responsibility for the operation of the transportation of 
pupils. The State agency delegates, in so far as possible, this authority to the local super- 
intendent and other associates. There are certain items in the operation which can more 
properly be handled by State authority. The present law makes the matter of selecting 
drivers a responsibility of the local school people. In determining the routes to be fol- 
lowed by the 4,000 school buses, it has been necessary for the State agency to assume 
complete responsibility for this, with the indirect aid of local school officials. The School 
Machinery Act of 1935 placed the routing of buses in the hands of the State School Com- 
mission. It has resulted in marked decrease in the operating mileage, with an improve- 
ment in the average service provided. The very excellent highway maps available under 
a State-maintained system make the routing of buses possible. 

PURCHASE AND MAINTENANCE 

Through a State Department of Purchase and Contract, the State School Commis- 
sion purchases all transportation equipment, including chassis and bodies. The pur- 
chase of repair parts necessary for the maintenance of the equipment is made by local 
officials who are charged with the responsibility, under the supervision and direction of 
the State, of maintaining the equipment while in operation. The responsibility for pro- 
viding funds for the purchase of replacement buses rests with the State. The need 
arising because of the transportation of children, not transported in 1934-35, and to 
relieve the over-crowded present, must be met by the tax levying authorities within the 
county administrative units. The State has the responsibility for purchasing all sup- 
plies and providing all mechanical service necessary for the operation of the transporta- 
tion system. It becomes the duty of the State to provide for the operation of all buses, 
including the additional ones purchased by the counties. 

Within each county, maintenance facilities, including garage and mechanics, are 
provided by the State. Each school bus must be inspected at least every 30 days and a 
written report of its condition filed with the county superintendent of the schools. In 
most instances the equipment is inspected more often, and under a new arrangement for 
the distribution of motor fuels, a large portion of the equipment is carefully inspected 
every other day. The program of improving the transportation facilities through the 
replacement of the old and expensive units by new ones, and a better maintenance of the 



76 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 



equipment in operation, insures better transportation at less cost. Of the total expendi- 
tures for transportation in 1934-35 of $1,883,744, there was spent for replacements a 
total of $688,386, which provided approximately 800 new buses. As a result of this 
replacement program, operating costs were greatly reduced. 

Coming from locally controlled organization with no uniformity in the type of equip- 
ment used in 1931, it has been possible through the State unit system to provide a more 
uniform type of equipment, meeting detailed specifications that will insure greatest 
safety at the lowest cost. The transportation equipment in the State at this time is in 
far better condition than it has ever been. More than 2,500 of the 4,000 units are equipped 
with standard bus bodies that have proved entirely satisfactory in all of the tests that 
have been given them through at least three years' service. North Carolina has been 
able to provide its equipment at an exceedingly low cost, and at the same time has the 
assurance that it is safe and comfortable. 

A State-controlled transportation system, with approximately 3,500 of the 4,000 
units being driven by high school students, with a record of having transported an 
average of 265.000 children in a fleet of 4,000 buses, with a daily operating mileage of 
more than 125,000 miles, for a term of 160 days without a fatal accident, is one of the 
noteworthy features of public education in North Carolina. 



Table XXII 
PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION OF PUPILS IN NORTH CAROLINA 



Year 


Number 

of Schools 

Served 


Number 

of 
Vehicles 


Daily 

Operating 

Mileage 


Number of 

Children 
Transported 


Current 

Operating 

Costs* 


Current 

Cost 
Per Pupil 


Capital 
Ojtlay 
Costs 


1919-1920 




150 


7,936 








1924-1925 




1,909 


40,667 


69,295 


$ 994,611 


$ 14.35 


$ 647,512 


1929-1930 


1,266 


4,046 


108,001 


1 SI, 494 


2,273,287 


12.53 


349,063 


1934-1935 


1,220 


4.035 


124,980 


265,110 


** 1,883,744 


7.00 


68,000 



The current operating costs include all expenditures for purchase of replacement buses. 

Of the total of $1,883,744 costs in 1934-35. SRS3.3S1 was for purchasing replacement buses, with the Federal Govern- 
ment providing $197,000 in a grant on a PWA project. 



LOCAL SUPPLEMENTS 

The descriptions given above of the provisions that have been made for elementary 
and secondary education have reference chiefly to the provisions which have been made 
by the State in guaranteeing a minimum of eight-months schooling. In addition to the 
State funds, twenty-eight cities or combined city and county units have, as provided 
under the law, supplemented the school budget from funds derived from local sources. 
In most instances these funds are derived from general tax levies on property, although 
in one instance they are contributed from private sources. 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 77 

These supplemental funds are used to defray the expenses of an additional month 
of school, to pay higher salaries, to extend the curricula to additional subjects, or to 
pay for additional service of various kinds. 

In addition to these supplemental funds, expended in operation and maintenance, 
the local units bear all expense for capital outlay and for debt service, payment of prin- 
cipal and interest on outstanding indebtedness. 

NEGRO EDUCATION 

The State has made notable progress in providing for the education of its negro 
citizens. Much of this progress has taken place in the last twenty years, since in 1915 
there were no accredited high schools for negroes, either publicly or privately sup- 
ported, no standard colleges, very few teachers who had a college education, school terms 
in rural areas were still only four months, and all buildings and equipment for negroes 
publicly owned would not exceed one million dollars. 

Since 1921, the State normal schools and colleges for negroes have been reorganized, 
their physical plants enlarged, improving scholastic standards, eliminating elementary 
and secondary departments, introducing a full summer term and widespread develop- 
ment of extension courses. 

The number of teachers has increased from 4,196, with an average training far less 
than high school graduation, to 6,600, averaging two and one-half years of college edu- 
cation. The number of accredited high schools in 1920 was eleven, with approximately 
1,500 enrolled pupils. In 1934-35, the number had increased to 120, with 25,000 pupils 
enrolled. 

In 1920, the five State institutions for higher education for negroes enrolled less 
than 100 of college grade. In 1934-35, these same five institutions passed the 2,000 
mark in college enrollments. Similar development has taken place in the eight private 
schools, the total college enrollment in public and private colleges being nearly 4,000. 



VOCATIONAL EDUCATION 

Vocational education became an integral part of the public school system with the 
passage by Congress of the Smith-Hughes Act in February, 1917. In agricultural educa- 
tion, the work is carried out as a planned program of supervised farm practice, extend- 
ing into the years following high school graduation, carried along with courses in agri- 
cultural education. Evening classes in agriculture are conducted for adults, and the Ex- 
tension Service conducted from N. C. State College reaches all classes of farmers and 
every phase of rural life. Approximately 10,000 farmers are being given definite techni- 
cal assistance through these classes. Similar courses in school are provided in Home 
Economics for girls, as well as extension courses for adult women. 

Trade and industrial programs are carried out widely in the industrial centers, 
largely through night classes. From an initial enrollment of 551 students in 1918, the 



78 North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 

movement has grown until in 1934-35, 37,355 students received definite vocational 
instruction, and $534,506.00 was expended on the program. 

OTHER EDUCATIONAL ADVANCES 

Limitations of space will not permit adequate attention in this volume to many other 
advances and developments in the educational activities of the State. Curricula of ele- 
mentary, secondary, and higher schools have been greatly enlarged and extended into 
new fields, in response to the growing demands of changing civilization. The facilities 
of teacher training in the State institutions, colleges and high schools, have greatly im- 
proved, and standards of teacher certification have steadily risen. Textbooks are greatly 
improved and specially adapted to teaching requirements and better pedagogical methods. 
A system of State adoption has worked for better quality and improved standards and 
economy. The library facilities have greatly expanded. From 1904 to 1934 the expendi- 
tures for libraries increased eleven-fold, and in the last ten years the number of 
volumes has tripled. In the last six years, the number of librarians with library train- 
ing has increased from 24 to 282, and the books have been much more wisely adapted to 
the best use of the library. Extension courses conducted by the colleges and universities 
are widely patronized. 

Another significant enterprise which the State has undertaken for education is the 
establishment of a State-wide textbook rental system. Many local districts have enjoyed 
the benefits of this provision, but in 1935 the General Assembly authorized, upon recom- 
mendation of the Governor, the issuance of bonds in the amount of $1,500,000, to estab- 
lish this as a State-wide system. It has long been recognized that the failure of pupils 
to purchase their textbooks promptly and in many instances their inability to purchase 
them, has greatly lowered the efficiency of the schools. 

By careful management and a gradual extension of the service, and the use of 
surplus funds for temporary financing, nearly $1,000,000 worth of books have been pur- 
chased and paid for and made available to the school children. The system has been 
installed in 129 administrative units, and these, together with the 22 local systems already 
in operation, serve all but twenty districts or units in the State. 

Under the provision of the act, children may now rent books at one-third of the 
regular price and indigent children are furnished books free. 

The many advantages of this system are apparent and the venture of the State 
into this field is another index to the progressive attitude of the State administration 
towards education. That this advance has been made possible without the issuance of 
any of the bonds as authorized, is another most noteworthy achievement in administra- 
tive finance. 

As North Carolina approaches the Centennial Celebration of the Inauguration of 
Public Schools, it can do so with pardonable pride. The labors of the educational leaders 
of the past are truly beginning to bear fruit. While much remains to be done, the aroused 
interest of the citizens of the State in the cause of education, and a deeper realization 
of its necessity as a requisite to progress, insures a steady progress in the future. 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 



79 



Table XXIII 
EDUCATIONAL PROGRESS, 1913-14 TO 1935-36 



Items 


1913-14 


1923-24 


1933-34 


1934-35 


Total school expenditure 


$ 5,059,351.00 


$ 29,747,075.84 


$ 19,238,772.81 


$ 21,106,559.47 




Expenditure current expense 


4,157,295.17 


19,078,656.87 


18,296,363.78 


18,969,99*. 14 


Expenditure capital outlay 


902,055.83 


10,688,418.97 


942,409.03 


2,136,561.33 


Value of school property . . 


9,078,703.27 


59,758,005.00 


107,080,903.00 


106,599,972.00 




Average value each schoolhouse 


1,162.74 


8,222.03 


22,152.00 


22,311.00 


Number of log houses 


165 


53 


4 




Number white 1-teacher schools 


3,368 


1,633 


533 




Number teachers and principals 

(A) White 


13,255 

10,082 

3,173 


21,502 

16,382 

5,120 


23,345 
16,814 
6,531 


24,712 

17,038 

7,674 


(B) Colored 


Average monthly salary paid 

(A) White teachers 


39.81 
43.69 
26.75 


99.93 
110.06 

64.83 


72.36 
80.27 
52.02 




(B) Colored teachers 




Average term in days 

(A) White schools . . 


122.0 
124.0 
114.8 


143.4 
146.2 
134.6 


159.3 
160.2 
157.3 


159.9 
160.3 
159.0 


(B) Colored schools 




Total school population 


778,283 
525,107 
253,276 


921,315 
628,132 
293,183 


1,090,287 
749,392 
340,895 


1,099,798 
759,308 
340,490 


(A) White 

(B) Colored 


Total school enrollment 


599,647 


793,046 


895,525 


*892,648 




Total average daily attendance 


408,464 


571,359 


756,768 


761,433 


Per cent population enrolled 


77.2 


86.1 


82.1 


81.2 


Per cent enrollment in average daily 
attendance 


68.2 


72.0 


84.5 


85.3 


Per cent illiteracy 

(A) White 


(a) 18.5 
(a) 12.3 
(a) 31.9 


(b) 13.1 

(b) 8.2 
(b) 24.5 


(c) 10.0 

(c) 5.7 
(c) 20.6 




(B) Colored 



(a) 1910 census. (c) 1930 census. 

(b) 1920 census. *A11 duplicates excluded. 

INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER LEARNING 

While the attention of the State has been largely directed to the development of the 
elementary and secondary phases of education during the last two or three decades and 
the growth and improvement in these has attracted much and nation-wide interest, the 
State has always been well supplied with facilities for advanced study in higher learning 
and the professions. 

The first of these institutions was the University of North Carolina, established in 
obedience to the principles set foi'th in the first State constitution. Chartered in 1789, 
the first building was begun in 1793 and the first students were received in 1795. The 



80 North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 

University thus became the first State University to open its doors. This institution now 
represents an investment of more than $10,000,000. In the century and a half since its 
inception, this great University has touched the lives of thousands upon thousands of 
young men and women, has more than 18,000 living alumni, and now has a student 
body of over 3,000 students. There is here to be found a truly distinguished university, 
pre-eminent in the South and recognized everywhere for the high quality of its scholar- 
ship. Here, in addition to the basic College of Arts and Sciences, will be found the Schools 
of Commerce, Public Welfare, Library, Law, Pharmacy and Medicine, the Divisions of 
Education, Public Health Administration and University Extension. Here will be con- 
centrated the graduate work under the supervision of the Graduate School, reaching 
into the humanities, the natural and exact sciences and the social sciences. Co-educational 
opportunities are provided in the upper college and the professional and graduate 
schools. 

The North Carolina State College of Agriculture and Engineering is a Land-Grant 
College, supported jointly by funds appropriated by both the State and National govern- 
ments. This institution was authorized by the Legislature of 1887, and with one building 
erected, opened its doors in October, 1889. Since that day, it has grown rapidly in 
plant, equipment and numbers. The present plant is valued at nearly $6,000,000. There 
are now 11,000 living alumni and a student body of 2,000 students. 

This institution was formed in response to the needs of the State for training in 
Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts, and has served well in meeting these needs. 

The college is comprised of the Schools of Agriculture and Forestry, Engineering, 
Textiles, and Science and Business. The last named School is being discontinued as a 
school of commerce and business administration. In addition to the Departments of 
Education, Graduate Instruction and College Extension, here is located also the Agri- 
cultural Experiment Station, the Agricultural Extension Service, and one division of 
the Summer School. From this institution the Farm Demonstration and Home Demon- 
stration work for both white and colored farmers is directed. One important part of 
the School of Engineering is the Engineering Experiment Station, and the Textile Re- 
search bears the same relation to the Textile School. Here has been consolidated the 
agricultural, engineering, industrial, and other technological schools of the State. Here 
is found the capacity and facilities for training young men to assist in restoring and 
advancing the dignity and greatness of agriculture, for the intelligent development and 
operation of the many industries, and to provide scientific, technological, social-scientific 
and cultural resources for a wider and wiser social usefulness to a people in a region 
built largely on farms and factories. 

The North Carolina College for Women was established in 1891 under the name of 
The Normal and Industrial School, designed especially for the instruction and training 
of teachers. As opportunities and needs for the wider education of women have in- 
creased, the College has steadily increased in scope and developed until it stands 
today recognized as one of the leading institutions for the education of young women. 
It has a physical property valued at over $7,000,000, a student body of 1,800, and more 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 81 

than 14,000 living alumni. A distinctly Woman's Liberal Arts College, with a complete 
curriculum, three new departments have been recently added : a Department of Classical 
Civilization, with newly added courses in Greek; a Department of Art, and a Depart- 
ment of Philosophy. 

THE GREATER UNIVERSITY 

As in many other American states, these three institutions were founded separately, 
each in response to definite needs of the Commonwealth, and grew to maturity indepen- 
dently. Based on a recognition of their different functional values, the large capital 
investments in separate localities, the need came to be widely recognized for clearer dif- 
ferentiation and coordination of these functions, a better use of the separate invest- 
ments, and a consolidation of values in one greater University. 

The Legislature of 1931 passed an act consolidating and merging the three institu- 
tions into the "University of North Carolina." Recognizing on one hand the unwisdom 
of no consolidation, with consequent diffusion of effort in graduate schools and duplica- 
tion in many departments, and on the other the impossibility of complete physical con- 
solidation with its attendant additional costs of new construction, and losses of invest- 
ment, traditions, loyalty and alumni interest, there has been achieved a notable preser- 
vation of the integrity, purpose and value of all three institutions. 

There is thus provided two years of fundamental and cultural courses throughout 
the three institutions, with an elimination of duplication in either schools or curricula 
on the upper and graduate levels. The basic courses are not uniform, but vary accord- 
ing to the functions of the particular college. Here is presented, on sound working prin- 
ciples, what is undoubtedly bound to become, if indeed it has not done so already, a 
great consolidation of educational facilities unequalled in the South. 

With the consolidated graduate resources of all three institutions, the co-operative 
effort of the Experiment Stations at Raleigh, the Institute for Research in the Social 
Sciences at Chapel Hill, the University Press, the Agricultural Extension Division at 
State College, and the College Extension Divisions of each college, there is provided 
means for learning the needs, developing, using and conserving the resources and en- 
riching the life of all the people of the State and region. 

With the development of further co-operation with other great schools and colleges, 
other than the State institutions, there is now possible the development in North Car- 
olina of one of the greatest intellectual and spiritual centers of the nation. 

In the short time that has elapsed since the passage of the act, much progress has 
been made. There is now provided one Board of Trustees and one Executive Committee 
of twelve members, the Governor being ex officio chairman of the Board and the Com- 
mittee. The executive administration is conducted through one President, with three 
Deans of Administration, one for each college. The business administration is under 
the central direction of one controller. Each institution has its own Faculty Council, 
and representatives of each form of common administrative council. 

The Library School at the Woman's Cor.ege and the School of Science and Business 
at State College have been discontinued, this work being concentrated at Chapel Hill. 



82 North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 

Co-educational opportunities are provided at Chapel Hill and at State College in the 
upper college, professional and graduate levels only. The administration of summer 
schools, graduate schools, and education extension has been consolidated and organized 
on a basis of central direction. No new registrations are now made at the Engineering 
School at Chapel Hill, this work to be transferred as rapidly as possible to State College 
at Raleigh. 

As was to be expected, the cost to the State per resident student has been mate- 
rially reduced. In 1928-29 the average cost from State appropriations per student was 
$316.67. In 1936-37 this will be on the basis of present registration reduced to $200.86. 
A part of this reduction was due, however, to salary reductions. Even if the salaries were 
fully restored, there would still be a saving of $73.27 per student. 

The progress in consolidation has attracted most favorable comment from many 
prominent college and university presidents, notably A. Laurence Lowell, President 
Emeritus of Harvard University, Presidents James R. Angell, of Yale University; 
Nicholas Murray Butler, of Columbia; Robert M. Hutchins, of the University of Chi- 
cago; Frank L. McVey, of Kentucky; L D. Coffman, of Minnesota; and William E. 
Wickenden, of Case School of Applied Science. 

OTHER STATE EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 

The State has also established and maintains three standard four-year colleges for 
the higher education of white students, and two such colleges for the education of 
negroes. The first of these, now known as Western Carolina Teachers College, located at 
Cullowhee, was first established as the Cullowhee High School in 1889. A Normal De- 
partment was installed at State expense in 1893 and in 1905 further enlarged and 
called the Cullowhee Normal and Industrial Institute. At the present time this school 
has a faculty of 35, an enrollment of over 500 students, and a plant valued at nearly 
$1,000,000. 

The Appalachian State Teachers College at Boone, N. C, was established in 1903 
as the Appalachian Training School. It now has an enrollment of over 900 and a 
faculty of thirty-five persons. The school now has a standard four-year college course, 
and for a third of a century has rendered most valuable service in general education and 
particularly in the training of teachers. 

The most recently established of the three colleges is the East Carolina Teachers 
College, located at Greenville, N. C. This institution, which now has a plant valued at 
over $3,000,000, a student enrollment of 1,034 and a faculty of over 50, was authorized 
by the Legislature in 1907 and opened its doors for students on October 5, 1909. This 
college is a qualified member of the Southern Association of Schools and Colleges. 

The Agricultural and Technical College (Colored) at Greensboro and the North 
Carolina College for Negroes at Durham are both standard four-year colleges, estab- 
lished and supported by the State. The first has a plant valued at $1,105,000, enrolls 
565 students and has a faculty of 33. It has long rendered most valuable service to the 






North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 83 

State in the higher education of negroes in agricultural and industrial subjects. The col- 
lege at Durham has a plant valued at $700,000, enrolls 280 students and has a faculty 
of 22. 

The State also maintains the Winston-Salem Teachers College, the Elizabeth City 
State Normal School and the Fayetteville State Normal School, for the normal training 
of negroes. One of these, the Winston-Salem Teachers College, has recently become of 
standard grade, the others still being of Junior College grade. 

The State also maintains the North Carolina School for the Deaf at Morganton, 
the State School for the Blind and Deaf at Raleigh, with separate divisions, plants 
and locations for white and colored students. 

Limitations of space prevent adequate mention of the educational institutions con- 
ducted under private or denominational auspices. Many of these have long and dis- 
tinguished records of service to the State, and in the aggregate far outnumber the State 
institutions in number of students and value of plant and equipment. 

Notable among these is Duke University at Durham, the largest institution of higher 
learning in the State. Privately endowed, with one of the most extensive and beautiful 
campuses in the nation, this institution offers advanced instruction in Law, Medicine, 
Theology, and Engineering, in addition to regular undergraduate courses. Separate resi- 
dence campuses are maintained for men and women, in the number of 3,350, with a 
faculty of 344 distinguished scholars. There is thus provided a most outstanding edu- 
cational resource, of which the State is justly proud. 

Wake Forest College, with 995 students, Davidson College, with 674 students, are 
outstanding examples of denominational colleges for men. Founded in 1834 and 1837 
respectively, with high standards of scholarship, they have each made significant con- 
tributions to the life of the State, many of the greatest leaders in its development 
having come from among their graduates and former students. 

Among the private colleges for women, Meredith College at Raleigh is the leading 
college in size and value of plant. Established as the Baptist Female University in 
1891, this institution moved to a new campus site on the outskirts of the city of Raleigh 
and erected a modern fully equipped plant. With 505 students, a faculty of 46 mem- 
bers, and a plant valued at nearly $2,000,000, this institution provides a high grade 
college training for young women. 

Salem College at Winston-Salem and Queens-Chicora College at Charlotte are both 
excellent colleges for women, with enrollments of well over 300 students and plants and 
endowment valued at over $1,000,000 each. 

A complete list of colleges and junior colleges located in North Carolina is given 
on the following pages. 



84 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow- 



Table XXIV 
INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER LEARNING IN NORTH CAROLINA 

1935-1936 
Standard Four-Year Colleges (White) 



Name 


Location 


Enroll- 
ment 


Faculty 


Endowment 


State 
Appropriation 


Value of 
Plant 


Appalachian State 

Teachers College 


Boone 


907 


35 


$ 


$ 76,000.00 


$ 


Asheville Normal and 
Associated Schools. . . 


Asheville 


414 


27 








AtlanticChristian College 


Wilson . . y. . . . 


358 


19 


320,715.00 




271,357.93 


Catawba College 


Salisbury 


385 


36 


378,124.59 




526,471.70 


Chowan College 


Murfreesboro . . 


115 


20 


55,000.00 




249,215.00 


Davidson College 


Davidson 


674 


40 


1,052,661.00 




1,519,734.00 


Duke University . . . J/. . 


Durham 


3,350 


344 


29,880,267.00 






Elon College 


Elon College . . . 


442 


25 


476,000.00 




1,198,000.00 




East Carolina Teachers 
College 


Greenville 


1,034 


51 




106,365.00 


3,000,000.00 


Flora McDonald College 


Red Springs . . . 


314 


28 


130,064.S3 




283,433.21 


Greensboro College 


Greensboro 


260 


27 


379,025.00 




567,96-t.OO 


Guilford College Guilford College 


347 


23 


566,371.34 J 


474,922.27 


High Point College High Point 


546 


26 


210,000.00 




715,000.00 


Lenoir Rhvne College . . . Hickory 


354 


22 


330,132.00 




632,962.00 


Meredith College 


Raleigh 


505 


46 


488,981.88 




1,914,269.11 


Queens-Chicora College 


Charlotte 


364 


24 


320,000.00 




730,000.00 


Salem College 


Winston-Salem . 


304 


38 


442,845.83 




879,626.35 


University of North V 
Carolina . 


Chapel Hill 


3,028 


277 




655,376.00 


10,000,000.00 


State College of Agri- 
culture & Engineering 
of the University of 
North Carolina 


Raleigh 


1,932 


188 




313,713.00 


5,500,000.00 


Woman's College of the 
University of North 
Carolina 


Greensboro 


1,790 


149 




286,299.00 


6,595,587.00 


Wake Forest College .... 


Wake Forest .... 


995 


38 


2,320,287.45 




946,789.57 


Western Carolina 

Teachers College 


Cullowhee 


509 


35 




52,648.62 


956.7S3.48 






North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 



85 



Table XXIV (Cont'd) 
INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER LEARNING IN NORTH CAROLINA 

1935-1936 
Standard Junior Colleges (White) 



Name 


Location 


Enroll- 
ment 


Faculty 


Endowment 


State 
Appropriation 


Value of 
Plant 


Belmont Abbey College . 
Biltmore College 


Belmont 


125 


20 


$ 275,000.00 




$ 275,000.00 


Asheville 


137 


9 


♦8,460.55 




1,300,000.00 


Boiling Springs Junior 
College 


Boiling Springs . 


132 


12 


4,300.00 




160,000.00 




Brevard College 


Brevard 


448 


26 


60,000.00 




240,000.00 


Campbell College 


Buie's Creek. . . . 


275 


15 


9,000.00 




413,000.00 


Davenport College 

Lees-McRae College .... 


Lenoir 














Banner Elk 


222 


15 


122,054.05 




338,821.94 


Louisburg College 


Louisburg 


262 


16 


58,785.08 




326,949.89 


Mars Hill College 


Mars Hill 


600 


29 


104,998.35 






Mon treat College 


Montreat 


205 


17 






587,971.65 


Mitchell College 


Statesville 


160 


11 


10,000.00 




125,000.00 


Oak Ridge Military In- 
stitute 


Oak Ridge 


150 


12 


91,721.32 




275,300.00 


Peace Junior College. . . . 


Raleigh 


190 


20 


**5,500.00 




350,000.00 


Pheiffer Junior College. . 


Misenheimer . . . 


155 


14 


6,000.00 




300,000.00 


Pineland School for Girls 


Salemburg 


103 


15 


128,000.00 




200,000.00 


Presbyterian Junior Col- 
lege 


Maxton 


116 


9 


20,000.00 




85,000.00 




Rutherford College 


Rutherford Col- 
lege 


58 


5 


70,000.00 






St. Genevieve of the Pines 


Asheville 


52 


13 


205,000.00 




200,000.00 


St. Mary's School 


Raleigh 


157 


14 


139,625.15 




421,463.38 


Wingate Junior College. 


Wingate 


180 


22 






112,857.00 



Tuition Only. 



"Pledged by Presbyterian Church. 



Standard Normal Schools (Indian) 



Name 


Location 


Enroll- 
ment 


Faculty 


Endowment 


State 
Appropriation 


Value of 
Plant 


Cherokee Indian Normal 
School 


Pembroke 


61 


7 




$ 21,215.00 


$ 200,000.00 





86 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 



Table XXIV (Cont'd) 
INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER LEARNING IN NORTH CAROLINA 

1935-1936 
Standard Four- Year Colleges (Colored) 



Name 


Location 


Enroll- 
ment 


Faculty 


Endowment 


State 
Appropriation 


Value of 
Plant 


Agricultural and Tech- 
nical College 


Greensboro 


565 


33 




$ *26,300.00 
37,250.00 


$ 1,105,000.00 


Bennett College for 
Women 


Greensboro 


250 


25 


663,291.00 




691,777.00 


North Carolina College 
for Negroes 


Durham 


280 


22 




37,995.00 


700,000.00 


Johnson C. Smith Uni- 
versity 


Charlotte 


369 


29 


1,751,719.90 




1,045,146.07 


Livingstone College 


Salisbury 


225 


13 


46,500.00 




507,000.00 


Shaw University 


Raleigh 


459 


29 


356,943.25 




637,262.32 


St. Augustine's College. . 


Raleigh 


255 


16 


155,000.00 




560,000.00 


Winston-Salem Teachers 
College 


Winston-Salem . 


428 


19 




52,221.04 


635,052.14 



*Federal Appropriation. 



Standard Junior Colleges (Colored) 



Name 


Location 


Enroll- 
ment 


Faculty 


Endowment 


State 
Appropriation 


Value of 
Plant 


Barber- Scotia College . . . 


Concord 


141 


14 


$ 370,000.00 


$ 


$ 344,890.00 


Elizabeth City State 
Normal School 


Elizabeth City . . 


529 


18 




10,990.00 


489,568.00 


Fayetteville State Nor- 
mal School 


Fayetteville .... 


547 


17 




27,075.00 


460,785.00 


Immanuel Lutheran 
College 


Greensboro 


49 


8 






150,000.00 


Palmer Memorial Insti- 
tute 


Sedalia 


63 


8 


118,000.00 




402,000.00 





Chapter V 

PUBLIC WELFARE IN NORTH CAROLINA 

The Public Welfare system of North Carolina is based on the county as an adminis- 
trative unit, each county maintaining a public welfare board, juvenile court, and a whole 
or part-time superintendent of public welfare. 

A brief review of public welfare work in the State will show the advancement 
made in this field. The North Carolina Board of Public Charities was established in 
1868, but was not notably active for the next two decades, until Captain C. B. Denson 
became secretary of the organization. In 1917, the General Assembly created the North 
Carolina State Board of Charities and Public Welfare, while two years later an act was 
passed which made mandatory the organization of public welfare departments in each 
county and provided for the election of a county superintendent of public welfare. In 
1919, too, a legislative enactment stipulated the creation of juvenile courts in each 
county, with the clerks of superior courts to act as judges. 

Subsequent changes in the State Board of Charities and Public Welfare and modi- 
fications of the welfare system will be discussed more fully under the State and county 
sections of this report. 

PUBLIC AND PRIVATE WELFARE IN NORTH CAROLINA 
The State Board of Charities and Public Welfare is composed of seven members, 
elected by the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Governor, who serves 
as an ex officio member of the Board. The Commissioner of Public Welfare acts as 
Director of the Board, and under the supervision of this officer, too, are conducted the 
activities of county directors of organization, field social work supervisors, consultants 
and field agents on negro work, and the functions of an office staff. 

Under the State Board of Charities and Public Welfare operate the four major 
divisions of Child Welfare, in charge of overseeing institutions for dependent children, 
and related work; the Division of Field Social Work, supervising family case work 
directed toward rehabilitation, and certification for Federal benefits; the Division of 
Institutions and Corrections, responsible for supervision of State penal, correctional and 
charitable institutions; and the Division of Mental Hygiene, which superintends State 
hospitals for mental patients, as well as extending services to schools, juvenile courts, 
county and city welfare units. Working co-operatively with the State and county wel- 
fare authorities are various Federal, State, County and local agencies, where services are 
extended to the people through the county public welfare organizations and State insti- 
tutions, functioning concurrently with the County Superintendent of welfare. 

The county Boards of Charities and Public Welfare are composed of three non-sal- 
aried persons appointed by the State Board, these members advising and assisting the 
State body in the work in the county, making visitations and giving reports as the State 
Board requires, and acting in general advisory capacity to county and municipal authori- 
ties in dealing with problems of dependency, delinquency, distribution of funds, and 
general social conditions. 

The County Board of Education and Board of Commissioners elect the county 
Superintendent of Public Welfare, for a term of two years at a salary designated by 
the electors. In counties of less than 32,000 population the election of this officer is op- 



X 

H 
«! 

P4 







North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 89 

tional, the Superintendent of county schools acting in this capacity ex officio if no 
Superintendent of Public Welfare is named. Duties of the position entail serving as chief 
school attendance officer, joint supervisor of funds for the poor, overseer of paroled 
prisoners, superintendent of dependent and delinquent children, and promoter of whole- 
some recreation. 

As has been mentioned, the county departments of public welfare work co-opera- 
tively with the juvenile courts, county commissioners, county boards of education, farm 
and home demonstration agents, health departments, and various private social, re- 
ligious, civic, patriotic and fraternal organizations. 

PUBLIC COUNTY WELFARE 

To date there are seventy-nine counties in North Carolina that have organized 
welfare departments, with full-time superintendents of public welfare, while in the 
remaining twenty-one counties the superintendent of public instruction acts as ex officio 
superintendent of welfare. 

There has been notable progress in county welfare organization in the State dur- 
ing the last six months. In January, 1936, with the liquidation of ERA, a Federal grant 
was made to the State Board of Charities and Public Welfare for the purpose of 
strengthening the state and county welfare services. With this grant it was possible 
to match funds for establishing full-time departments and to finance the division of Field 
Social Work for eighteen months. Appropriations were made on July 1, in all but six 
of the one hundred counties, for continuing this service, and twenty-five counties elected 
full-time superintendents, taking advantage of this matching of funds. 

County and city expenditures for welfare and relief for the year ended June 30, 
1936, totaled $1,818,939.09, which disbursements were made under the classifications as 
shown in the accompanying table. 

TABLE XXV 

EXPENDITURES FOR WELFARE AND RELIEF FOR YEAR 

ENDED JUNE 30, 1936 



Classification Counties* Cities** Total 

Emergency and Poor Relief $ 619,405.48 $77,635.82 $ 697,041.30 

Mothers' Aid 30,121.57 30,121.57 

Boarding Home Care 23,954.02 8,263.16 32,217.18 

Hospitalization 324,257.85 72,817.09 397.074.94 

Medical Care 98,346,19 62,109.69 160,455.88 

Pauper Burials 40,754.48 3,656.00 44,410.48 

Administrative Costs 240,669.77 35,531.37 276,201.14 

All Other 65,613.66 115,102.94 180,716.60 

(Reported as a Total Only) 700.00 700.00 

Total $1,443,123.02 $375,816.07 $1,818,939.09 



^Expenditures exclusive of County Home and Farm Maintenance for 95 counties. 
**Expenditures for 19 cities of over 10,000 population according to 1930 census. 



90 North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 

COUNTY HOMES 

Eighty-six of North Carolina's hundred counties maintain county homes, support- 
ing a total population, whites and negroes, of 3,448, of which number 123 are children. 
Of these institutions, the buildings and facilities of thirty-seven may be classed as 
adequate for the purposes to be served, while the remaining forty-nine fall somewhat 
below the desired standard. The maintenance of these buildings may be grouped as good, 
fair, and poor, with seventeen of the homes under this rating classed as good, thirty- 
one in the group of fair, and thirty-eight as poor. 

Inmates of the homes receive services of physicians paid by the county, fourteen of 
the institutions listed being visited regularly and sixty-seven visited "on call." In five 
of the county homes a registered nurse administers general medical aid, while eleven 
establishments employ a practical nurse for these services. The remaining homes do 
not retain a full-time nurse, but in eighteen of the counties a matron performs these 
duties. 

The total expenditures for maintenance of county homes in the State for the fiscal 
year 1935-1936 amounted to $676,223.33, while the total value of this property for the 
same period is set at $3,960,355.82. The monthly per capita cost per county for the fiscal 
year 1935-1936 ranged from $6.49 for the lowest cost, to $45.46 for the highest. Annual 
per capita costs for the period ranged from $77.91 for the lowest cost, to $545.49 for 
the highest, these figures being taken from the reports of county auditors. The wide 
variations in per capita costs are partially accounted for by the inclusion in some 
instances of the expense of repairs to buildings. The figures representing value of prop- 
erty and average daily population are admittedly estimates in some cases, but they may 
be accepted in general as fairly accurate. However, in the expenditures listed below, 
some counties were omitted in the computations for 1933 and 1934. 

For the last few years the total operating expenses for these institutions have 
steadily increased. The calendar year 1933 showed expenditures of $500,531.00, and 
1934 revealed an increase to $614,885.00, while in the fiscal year 1935-1936 the total 
amounted to $676,223.33. 

The county home population remains fairly constant, with a long-time trend of 
gradual increase. The average daily population of 3,448 as estimated by auditors is 
somewhat larger than the figure shown by the records of the Division of Institutions and 
Correction of the State Board of Charities and Public Welfare as of June 30, 1936, which 
placed the average at 3,117. This discrepancy is due to the auditors' occasional inclusion 
of prisoners serving sentences at county homes. However, per capita costs are calculated 
on the estimate of 3,448 as average daily population. 

The mean annual per capita cost has increased from $163.92 in 1933 to $193.74 in 
1934, and to $196.09 in 1936. These figures are collected on a comparable basis each year, 
and except for irregular heavy expenditures for improvements to plants, reflect the gen- 
eral expense of the county. Various factors affect the per capita cost in the mass, such as 
the fact that additions and improvements to buildings and grounds, though fluctuating 
from year to year, are included in maintenance. Any overhead cost, such as interest 
on investment, depreciation of property, and insurance, would of course tend to raise 
the expense. Produce grown, which is consumed on the farm, is not included. However, 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 91 

all money received from sale of farm products and turned in to the county treasurer is 
deducted from maintenance cost. The total amount of food consumed is greater than the 
money cost shown, due to consumption of produce raised on the farm. The reports for 
1936 show estimates of $140,434.87 so used. Too, in a few counties the homes operate a 
small tuberculosis section, which would necessarily raise the cost of operation and main- 
tenance from the standpoint of the county home budget, thus increasing to some degree 
their per capita expense. 

In counties where there is no home, the county either boards its wards in the insti- 
tutions of adjoining counties, or else gives them a monthly allowance and ibe wards 
remain in their own homes, that of a relative, or some person in the local community. 

JUVENILE COURTS AND DETENTION HOMES 

The law of the State provides for the maintenance of a juvenile court in each 
county, with clerk of superior court as judge, to hear the cases of children under four- 
teen years of age and children between the ages of fourteen and sixteen years charged 
with a minor offense. 

In North Carolina there are 108 juvenile courts, with clerk of the superior court 
acting in the capacity of judge for ninety-seven of these. Buncombe, Mecklenburg, and 
Durham counties have joint county-city courts, while Raleigh, Wilmington, High Point, 
Greensboro, Winston-Salem, Gastonia, Rocky Mount and Hickory have distinct city 
courts. 

The county superintendent of public welfare acts as chief probation officer for the 
juvenile courts, there being now 100 chief probation officers and 35 assistants in the 
State. 

To prevent the contact of children with adult criminals, the North Carolina statute 
asserts that provision for temporary care of delinquent juveniles shall be made in deten- 
tion homes conducted as an agency of the court, or in private homes, boarding homes or 
other suitable places, such expense as may be incurred to be a public charge of the 
county. 

Of the one hundred counties in the State, sixteen provide detention home care: 
namely, Anson, Beaufort, Buncombe, Cumberland, Davidson, Durham, Forsyth, Gaston, 
Guilford, Johnston, Mecklenburg, Nash, New Hanover, Pasquotank, Rowan, and Wake. 
Detention quarters for these sixteen counties come under four classifications: detained 
in county homes, detained in county jails, detained in city jails, detained in city-county 
juvenile court. Of these classifications, five counties use the county home, seven use the 
county jail, two the city jail, and one county uses the joint city-county court. The 
remaining counties in the State do not offer facilities for this type of care. 

CHILD WELFARE WORK 

In this division, a Director, with a staff of five, has supervision of institutions for 
dependent or neglected children, Maternity and Boarding Homes, administration of 
Mothers' Aid, registration of adoption and supervision of placement. In the first year of 
the biennium ending June 30, 1936, 1,800 children from 450 families received aid, paid 



92 North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 

for out of State and county funds, in equal ratio. This work was carried on in 77 coun- 
ties, and amounted to a total sum of $59,258.08, or an average of $16.43 per family. For 
the second year, the number of counties was 80, the expenditures $62,357.12 and aver- 
age monthly grant $17.16. For the current year there are 84 counties participating. 

At the present time, 13 counties maintain approved boarding homes, used for tem- 
porary care, pending court hearings, or for care of dependent neglected children. In these 
13 counties were 28 licensed homes with capacity for 77 children in all. 

STERILIZATION OF MENTAL DEFECTIVES 

The law now provides that upon the initiative of the governing body or responsible 
head of a State institution, or a Board of County Commissioners, upon request of next 
of kin or legal guardian, and with the approval of the Commissioner of Public Wel- 
fare, the Secretary of the State Board of Health and the Chief Medical Officers of two 
State institutions for either feeble-minded or insane, an operation for sterilization or 
asexualization may be performed. Under the operation of this law from July 1, 1929, 
to July 1, 1936, 332 such operations have been performed. Since the new law went into 
effect there have been 348 new cases presented, of which 8 were rejected. North Caro- 
lina is one of twenty-nine states that have laws permitting sterilization of mental de- 
fectives. 

DIVISION OF MENTAL HYGIENE 

This division during the last biennium made case studies involving many confer- 
ences, examinations and interviews, on 1,150 persons, in State correctional, penal or 
charitable institutions, private institutions and public schools. Cases covered a wide 
range of mental and physical ailments, most of which were matters of mental hygiene. 

Co-operative work was done with Samarcand Manor, where a large percentage of 
the girls were found to be mentally deficient and retarded in school work. Similar work 
was done in other State and private institutions. Work with the public school children 
has shown the very definite need for school and community programs for the special 
benefit of mentally sub-normal children. This division has also rendered valuable serv- 
ices in public addresses concerning mental hygiene. 

PUBLIC AND PRIVATE INSTITUTIONS IN NORTH CAROLINA 

The State of North Carolina operates the following institutions: 

Institutions for Mental Defectives: 

Caswell Training School Kinston 

State Hospital for Insane Negroes Goldsboro 

State Hospital for Insane (Central) Raleigh 

State Hospital for Insane Morganton 

Institutions for Physical Defectives: 

Orthopedic Hospital Gastonia 

Sanitorium Sanatorium 

Western North Carolina Sanatorium Swannanoa 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 93 

Homes for Aged: 

Confederate Women's Home Fayetteville 

Confederate Soldiers' Home Raleigh 

Correctional Institutions: 

Eastern Carolina Training School Rocky Mount 

Stonewall Jackson School Concord 

Home and Industrial School Samarcand 

School for Negro Girls Efland 

Morrison Training School for Negro Boys Hoffman 

Penal and Reformatory: 

Women's Industrial Farm Colony Kinston 

State Prison System 

Schools for Blind and Deaf: 

School for the Blind and Deaf (White) Raleigh 

School for the Blind and Deaf (Colored) Raleigh 

School for the Deaf Morganton 

Seventeen of these institutions, exclusive of the Prison system and the Western 
North Carolina Sanatorium (now building) , were operated as follows : 

Total Capacity 18,590 

Total Number Inmates 17,651 

Total on Waiting List 2,578 

Total Revenues $2,546,058.81 

Total Expenditures $4,433,250.80 

Per Capita Cost per Day $1.18 

ORPHANAGES 

There are twenty-four orphanages in North Carolina, caring for children between 
the ages of two and nineteen years. Reports from fourteen of these institutions indi- 
cate a capacity for 3,216 children. They cared for 3,571 children, expending $858,313.83 
for the fiscal year 1934-35, an average cost per child of $0.71 per day. 

Many of these orphanages have extensive grounds, buildings, staff, and equipment, 
and have developed a very high standard of care and training for their children. Every 
effort is made to approach as nearly as possible to the home atmosphere. 

Closely related to the orphanages are the child-placing agencies, of which there are 
two in the State, placing 208 children in the fiscal year 1935-36, at a cost of $23,000. 

In addition to these, there are two nurseries, two private clinics for the care and 
treatment of crippled children, four private hospitals for the insane, and four maternity 
homes. The data concerning these institutions is incomplete and no effort has been made 
to enumerate them all. Certainly when these institutions are considered and the large 
number of public and private hospitals is noted, it can surely be said that North Caro- 
lina people have been mindful of the needy and unfortunate, young and old, in their 
midst. 



94 North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 

STATE BOARD OF HEALTH 

The North Carolina State Board of Public Health was established in 1877, thus 
becoming the twelfth State Board to be organized in the country. The Board consisted 
of the entire State Medical Society, acted through a committee, and expended an an- 
nual appropriation of $100. From that humble beginning, the work has constantly 
developed, adding from time to time provisions for examinations of public water, organi- 
zation of County Boards, registration of vital statistics, publication of health informa- 
tion, a State Laboratory of Hygiene, distribution of sera and antitoxins, a Bureau of 
Venereal Diseases, school inspection, epidemiology, and other phases of public health 
work. 

The State Board of Health is composed of nine members, four of whom are elected 
by the Medical Society of North Carolina, and five of whom are appointed by the Gov- 
ernor, each for a term of six years. The Board elects a president from its membership, 
and an executive committee consisting of the president and two members. The secre- 
tary-treasurer is elected by the Board from the registered physicians of the State, for 
a term of six years. He is the executive officer of the Board and is known as the State 
Health Officer. This State Health Officer heads the administrative unit which exercises 
the general supervision of the work performed. The work of the Health Department is 
divided into eight divisions which render service to the whole State. They are : Division 
of Laboratories, Division of Industrial Hygiene, Bureau of Vital Statistics, Division of 
Sanitary Engineering, Division of Epidemiology, Division of Preventive Medicine, 
Division of Oral Hygiene, and Division of County Health Work. 

DIVISION OF LABORATORIES 

This division occupies separate quarters in Raleigh, where are manufactured a large 
number of varieties of antitoxins, vaccines, and sera which are distributed daily 
throughout the State. Samples of public water supplies are given regular inspec- 
tion analyses, and many other bacteriological and chemical analyses are made for diag- 
nostic purposes. Perhaps one of the finest services rendered by this division has been 
in connection with the diagnosis of rabies, identification of specimens, and prepara- 
tion of serum for Pasteur treatments. This work and other phases of the work will 
always be regarded as a memorial to Dr. Clarence A. Shore, whose pioneering spirit 
and scientific skill did much to advance the development of the science and growth of 
this division. 

DIVISION OF INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE 

The Division of Industrial Hygiene was organized in 1935, and $10,000 was appro- 
priated and placed in the hands of the State Health Officer for administering this legis- 
lation. An industrial hygiene program was begun with the understanding that the work 
would be taken over by the Public Health Service as soon as Social Security funds were 
available. The work began with the services of a physician and engineer, and later a 
secretary was employed. In 1936, when Social Security funds were made available, an- 
other physician and medical technician were added to the staff. Through the Social 
Security fund $17,500 was added to the $10,000 already in use, making a $27,500 budget. 

Thus far the work of this division of public health has been largely in investigating 
industrial plants with dust hazards, finding out the condition of workers already em- 



North Carolina : Today and Tomorrow 95 

ployed in asbestos textile industries and granite quarries, and giving pre-employment 
examinations to those workers who are about to enter such industries. Examinations 
were also given those employees already working in these industries. 

Since the inauguration of the division, 150 plants involving siliceous dust hazards 
have been surveyed, in conjunction with the United States Public Health Service, five 
asbestos textile plants have been investigated, and one foundry study has been started. 
Five hundred and twenty-five asbestos textile workers and forty-six granite cutters 
were examined during the investigations and X-rays were taken of the chests of all 
examined. Analyses were made of 284 atmospheric dust samples. 

BUREAU OF VITAL STATISTICS 

The Bureau of Vital Statistics of North Carolina was organized in 1913, but no 
report was made before 1914. North Carolina was admitted to the Registration Area 
for Births in 1917. In 1931, the International List of Causes of Death was adopted, 
and deaths are now tabulated by counties and cities according to the legal residence of 
the deceased. 

The personnel of the Bureau consists of the following: The State Health Officer, 
who is ex officio State Registrar of Vital Statistics ; the Deputy State Registrar, who is 
the director of the Bureau of Vital Statistics; and a staff of seventeen clerical and office 
workers. 

The total expenditure for the past year was $21,798.58. 

The primary registration districts of the State are the cities, incorporated towns 
and townships. Local registrars are appointed by the Board of County Commissioners 
and by the Mayors of the towns. All births must be reported to the local registrar 
within five days after birth, and all deaths before burial. These reports must reach the 
State Registrar by the fifth of the month. The local registrars receive a fee of fifty cents 
for each certificate recorded, authorized by the State Board of Heath and paid by the 
county or town treasurer. Burial permits are given by the local registrar. In case of 
a suspicion of unlawful death the coroner should be notified and an inquest held. The 
State Board of Health furnishes the blanks and envelopes for registrars to send 
certificates to the Bureau of Vital Statistics. 

DIVISION OF SANITARY ENGINEERING 

This division consults with and advises public and private officials on questions 
relating to water supply, sewage disposal, and sanitary conditions. All plans and speci- 
fications for public water and sewerage improvements must be approved by the Chief 
Engineer of this Division. Engineers from this office advise and assist the operators 
and technicians attached to these plants. Sanitary and engineering matters relating to 
the enforcement of milk ordinances, malaria control, inspection of cafes, hotels, schools, 
swimming pools, jails, camps, manufacture and sale of bedding, are all administered 
by this division. Another important work has been the construction of modern sanitary 
privies throughout the rural areas of North Carolina. This division assists in the inves- 
tigation of pollution, causes of epidemics, and other matters relating to public health. 



96 North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 

DIVISION OF EPIDEMIOLOGY 

This division collects and analyzes reports of communicable diseases and morbidity 
reports in an effort to anticipate if possible the occurrence of epidemics of disease. 
Studies are made of various epidemics, in order to discover new knowledge of the ways 
in which infection is spread or carried, that intelligent efforts may be made by quar- 
antine and immunization to prevent recurrences or to reduce the ill effects. This division 
also assists and co-operates with other divisions on the control of malaria and venereal 
diseases. 

DIVISION OF PREVENTIVE MEDICINE 

This division publishes the Bulletin of Health, a regular educational pamphlet 
describing the work of the State Board and containing articles on Public Health. Super- 
vision of school health, the practice and education of mid wives, pre-natal care and 
clinics, dissemination of literature on preventable diseases are other important services 
of this division. 

The service to crippled children is so important as to deserve additional description. 

WORK FOR CRIPPLED CHILDREN 

The work for Crippled Children was established in April, 1936, under the Division 
of Preventive Medicine of the State Board of Health. The purpose is to register all 
crippled children of the State, to provide surgical and medical care for these children, 
and to contact those children, under 21 years of age, needing orthopedic and plastic 
surgery care. 

The State Board of Health, with the State Crippled Children's Commission as ad- 
visors, directs the work, which is handled through the North Carolina Orthopedic Hos- 
pital, location for clinics selected by the State Board of Health and general hospitals 
throughout the State. The State Board of Health supervises fifteen orthopedic clinics, 
twelve of which are operated by the Vocational Rehabilitation Department and three 
by the Division for this work. In addition to these fifteen clinics operated by the Divi- 
sion of Crippled Children, the Orthopedic Hospital treats crippled children and also 
conducts one clinic. 

The field supervisors are employed to locate and contact crippled children in their 
homes, to help bring these children to the clinics, and to assist each clinic organization. 
They attempt to locate neglected crippled children, and it is their problem to get an 
understanding between patients, parents, and local officials. The clinics are conducted by 
the nine orthopedic surgeons recognized by the North Carolina Crippled Children's 
Commission. These surgeons are responsible for the necessary orthopedic treatment, 
including operations and after-care. Hospitalization is provided through general hos- 
pitals when it cannot be had at the North Carolina Orthopedic Hospital. There are 
twenty-four general hospitals in which crippled children of this State may be treated 
through the State orthopedic plan. 

All agencies interested in the care of crippled children in the State are represented 
through the North Carolina Crippled Children's Commission, which acts in an advisory 






North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 97 

capacity to the State Board of Health. It is composed of one representative from: the 
State Board of Health, the State Board of Charities and Public Welfare, the State Vo- 
cational Rehabilitation Department, the State Orthopedic Hospital, the State Medical 
Society and Orthopedic Surgeons in the State, the Medical Schools of the State, and 
county crippled children's organizations, and two representatives of the Civic Clubs in 
the State. 

There is a local advisory committee for each State clinic. The Commision, with 
local advisory committee, brings together the Medical, Health, Nursing, and Welfare 
groups in a co-operative movement to carry out the State plan for aiding crippled 
children. 

DIVISION OF ORAL HYGIENE 

The Division of Oral Hygiene conducts mouth health programs in the public 
schools of the State, and the number of schools participating in these services is 
increasing, showing that definite progress is being made. 

For the biennium 1932-1934, there were sixty-five counties benefitting by the mouth 
health programs. During the biennium the dentists examined 144,658, treated 80,977, 
and referred 34,615 to their private family dentists for further treatment. This divi- 
sion delivered 2,597 lectures on mouth health to an approximate attendance of 178,105. 

During the fiscal year 1935-1936, there were twenty-one dentists who rendered 
dental care and mouth hygiene to school children. Of this number four are negroes. 
These services are given the counties that pay one-half the expenses of the twenty-one 
dentists. The counties that have not received these services in the past are realizing the 
aid rendered by them, therefore more of our counties are participating in these oral hy- 
giene programs as arranged by the State Board of Health. For the fiscal year 1934- 
1935, there were thirty-one counties participating in oral hygiene programs. In these, 
a total of 67,550 children were examined, 39,350 children treated, and 15,977 were 
referred to local dentists for treatment. 

For this fiscal year the State appropriated $16,000 for the functions of this division. 
In addition to this State appropriation, appeal was made to the community groups 
throughout the State through lectures on oral hygiene and mouth health. Through con- 
tributions received at the lectures, and other contributions, $28,983 was collected to 
use in this work in addition to the State appropriation of $16,000. 

The above services for the fiscal year 1935-1936 were rendered in thirty-nine coun- 
ties and one city. For this fiscal year the State appropriated $21,000 for this work, 
and in addition to this amount, $40,888.23 was collected from private contributions. 

DIVISION OF COUNTY HEALTH WORK 

The work of the County Health Division consists of the development of local health 
organizations, the approval of budgets, the allocation of State funds, the supervision of 
county health departments, and the formation of policies and programs for the county 
health work. 



98 North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 

For the fiscal year of 1935-1936, there were forty-eight counties, some of which 
were combined to form districts, that had full-time health services. The total amount of 
the appropriation was $553,137.02, of which $71,203.99 was allotted by the State and 
$403,007.36 by the local units. The whole-time personnel consisted of forty-four health 
officers, three other medical officers, ninety-eight nurses, fifty-six inspectors, sixty-four 
clerks and other workers. These figures are exclusive of the cities of Asheville, Rocky 
Mount, Winston-Salem, Greensboro, High Point, and Charlotte. In addition to the forty- 
eight counties, there were five counties with only a nurse or a sanitary inspector as 
director of their local health program. Their total budget was $14,599.73, of which 
$2,341.50 was allotted by the State and $10,218.23 was appropriated by local units. 



98 North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 

For the fiscal year of 1935-1936, there were forty-eight counties, some of which 
were combined to form districts, that had f ull-time health services. The total amount of 
the appropriation was $553,137.02, of which $71,203.99 was allotted by the State and 
$403,007.36 by the local units. The whole-time personnel consisted of forty-four health 
officers, three other medical officers, ninety-eight nurses, fifty-six inspectors, sixty-four 
clerks and other workers. These figures are exclusive of the cities of Asheville, Rocky 
Mount, Winston-Salem, Greensboro, High Point, and Charlotte. In addition to the forty- 
eight counties, there were five counties with only a nurse or a sanitary inspector as 
director of their local health program. Their total budget was $14,599.73, of which 
$2,341.50 was allotted by the State and $10,218.23 was appropriated by local units. 






Chapter VI 
AGRICULTURAL RESOURCES OF NORTH CAROLINA 

SOILS AND ADAPTED CROPS 

The fundamental agricultural resource of any state is the soil. Given a suitable 
temperate climate and a reasonably long growing season, the fertility of the soil and the 
adaptation of crops to make the best use of that fertility will determine the character 
and amount of agricultural wealth which can be produced. The primary step in secur- 
ing the best possible program of classification and use for agricultural lands is there- 
fore a thorough knowledge of the soils and their adaptability to various crop uses. 

North Carolina was one of the first states in the Union to take up a systematic classi- 
fication and mapping of its soil resources. This work was begun thirty-four years ago, 
and in the intervening period more than four-fifths of the total area of the State has been 
mapped and individual reports covering the soils and agriculture of each county in 
which the work has been completed have been issued and are available for consultation. 
Furthermore, because of the similarity of soils in the same regions, identification of 
soils in particular areas of the remaining counties can be readily made and their best 
adaptation determined. 

SOILS 

Soil scientists have come to the conclusion that the soil is largely a product of cer- 
tain environmental factors, such as temperature, rainfall, topography, drainage, nat- 
ural vegetation, and soil organisms. These factors impress themselves on the soil in 
varying degrees, depending upon time and the character of the parent geological ma- 
terial. For example, the soil derived from the granitic rocks of western North Carolina, 
where the temperatures are lower than in the Piedmont area, consists mainly of brown 
loams, with yellowish-brown friable subsoils. Identical rocks in the warmed Piedmont 
give rise to red clay loams or sandy loams, with compact red clay subsoils. 

The climatic factors in North Carolina are very favorable, with generally a long 
growing season and abundant rainfall. The season in the eastern portion of the State 
is sufficiently early for the production of potatoes and truck vegetables for the early 
markets, and sufficiently long to allow for a second crop on the same land. About two- 
thirds of the State has a growing season long enough to produce cotton, this crop be- 
ing grown in regions where the mean annual temperature is 58° or higher. The grow- 
ing season throughout the State is long enough to permit the grazing of livestock 
through the greater part of the year, and except for a small area in the mountains, 
the winters are sufficiently mild to require little shelter for cattle and to allow for 
the grazing of cold-resistant grasses, clovers and dried forage. Even in those parts of 
the mountains where the season is short and temperatures low, the soils are fertile and 
well adapted to forage and short season crops. There are occasional dry seasons during 
which crops suffer from lack of moisture, and the flat eastern portion of the State some- 
times further suffers from excessive rains, but moisture conditions are generally favor- 
able. There are very few crop failures from these causes, and crops are seldom seri- 
ously damaged by hail or wind, or by abnormal frosts. 



100 North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 

SOIL DIVISION 

Soils may be classified physiographically by provinces, such as the Coastal Plain, 
and by divisions. 

Soils of North Carolina will fall in the following classifications: 

River Flood Plains Piedmont Plateau 

Bottoms subject to overflow Soils from Crystalline Rocks 

Second Bottoms or Terraces Slate Belt 

„ , , n , . Triassic Sandstone and Shale 

Coastal Plain 

Flatwoods Mountain 

Upper Coastal Plains Valley Soils 

Sand Hills Mountain Soils 

Although these soil provinces and divisions are still used, the soil scientists prefer 
to distinguish soils as being in one of two divisions known respectively as the Pedalfer 
group (soils of humid regions containing accumulations of aluminum and iron), and 
as the Pedocal group (soils of arid and semi-arid regions containing accumulations of 
lime). 

The Pedalfer soils are further divided into groups according to climate as follows : 

Soil Group Climate Natural Vegetation 

Tundras Frigid Sedges, Mosses, Shrubs 

Podzols Cold Temperate Northern Evergreen Forests 

Brown Forest Temperate Deciduous Forest 

Prairie Temperate Tall Grasses 

Red and Yellow Warm Temperate Mixed Forests 

Laterites Sub-Tropical Mixed Forests 

The soils of the Coastal Plain, Piedmont and Low Mountain Valley areas in North 
Carolina belong mainly to the Red and Yellow soil group. The true mountain soils of 
the Brown Forest group, and some Podzal soils are found at higher altitudes subject 
to lower temperatures. Some soils in New Hanover and Brunswick counties are nearly 
Lateritic in type. 

Each soil is further divided into types based on texture and depth, and according 
to the proportions of sand, silt and clay, as coarse sand, fine sandy loam, clay loam, 
sandy clay, etc. 

The following table is presented to show the extent of each individual soil group, 
and the largest types in each group as estimated for North Carolina. 

Table XXVI 

EXTENT OF VARIOUS SOIL GROUPS IN NORTH CAROLINA 

COASTAL PLAIN Acres 

Group 1. Well Drained Sandy Loams 4,330,000 

Norfolk Fine Sandy Loam 1,700,000 

Norfolk Sandy Loam 1,360,000 

Group 2. Fairly Drained Sandy Loams to Silt Loams 850,000 

Dunbar Fine Sandy Loam 245,000 

Dunbar Very Fine Sandy Loam 202,000 









North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 101 

Group 3. Poorly Drained Sandy Loams 1,800,000 

Portsmouth Fine Sandy Loam 592,000 

Coxville Fine Sandy Loam 285,000 

Coxville Very Fine Sandy Loam 188,000 

Group 4. Poorly Drained Loams to Clays 1,009,000 

Portsmouth Loam 368,000 

Coxville Silt Loam 316,000 

Bladen Loam 100,000 

Group 5. Well Drained Sands 2,105,000 

Norfolk Sand 1,130,000 

Norfolk Fine Sand 532,000 

Norfolk Sand (Sandhill Phase) 237,000 

Group 6. Poorly Drained Sands 683,000 

Portsmouth Sand 304,000 

Portsmouth Fine Sand 241,000 

Group 7. Organic Soils 921,000 

Peat 593,000 

Muck 327,000 

Group 8. Miscellaneous 1,380,000 

Swamp Soil 1,156,000 

PIEDMONT REGION Acres 

Group 1. Sandy Loams with Red Clay Subsoils 2,172,000 

Cecil Sandy Loam 1,464,000 

Cecil Fine Sandy Loam 390,721 

Group 2. Loams and Silt Loams with Red Clay Subsoils. . . . 1,530,000 

Georgeville Silt Loam 658,000 

Group 3. Red Clays to Clay Loams 3,217,000 

Cecil Clay Loam 1,960,000 

Cecil Sandy Clay Loam 416,000 

Group 4. Sandy Loams with Yellow Subsoils 1,800,000 

Durham Sandy Loam 385,000 

Appling Sandy Loam 348,000 

Wilkes Sandy Loam 186,000 

Group 5. Loams and Silt Loams with Yellow Subsoils ... 935,000 

Alamance Silt Loam 444,000 

Alamance Gravelly Silt Loam 140,000 

Group 6. Blackjack Soils 473,000 

Iredell Loams 240,000 

Iredell Fine Sandy Loams 121,000 

MOUNTAIN REGION Acres 

Group 1. Upland Sandy Loams 335,000 

Porters Sandy Loam 224,000 

Group 2. Upland Loams to Clay Loams 3,532,000 

Porters Loam 1,384,000 

Porters Stony Loam 964,000 

Ashe Loam 483,000 

Group 3. Non Agricultural Soils 490,000 

Group 6. Low Valley Clays 474,000 

Other Groups 145,000 

In addition to the above, there are 1,136,000 acres in Bottom Lands, and 514,000 
acres in second terraces. 

EXPLANATORY NOTES 

Numbers on legend of Plate XIV refer to types of soil as shown below. 

Symbol 
No. CLASS OF SOIL 

1. High Mountain Soils 

Mainly Ashe; includes small areas of Porters, Chandler, Talladega, Ranger, rough stony land, 
rock outcrop 

2. Mountain Soils 

Mainly Porters; includes small areas of Ashe, Chandler, Talladega, Burton, Clifton, Ranger, 
Habersham, Hartsells, Hagerstown, rough stony land, rock outcrop, Toxaway, Congaree 



102 North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 

3. Red Clay Loams and Sandy Loams 

Mainly Cecil; includes small areas of Talladega, Madison, Louisa, Surry, Durham, Appling, 
Wilkes, Helena, Congaree, Toxaway, Worsham, Wehadkee 

4. Rough Stony Land and Rock Outcrop 

5. Gray Sandy Loams 

Durham, Appling, Wilkes, Helena; some Cecil, Congaree 

6. Davidson Clay and Clay Loam 
Includes Rabun clay loam in mountains 

7. Black Jack Soils 

Iredell, Mecklenburg, some Orange, Wilkes 

8. Slate Soils 

Georgeville, Alamance, Orange, Herndon, Goldston; includes some Helena, Wilkes 

9. Gray Soils from Sandstone 

Mainly Granville and White Store; includes some Wadesboro, Penn 

10. Red Soils from Sandstone 

Mainly Wadesboro and Penn; includes some Granville, White Store, Congaree, Bermudian 

11. Second Bottom Soils 

Wickham, Altavista, Roanoke, Cape Fear, Cahaba, Kalmia, Myatt, Okenee, Leaf 

12. Sandhills 

Norfolk, Hoffman, Ruston, Kalmia, Guin 

13. Well to Fairly Well Drained Sandy Loams and Silt Loams 

Mainly Norfolk; includes Marlboro, Ruston, Orangeburg, Greenville, Craven, Cuthbert, Susque- 
hanna, Guin, Chesterfield, Bradley, Dunbar, Keyport, Onslow, Lenoir, Lufkin, Moyock, Elkton 

14. Sands 

Mainly Norfolk; includes Ruston, Orangeburg, Portsmouth, Hyde, Blanton, St. Lucie, Lakewood, 
Plummer, Onslow, St. Johns, Leon 

15. Poorly Drained Sandy Loams, Loams and Silt Loams 

Portsmouth, Hyde, Coxville, Bladen, Elkton, Susquehanna, Plummer, St. Johns, Parkwood 

16. Swamp and First Bottoms 

Peat, muck, Ochlocknee, Thompson, Johnston, Chastain 

CROP ADAPTATION 

As a result of many years of investigation, it is possible now to know in advance 
what crops are most suited to each of the many types of soils listed above, and to de- 
termine the proper kind and amount of fertilizer which must be used to secure certain 
crop production. This information has recently been published in very comprehensive 
form. (See Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 293). This information is most 
significant in pointing the way for a sound plan of promoting the growth of adapted 
crops and for establishing hitherto untried types of farming based upon specific soil 
requirements. 

On Plate XIV will be found a map showing the crops adapted to various classes of 
soil in North Carolina, and accompanying notes showing the specific soil types to which 
these crops are best adapted. Reference should be had also to Extension Bulletin No. 
208, in which will be found outlined an agricultural production program for each of 
eleven districts in the State. These programs are based on the type of farming gen- 
erally practiced, and are designed to supply certain needs common to agriculture of the 
whole State. 

AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION 

One of the symbols on the Great Seal of the State of North Carolina is a cornucopia, 
or "horn of plenty." Pouring forth are fruits and vegetables of all kinds, representing 
the wide range of agricultural commodities that are raised here. 




, iftRIES, BUNCH 
■kS, DEWBERRIES, 
/ANS, STRAWBER- 
ABLES, VELVET 

)RN, CRIMSON CLOV- 
" , AND OATS. 

'RlES, BUNCH GRAPES, 
^S, PEACHES, RYE, SWEET 
iT BEANS, AND WATERMELONS. 
ATS, PEANUTS, AND VETCH. 



SSES, IRISH POTATOES, 
~± STRAWBERRIES, SWEET 

ES, COWPEAS, RYE, AND 



WELL DRAINED- CORN, 

AN" VEGETABLES. 

j' WELL DRAINED- COWPEAS, 



PLATE No. XIV 
CHAPTER VI. 



102 North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 

3. Red Clay Loams and Sandy Loams 

Mainly Cecil; includes small areas of Talladega, Madison, Louisa, Surry, Durham, Appling, 
Wilkes, Helena, Congaree, Toxaway, Worsham, Wehadkee 

4. Rough Stony Land and Rock Outcrop 

5. Gray Sandy Loams 

Durham, Appling, Wilkes, Helena; some Cecil, Congaree 

6. Davidson Clay and Clay Loam 
Includes Rabun clay loam in mountains 

7. Black Jack Soils 

Iredell, Mecklenburg, some Orange, Wilkes 

8. Slate Soils 

Georgeville, Alamance, Orange, Herndon, Goldston; includes some Helena, Wilkes 

9. Gray Soils from Sandstone 

Mainly Granville and White Store; includes some Wadesboro, Penn 

10. Red Soils from Sandstone 

Mainly Wadesboro and Penn; includes some Granville, White Store, Congaree, Bermudian 

11. Second Bottom Soils 

Wickham, Altavista, Roanoke, Cape Fear, Cahaba, Kalmia, Myatt, Okenee, Leaf 

12. Sandhills 

Norfolk, Hoffman, Ruston, Kalmia, Guin 

13. Well to Fairly Well Drained Sandy Loams and Silt Loams 

Mainly Norfolk; includes Marlboro, Ruston, Orangeburg, Greenville, Craven, Cuthbert, Susque- 
hanna, Guin, Chesterfield, Bradley, Dunbar, Keyport, Onslow, Lenoir, Lufkin, Moyock, Elkton 

14. Sands 

Mainly Norfolk; includes Ruston, Orangeburg, Portsmouth, Hyde, Blanton, St. Lucie, Lakewood, 
Plummer, Onslow, St. Johns, Leon 

15. Poorly Drained Sandy Loams, Loams and Silt Loams 

Portsmouth, Hyde, Coxville, Bladen, Elkton, Susquehanna, Plummer, St. Johns, Parkwood 

16. Swamp and First Bottoms 

Peat, muck, Ochlocknee, Thompson, Johnston, Chastain 

CROP ADAPTATION 

As a result of many years of investigation, it is possible now to know in advance 
what crops are most suited to each of the many types of soils listed above, and to de- 
termine the proper kind and amount of fertilizer which must be used to secure certain 
crop production. This information has recently been published in very comprehensive 
form. (See Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 293). This information is most 
significant in pointing the way for a sound plan of promoting the growth of adapted 
crops and for establishing hitherto untried types of farming based upon specific soil 
requirements. 

On Plate XIV will be found a map showing the crops adapted to various classes of 
soil in North Carolina, and accompanying notes showing the specific soil types to which 
these crops are best adapted. Reference should be had also to Extension Bulletin No. 
208, in which will be found outlined an agricultural production program for each of 
eleven districts in the State. These programs are based on the type of farming gen- 
erally practiced, and are designed to supply certain needs common to agriculture of the 
whole State. 

AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION 

One of the symbols on the Great Seal of the State of North Carolina is a cornucopia, 
or "horn of plenty." Pouring forth are fruits and vegetables of all kinds, representing 
the wide range of agricultural commodities that are raised here. 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 103 

North Carolina's natural resources, translated in terms of agricultural products, 
are limited to no one section of the State and have a permanent value which, although 
it varies from year to year, ranks among the highest in the entire union. 

This State's crops have approximated the half-billion-dollar mark in the past, nota- 
bly during the period immediately following the World War, when inflation was at 
its height. However, North Carolina's crops are always worth more than those of all 
the New England states combined. This statement will serve to show the natural ad- 
vantages which accrue to North Carolina and find expression in its field products. 

North Carolina, in 1935, ranked fifth in the value of its farm products, while it 
ranked third in the matter of gross income and third in cash income. Practically every 
crop that can be raised between Florida and the frigid areas of the far north can be 
raised in North Carolina, to a greater or less degree. 

There was a time when North Carolina, in common with the other southern states, 
was dependent upon cotton for the bulk of its farm income. This is no longer the case. 
Through voluntary reduction, this State has gradually cut its cotton acreage and, at 
the same time, it has seen fit to take advantage of other crops. Here is an example of 
this: last year, that is, in 1935, the total cash or sales value of North Carolina's farm 
products, including 78 crops, was $281,504,000. Of this amount, only $32,873,000 repre- 
sented the gross income from cotton lint. This does not mean that North Carolina has 
not held its own as a cotton producing state, but rather has placed cotton in its proper 
place, as a part of a balanced agricultural system. North Carolina voluntarily reduced 
its cotton acreage 48 per cent, beginning in 1926, bringing the total down from 1,802,- 
000 to 903,000. This does not mean that North Carolina has abandoned its cotton crop. 
On the other hand, its farmers have recognized one of the most important economic 
laws and have governed themselves accordingly. 

COTTON 
Cotton, then, continues to be one of the State's leading crops. In 1919, it brought 
as high as 35 cents a pound, while the total value of the crop in this State that year 
was $130,000,000. In 1923, the total was $149,000,000, but that was in a period of infla- 
tion, before the stabilizing influences recently brought into play were put into operation 
or even contemplated. 

North Carolina always has and always will offer the cotton farmer inducements, 
if the cotton farmer in turn accepts sound economic principles and puts them into prac- 
tice. The average yield per acre in this State has run as high as 328 pounds. Cotton is 
raised in abundance and with success over a vast area of the State, principally in the 
counties from Chatham, Durham, Granville and Moore to the coast, and along the 
southern border counties, from Robeson to Polk and northward into Alexander, Ire- 
dell, Davie, and Davidson. Very little is raised on the coast. 

While North Carolina has been gradually swinging away from its dependence upon 
cotton, especially during the past decade, yet this is one staple crop that will never be 
altogether abandoned. On the contrary, it will be more judiciously utilized; it will become 
the North Carolina farmer's servant but never again his master, unless present 
indications fail. 

As early as 1708, North Carolina seems to have grown enough cotton to supply 
clothes for at least one-fifth of its population at that time, but it appears from the best 



104 North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 

available records that cotton growing was first introduced into the State by Sir John 
Yeaman, along the Cape Fear River, in 1685, when he was placed in charge of Clar- 
endon County. Each colonist grew a small patch, which was picked, carded and spun, then 
woven into cloth or knitted into hose for the members of the family. At that time, 
growing, ginning, spinning and weaving were all done by hand on the farm. Ginning 
was one of the evening's chores, performed by the "shoe-full." Little or no cotton was 
sold in North Carolina at that time. 

In this connection,- it is interesting to note that in 1789 Nathaniel Macon, then 
a member of Congress from this State, proposed a tariff on cotton, to protect the 
southern states against importations from the West Indies and Brazil. This bill was 
defeated. 

North Carolina's cotton history is linked with Eli Whitney's gin, which invention 
revolutionized the conversion of the raw material into the finished product. It was not 
until this device was perfected and put into use that cotton manufacturing became an 
"industry." It may be stated in passing that the North Carolina Legislature of 1804 
bought the patent rights — which Whitney himself peddled around — for this State, pay- 
ing $30,000 for them. They cost South Carolina $50,000. 

In 1790 the price of cotton in North Carolina was 26 cents a pound. Nine years 
later it was 44 cents. Cotton patches grew into 1,000-acre fields. The planters of a few 
acres in 1780 had become landlords of vast estates by the beginning of the nineteenth 
century. 

From 1801 to 1910, cotton production in North Carolina grew as follows: 

1801 8,000 bales 1850 73,845 bales 

1811 14,000 bales 1860 145,514 bales 

1821 20,000 bales 1870 144,935 bales 

1826 20,000 bales 1894 479,441 bales 

1834 19,000 bales 1900 502,825 bales 

1910 675,000 bales 

Three times since 1910 production has exceeded a million bales, in 1911, 1923, and 
1925. 

The lowest total received for a cotton crop was $2,431,643 in 1900. 

TOBACCO 

Another agricultural pursuit in North Carolina that furnishes the raw material 
for one of the world's biggest industries is tobacco farming, which in the past several 
years has become more nearly stabilized than ever before. This is a crop that involves 
billions of dollars, including the receipts from tobacco sales and receipts from the out- 
put of the mammoth factories located in North Carolina. 

Tobacco has presented its knotty problems, but the trend has been toward a more 
intelligent handling of this product, both on the part of the farmer and his advisers. 
North Carolina holds first place in tobacco production, and there is every indication 
that it will continue to do so. Acreage and production adjustments of the past quad- 
rennium do not mean that North Carolina will relinquish its leadership in tobacco pro- 
duction. These readjustments have only served to insure a perpetuation of that leader- 
ship, by making it possible for the farmer to continue to raise the vast amounts 
necessary, at a reasonable profit. 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 105 

Hundreds of millions of dollars have been realized from tobacco in North Carolina 
in past years. As far back as 1866 the crop, at 14.3 cents a pound, brought $5,637,618. 
The largest amount ever reported from a single year's crop was $174,333,000 in 1919, 
when the average was 53.6 cents a pound. In 1931-32, prices dropped to where the sea- 
son's average for the entire State was only 9.16 cents a pound. In 1935 the average 
was 20.3 cents a pound, the crop of 577,435,000 pounds bringing $117,443,000, while 
the previous season the average was 28.5 cents, and the State's 416,840,000 pound crop 
yielded a total income of $118,808,000. The 1933 value was a little better than $86,- 
000,000, the two following years showing a healthy increase. The 1936 season started 
off with average prices better than 21.93 cents a pound. 

Tobacco is raised extensively over the northern Piedmont section of the State and 
the central part of the Coastal Plain, also along the South Carolina border, and (bur- 
ley) in the mountain areas. For all time it has been one of the State's leading crops, but 
not until comparatively recent years has its income surpassed that yielded by cotton. 
Tobacco is now first and cotton second, in point of revenue received by the State's 
farmers. 

There are forty tobacco markets in North Carolina, each with adequate warehouse 
facilities, where farmers can take their product and sell it at prevailing prices. These 
are distributed throughout four belts. There is the belt known as the "Old Bright Belt," 
in which are the market towns of Burlington, Mebane, Durham, Winston-Salem, Louis- 
burg, Oxford, Sanford, Aberdeen, Carthage, Roxboro, Madison, Reidsville, Stoneville, 
Mount Airy, Henderson, Fuquay Springs, Wendell and Warrenton. 

In the belt known as the "New Bright Belt" are found Washington, New Bern, Wal- 
lace, Tarboro, Ahoskie, Smithfield, Kinston, Robersonville, Williamston, Rocky Mount, 
Farmville, Greenville, Goldsboro, and Wilson. 

Next is what is knwn as the "Border Belt," in which are located the market towns 
of Clarkton, Chadbourn, Fair Bluff, Tabor City, Whiteville, Fairmont, and Lumberton; 
while the tobacco of the "Burley Belt" is sold principally at Asheville. 

Table XXVII 
NORTH CAROLINA TOBACCO WAREHOUSE SALES REPORT 

1935-1936 



Belt Markets Warehouse Total Sales Average Price 

Old Bright Belt 18 73 $218,940,801 $19.50 

New Bright Belt 14 66 316,364,709 20.86 

South Carolina Belt 7 30 80,446,170 20.54 

Burley Belt 1 3 2,929,410 21.30 

STATE SUMMARY 

To October 1, 1936 30 139 144,979,781 21.93 

Season 

1935-1936 40 172 618,681,090 20.34 

1934-1935 157 438,324,510 28.44 

1933-1934 148 564,628,084 15.93 

1932-1933 136 321,192,969 11.98 



106 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 



CORN 

Corn, one of the great crops of the State, from which $32,016,000 was realized 
in 1935, is grown in every one of the one hundred counties that comprise North Car- 
olina. It was found here when the white man came, and it has remained a staple crop, 
with annual production ranging from 20,000,000 to 60,000,000 bushels, dating as far 
back as the close of the Civil War. Corn has brought as high as $1.85 a bushel, but 
that was in 1919. The previous year, 1918, the last year of the World War, it brought 
the enormous sum of $112,625,000. 

With corn growing in every county, North Carolina finds itself in a position where 
it should never import a single grain. Some of the finest corn land to be found anywhere 
in the world is found in this State. 



MINOR CROPS 

Thus there has been presented to the reader a picture of what are commonly ac- 
cepted as the three "staple" crops in North Carolina. But these do not complete the 
agricultural picture of the State by any means. 

Here are the crops that are successfully raised in North Carolina: 



Alfalfa 


Cranberries 


Mint 


Soybeans 


Apples 


Cabbage 


Onions 


Strawberries 


Artichokes 


Cucumbers 


Oats 


Sweet Potatoes 


Asparagus 


Cherries 


Okra 


Snap Beans* 


Barley 


Peaches 


Pears 


Spinach 


Beets 


Celery 


Parsnips 


Sugar Cane 


Blackberries 


Collards 


Peanuts 


Sorghum 


Blueberries 


Dewberries 


Pumpkins 


Squash 


Butterbeans 


English Peas 


Plums 


Thyme 


Buckwheat 


Egg Plants 


Peppers 


Tobacco 


Carrots 


Figs 


Parsley 


Turnips 


Cauliflower 


Hay 


Quinces 


Tomatoes 


Cotton 


Irish Potatoes 


Radishes 


Velvet Beans 


Cowpeas 


Kale 


Lettuce 


Vetch 


Cantaloupes 


Kudzu 


Rape 


Watermelons 


Chard 


Lespedeza 


Rye 




Clover 


Mustard 


Raspberries 





Why this variety of crops, successfully raised? One outstanding reason is the 
ideal climate prevailing in North Carolina. Climate is essentially a ruling factor in 
the agricultural world. 

North Carolina, agriculturally, climatically, and in some other respects, is divided 
into three grand-divisions, each with its distinct agricultural advantages. Consider briefly 
these three sections, known as the Coastal Plain, the Piedmont Region, and the Mountain 
Region, in relation to their agricultural opportunities. 

A variety of crops thrive in the mountainous regions of the State, including corn, 
wheat, tobacco and vegetables of many kinds. The annual mean temperature for the 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 107 

entire region is 55 degrees, and tornadoes are unknown. These conditions not only en- 
courage agricultural pursuits but make this section one of the playgrounds of America. 

The chief agricultural products of the Piedmont are grain, including wheat, rye, 
oats and buckwheat; fruits, vegetables, tobacco and cotton. Apples grow in abundance 
here as in the higher regions, while in some sections peaches thrive, as well as grapes. 
The Sand Hill Region, which lies between the higher levels of the Piedmont and the 
Coastal Plain, is noted for the millions of bushels of peaches, shipped annually to north- 
ern and eastern markets; and it is in this section that the opportunity exists for the 
establishment of large canneries, in order that the fruit may be preserved at the place 
where it is grown instead of being shipped away to be processed. Inquiry into this 
situation on the part of prospective operators would disclose conditions ideal for those 
wishing to come to North Carolina for this purpose. Also, in the Sand Hills dewberries 
grow in abundance, large and luscious, capable of furnishing natural juices in great 
abundance. This small fruit also is canned and preserved with great success, and thus 
processed is very useful for winter consumption. 

Considering for a moment the agricultural advantages of central and southeastern 
North Carolina, there is found here a vast area comprising 22,000 square miles, 
where climatic conditions are favorable and opportunities abound. This section in- 
cludes some of the richest farming lands in eastern America, and due to the abundance 
of early truck produce here, the opportunity also exists for the establishment of can- 
neries in this section of the State, which supplies the tables of many large cities with 
some of the finest strawberries to be found anywhere in the world. Among these is 
the famous Blakemore variety, recently developed by the State Department of Agri- 
culture in co-operation with the State College of Agriculture and the United States 
Department of Agriculture, on the Coastal Plain Test Farm at Willard. The Missionary, 
the Klondyke and other well-known berries are shipped from this section, but they could 
just as easily be canned and preserved in the areas in which they are grown, under con- 
ditions that are ideal for manufacturing sites, both as to location, natural advantages, 
and the best of transportation facilities to outside markets. 

During the past three years, the value per acre for strawberries has grown to $242, 
from less than $200. This eastern North Carolina crop is worth commercially approx- 
imately $2,000,000 a year, and with the heartening conditions that are confronting agri- 
culture, promise to be worth more in the future, especially with the steady development 
of larger and better berries. 

Referring again to the advantages of this central-southeastern section of the State, 
it is pointed out that zero temperatures here are unknown. The date of the first killing 
frost varies from October 15th, on the western border of the area, to November 15th at 
Southport, where the annual mean temperature is well above 60 degrees. Some winters 
pass without temperatures much below the freezing point. This means an exceptionally 
long growing season. Some of the largest and most productive farms in the State are 
found in this section, where cotton, corn, peanuts, tobacco, soybeans, potatoes, and a 
profusion of early truck are grown annually. 



108 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 



Below are given some of North Carolina's outstanding opportunities in the form 
of diversified crops and the amounts of money each brought in 1935, according to figures 
appearing in one of the publications of the State Department of Agriculture : 



Winter Wheat $5,146,000 

Oats 2,649,000 

Barley 198,000 

Rye 426,000 

Buckwheat 46,000 

Sorghum, for syrup 956,000 

Sorghum, for forage 324,000 

Irish Potatoes 5,557,000 

Sweet Potatoes 5,600,000 

Clover Seed 576,000 

Clover and Timothy 952,000 

Alfalfa 240,000 

Lespedeza 1,256,000 

Soybeans, for hay 2,159,000 

Cowpeas, for hay 1,265,400 

Peanuts, for hay 1,900,000 

Annual legumes 5,324,400 

Grains cut for hay 742,500 

Miscellaneous tame hay ... 1,170,000 

All tame hay (total) 9,519,000 

Wild hay 214,000 

All hay 9,733,000 



Soybeans for grain 

(equivalent sold) less hay 1,232,000 
Soybeans, total 

(equivalent sold) less hay 3,080,000 

Cowpeas, less hay 1,162,000 

Peanuts, total 8,758,800 

Apples (agricultural total) . . 3,061,000 

Apples (commercial) 600,000 

Peaches 2,095,000 

Pears 200,000 

Grapes 251,000 

Pecans 157,000 

Snap beans 562,000 

Cabbage 164,000 

Cantaloupes 202,000 

Cucumbers 176,000 

Green peas 141,000 

Tomatoes •. 101,000 

Watermelons 234,000 

Peppers 128,000 

Strawberries .• . . . 1,694,000 



The truck crops reported above do not include home gardens nor production from 
sections not recognized as commercial shipping areas. 

From this summary, however, the prospective settler in North Carolina may be 
quick to sense numerous opportunities for specializing in the production of certain 
crops which are easily grown in the State and which have not been raised in quanti- 
ties sufficient to glut the markets. In the general trend which has shown such fruitful 
results in North Carolina during the past few years, it is essential that crops be adapted 
to the needs of the people and that the people supply themselves with those commodities 
which can be most easily and economically produced. 

No section of the United States is better suited to the production of pecans, which 
present such an outstanding opportunity, than North Carolina. Already this industry 
has gained a foothold and proved profitable in several sections, but there is room for 
the expansion of this industry. While many trees yielding other products run their 
course and die within a comparatively short time, the pecan tree is young at 25 years 
and often lives to be more than 100 years old, sometimes even 200. It has been 
demonstrated that a few well-cared for pecan trees will pay the taxes on an average 
farm. They require little attention except in the early stage. A tree in Scotland County 
eight years old produced 40 pounds of choice thin-shelled nuts in a single year. A tree 
in Raleigh eleven years old produced 90 pounds, while a large tree in Elizabeth City 
was known to produce 400 to 700 pounds of choice nuts annually. A grove of 30 acres 
in a county in the southeastern part of the State produced 16,000 pounds in a single 
year, and the nuts sold on an average of 50 cents a pound. While the growing area is 
limited, the pecan market extends all over the world. 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 



109 



Fruit culture also is destined to receive larger attention in the future. No section 
of the United States is better adapted to this pursuit; none offers finer opportunities. 
There is hardly a section of the State in which fruit of some description cannot be 
raised, whether for table use or for commercial purposes. 



Table XXVIII 
OCTOBER 1 CROP REPORT 

(Thousands omitted) 



North Carolina 



Production 



Crops 1928-32 1935 

Corn, bu 38,415 47,082 

Wheat, bu 3,790 5,876 

Oats, bu 3,572 5,160 

Barley, bu 361 171 

Buckwheat, bu 58 60 

Tame hay, tons 565 694 

Alfalfa hay, tons 10 14 

Tobacco, lbs 469,135 577,435 

Soy beans, bu 1,230 1,232 

Cowpeas, bu 

Peanuts, lbs 246,206 264,500 

Pecans, lbs 724 900 

Irish potatoes bu 7,540 9,095 

Sweet potatoes, bu 7,141 9,300 

Apples, total, bu 3,411 3,975 

Peaches, bu 1,205 1,781 

Pears, bu 207 222 

Grapes, tons 4,305* 3,864* 

* Grape production given in actual figures, thousands not omitted. 



Indicated 



1936 

44,918 

5,092 

3,600 

170 

40 

622 

13 

463,420 

1,606 

260,150 
1,100 
6,068 
8,360 
2,590 
1,525 
181 
4,500* 



LIVESTOCK 

The interest in livestock in North Carolina has been rapidly increasing for the past 
twenty years. This has been shown by the number of registered animals brought into 
the State and the high average prices paid for them. 

There seems to be no question that a greater agriculture in North Carolina depends 
very largely upon the quite general adoption of a better balanced agriculture through 
the intelligent extension of diversified farming. In approximating the best type of di- 
versified farming, livestock is destined to become increasingly important as a factor in 
establishing our agricultural industry on a basis economically sound and profitable. 

Diversified farming with some form of livestock offers steady employment through- 
out the entire year and brings money to the farmer during each month of the year. 

On January 1, 1935, the United States Census of Agriculture reports 684,266 
cattle of all ages, of which number 467,012 were over three months old. These were 
valued at $14,035,056. The corresponding figures for April 1, 1930, were 532,631 valued 
at $23,483,726. This represents an increase of 151,635, or nearly thirty per cent. The 



110 North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 

average number reported per farm had increased from 2.9 to 3.3 over this period. This 
rate of increase may be compared with that of the United States as a whole for this 
period of 7.0 per cent. 

In recent years there has been an increased interest in beef cattle in eastern North 
Carolina. This interest has been aroused principally because results from the Agricul- 
tural Experiment Station have shown that there is an abundance of native reeds and 
grasses in this area that are palatable and nutritious for cattle and will produce gains 
comparable to the pastures in other sections of this country. Then too, there is an abun- 
dance of other feed in eastern North Carolina, so that cattle can be finished for market 
within the same area in which they are produced ; and these cattle are within easy reach 
of the highest market in the United States : namely, the vicinity of New York City. 

The lush pastures on the mountain slopes in western North Carolina will undoubt- 
edly continue to produce thousands of feeder steers each year, and, since more concen- 
trated fertilizers are being manufactured and good roads have made it possible to haul 
this material into the area, these pastures will be gradually improved. 

Included in the 1935 report of 684,266 cattle of all ages were 385,000 dairy cows, 
which is an increase of about 85,000 during the previous five years. Those farmers who 
are engaged in dairying have found it profitable and there are many large herds of dairy 
cattle in the State that compare favorably with any in the nation. 

The majority of the dairy cows kept in North Carolina are for the production of 
fluid milk which is consumed daily by the population of the State; however, throughout 
the rural sections of the Piedmont and the mountains there were manufactured 2,500,- 
000 pounds of creamery butter in 1935. It is estimated that 26,000,000 pounds of farm 
butter was made during 1935 by the farmers of North Carolina. Approximately 30,000,- 
000 gallons of whole fluid milk was produced and sold in bottles throughout the State 
during this same year. Of this amount, 10,000,000 gallons was pasteurized. 

The mountain sections of North Carolina are well adapted for the production of 
cheese. During the past year 482,000 pounds of Cheddar Cheese was manufactured in 
the co-operative plants. 

There were reported on January 1, 1935, 362,104 horses and mules of all ages. Of 
this number 18.4 per cent were horses. This is a decrease of 18,445 from the figures 
for April 1, 1930. This represents an average of 16.9 acres in crops per horse or mule. 
For the nation as a whole, 71.1 per cent of the total were horses, and there were 23.2 
acres per horse or mule. 

Many farmers of North Carolina have found that it is more satisfactory to pro- 
duce their work stock than to make replacements by purchase. The State's recent farm 
program has encouraged the production of more work stock, and as a result of these 
recommendations a large number of good breeding animals for the production of both 
horses and mules have been placed among our farmers. 

North Carolina produced 327,881 pounds of wool in 1934, shorn from 69,687 ani- 
mals. On January 1, 1935, there were 77,044 sheep and lambs reported on farms. 
North Carolina ranks in 33rd place in wool production, and 34th in numbers of sheep 
and lambs. 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 111 

Our mountain counties have the climate, soil and grass that are well suited for 
sheep production. Farmers can always find sale for wool at good prices to our local 
woolen mills. North Carolina is noted for the manufacture of wool blankets which are 
sold in all parts of the world. 

Early lamb production is especially profitable to those farmers engaged in this 
specialized business. 

North Carolina reported 26,743 goats and kids of all ages, valued at $40,115. Dur- 
ing 1934, 722 pounds of mohair was clipped, the State ranking 28th. Texas, Arizona, 
New Mexico, and Oregon produce nearly 95 per cent of the total national production. 

On January 1, 1935, there were 947,143 swine of all ages reported in North Car- 
olina, valued at $6,535,287, as compared with 838,994 swine valued at $7,325,446 in 
1930. A significant increase is also to be noted in the number of sows and gilts to farrow, 
as on January 1, 1935, this number was reported as 108,143, while on April 1, 1930, it 
was only 68,988. North Carolina moved from 16th place to 14th place in number of 
swine in this period, although the number of hogs per farm reporting was still only 
half the national average. 

The eastern North Carolina farmer can get more for his corn crop by feeding it 
to pigs than by any method so far found. The great difficulty is that the feeder pigs 
are not available. Those farmers who keep sows so as to produce enough pigs to con- 
sume their corn crop have found it most profitable. Our nearby markets furnish a ready 
sale for all classes of livestock and their products. 

Chickens on farms in North Carolina numbered 8,806,000 on January 1, 1935. Dur- 
ing the calendar year 1934, the production of chicken eggs produced was over 35,000,000 
dozens, and over 16,000,000 chickens were raised. The three leading counties in number 
of chickens on hand were Johnston, Union, and Robeson. 

On the same date, January 1, 1935, there were 90,708 turkeys over three months 
old. Ashe County, reporting 8,560, had more than twice the number of any other county. 
Other leading counties were Alleghany, Chatham, and Duplin. 

FEDERAL AGRICULTURAL PROGRAMS 
The annual gross income of North Carolina farmers more than doubled during the 
1932-1935 period, rising from $150,081,000 to $305,122,000. Although complete figures 
for 1936 are not as yet available, indications are that they will compare favorably with 
or exceed those of 1935. 

But the improvement of agricultural conditions and rural life cannot be measured 
in terms of money alone. As farmers got back on their feet financially, they were en- 
couraged to balance their farming programs, become more self-sufficient, conserve and 
build up their soil, raise their standard of living, and take more interest in a better 
home and community life. 

Agricultural conditions in 1936 are in strong contrast with those prevailing in 
1932 and the early part of 1933, when the prices of farm commodities were so low 
that few farmers could meet their obligations. With five-cent cotton and ten-cent 
tobacco, many were losing their homes; others were on the verge of ruin. 



112 North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 

The upward trend in prices started in the latter part of 1933 with the inaugura- 
tion of the AAA crop adjustment programs. First there was the cotton plow-up cam- 
paign in the summer, with farmers agreeing to limit their production also in 1934 
to keep from glutting the markets with price-depressing surpluses. When the tobacco 
markets opened in the fall, prices were so disastrously low that the Governor of the 
State called for a marketing holiday. While sales were suspended, an agreement was 
reached whereby the buyers would raise their prices if the growers would pledge them- 
selves to regulate production the next year. 

As the AAA program got under way, farmers were offered benefit payments for 
adjusting their cotton, tobacco, wheat, corn, and peanut acreages and for limiting their 
hog production. As production was brought more nearly into line with consumption, 
prices began to rise and as prices rose, farm income increased. 

On a basis of 78 crop and 13 livestock items, plus AAA benefit payments, North 
Carolina's gross farm income during the 1932-1935 period was as follows: 

In 1932: crops, $104,456,000; livestock, $45,625,000; no AAA payments. 

In 1933: crops, $182,760,000; livestock, $44,445,000; AAA payments, $6,741,000. 

In 1934: crops, $226,101,000; livestock, $55,660,000; AAA payments, $17,314,000. 

In 1935: crops, $226,118,000; livestock, $66,711,000; AAA payments, $12,293,000. 

The total gross income for each of the four years was as follows : 1932 — $150,081,- 
000; 1933— $233,946,000; 1934— $299,075,000; 1935— $305,122,000. 

Gross income means the income from cash sales plus the value of products con- 
sumed in the household on the farm where they were produced. Cash receipts came 
primarily, but not entirely, from the sale of cotton and tobacco. The combined acreage 
of these two crops in 1935 was materially less than in 1932, but the cultivated acreage 
of all farm land in 1935 was much greater than in 1932. 

As cotton and tobacco acreage was decreased, the acreage of grain, legumes, hay, and 
pasture was expanded. The greater amount of feed produced, and the rising prices of live- 
stock, led to more livestock production. There were 51,000 more milk cows in North 
Carolina on January 1, 1936, than on January 1, 1932. The number of other cattle 
increased by 26,000 head. The number of swine increased by 12,000 head. 

The increase in cattle and hogs along with the increased production of grain 
and other crops for home consumption has reduced the cost of operating farms and 
has helped to raise the standard of living. 

The AAA crop adjustment programs, like the present soil-improvement program, 
were administered as co-operative projects of the U. S. Department of Agriculture 
and the State College Agricultural Extension Service. In the different counties, county 
agents, their assistants, and local committees composed of farmers handled local details 
of the work. 

During the 1933-1936 period, North Carolina farmers have learned more about 
the value of co-operation than they had in the entire previous history of the State. They 
found concrete proof that when practically all farmers work together, with the aid of 
their government, they can maintain a reasonable measure of control over their own 
industry, and thereby regulate production to market demands. 






North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 113 

And as they took land out of cash crops, they were urged to put it into soil-con- 
serving or building crops and crops for home consumption. This encouraged balanced 
farming and it paved the way for the present soil-improvement program which is 
making farmers more "soil conscious" than ever before. 

During the life of the AAA crop adjustment programs, 416,894 contracts were 
signed by North Carolina farmers to adjust their cotton, tobacco, wheat, peanut, corn, 
and hog production. This year, around 140,000 farmers have signed work sheets for 
participation in the AAA soil-improvement program. Under the old programs, each 
farmer had to have a separate contract for each commodity. Under the present plan, 
each work sheet covers all farming operations on a given farm. 

When first established, the original AAA was intended primarily to adjust the pro- 
duction of certain cash crops to protect farmers from ruinously low prices. Later, it 
encouraged the planting of conserving crops and food and feed crops for home con- 
sumption on land taken out of these cash crops. The soil-improvement program provides 
payments for diverting land from any depleting crop to a soil-conserving or building 
crop, and for carrying out practices that improve and protect the land. 

For years farmers had been neglecting and abusing their land. Many of them 
grew, year after year, row crops that exhausted the soil fertility and hastened erosion. 
In places, rains washed from each acre tons of top-soil every year. Yields per acre de- 
creased where the soil was robbed of its fertility. Fields and farms were abandoned as 
they became gullied and run-down. 

In connection with the soil-improvement program, designed to reclaim, build up 
and conserve farm land, the State College Extension Service is also carrying on its pro- 
gram to encourage balanced farming, better utilization of the land, better livestock pro- 
duction, and a more fruitful and satisfying rural life. There is hardly an aspect of 
farm life in North Carolina that is not reached by the work of the extension service. 
It even has made arrangements with the North Carolina School for the Deaf to use 
interpreters in carrying the program to the deaf farmers. 

Administering the AAA programs threw a tremendous burden on the Agricultural 
Extension Service, but at the same time these programs have made the farmers more 
acutely conscious of the work the Service is doing for them, and more calls are being 
made upon it than ever before. There is only one county in the State without the services 
of a farm demonstration agent. 

In 1932 there were 45 administrative officers and extension specialists, of which 
three were engaged in work with negroes, and 96 white farm and assistant agents, 60 
white home demonstration agents, 19 colored farm agents, and 10 colored home demon- 
stration agents. 

This year the Extension Service has 54 specialists and administrative officers, with 
five in charge of negro work, 174 white county and assistant farm agents, 93 white home 
agents and assistants, 29 colored farm agents, and 12 colored home agents. 

Directly in charge of AAA soil-improvement work in the State are four men under 
whom works an office staff that has varied in size from 50 to 150 workers, according to 
the amount of clerical work to be done from time to time. 



114 North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 

In 1935, the county farm and home agents worked a total of 24,504 days in their 
offices, and spent a total of 40,303 days in the field carrying the extension program to 
195,727 of the State's 300,000 farm families. In compiling the list of farm families 
reached, the Extension Service counted only those families which adopted better methods 
of farming and home-making as a direct result of Extension activities. 

During the year, the agents received in their offices 1,194,298 farmers and others 
interested in the work, and gave out information by means of 237,468 telephone calls. 
Six days a week, every week in the year, this meant an average of 38 personal visitors 
and 7.6 telephone calls per day in each county. 

Although financial conditions of the past few years permitted only limited State 
appropriations for agricultural extension work in North Carolina, the Extension Serv- 
ice in this State has done remarkably well with the funds available. Here the State appro- 
priations for extension work during the past biennium amounted to 95 cents for each 
farm in the State. The U. S. average for all states is $1.69 per farm. Yet the percentage 
of North Carolina farms on which better practices have been adopted as a result of 
extension activities is 52.6 per cent, as compared with the U. S. average of 43.6 per 
cent. In this State, 65 per cent of the farm families were reached; the U. S. average is 
55.9 per cent. 

In addition to the aid offered to farmers through crop adjustment and soil improve- 
ment programs, financed by the Federal Government and carried out largely through 
the co-operation of State agencies, many other efforts were made to relieve the effect of 
the depression on agricultural activities. Brief statements of some of these efforts follow. 

FEDERAL LAND BANK 

From May 1, 1933 to June 30, 1936, this bank made 5,056 loans in a total amount 
of $11,741,100. All counties were represented in these loans, the highest number of loans 
being made in Robeson County, with 197, others being Johnston with 194, Sampson 
with 146, Rowan and Cleveland with 145 each, and Nash and Pitt counties with 137 
each. 

The Land Bank Commissioner, in the same period, made 12,905 loans in a total 
amount of $17,221,271. The total loans from these two agencies therefore amounted 
to $28,962,371, the largest totals being Robeson with $1,136,642, Johnston with $1,009,- 
807, Wake with $825,588, and Northampton with $795,348. 

PRODUCTION CREDIT ASSOCIATION 

The Production Credit Associations operating in some twenty-eight cities made a 
total of 46,054 loans in a total amount of $12,562,243. The largest amount handled was 
that in Rocky Mount, serving Edgecombe, Nash and Wilson counties, with loans amount- 
ing to $808,443, the next being Raleigh, serving Wake County with 2,748 loans in the 
amount of $755,017. 

CROP AND FEED LOANS 

From January 1, 1933 through September 30, 1936, farmers of North Carolina 
availed themselves of opportunities for negotiating loans for crop production and feed 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 115 

necessities, in a total amount of $10,827,587. This sum was divided among 124,549 
loans at an average of $86.92 per loan. All counties participated, the largest number 
of loans being made in Surry County. 

RENTAL AND BENEFIT PAYMENTS 

In connection with the Agricultural Adjustment Administration, the following 
total benefit and rental payments were made through June 30, 1936. 

Cotton $14,571,738.70 

Wheat 160,774.49 

Tobacco 15,648,958.15 

Corn-Hogs 1,061,334.27 

Peanuts 985,296.02 

Total $32,428,101.63 

RURAL REHABILITATION 

During the fiscal year July 1, 1935 to June 30, 1936, the Resettlement Administra- 
tion had approved of loans and made committments to advance $2,272,895 in loans and 
grants to 17,049 clients in North Carolina. Of this total amount, actual payments had 
been made of $1,854,773, and grant payments of $233,349 completed. 

Under the Farm Debt Adjustment activities, 909 cases were under consideration 
and 306 cases reduced in the aggregate amount of $290,183, or approximately 25 per 
cent of the original indebtedness. 



Chapter VII 

FOREST RESOURCES OF NORTH CAROLINA 

The forest regions of North Carolina fall readily into three broad divisions: Southern 
Forest, Central Hardwoods, and Northern Forest. Although the conventional division fol- 
lows the established physical regions of the State, namely, Coastal Plain, Piedmont and 
Mountain regions, respectively, there exists overlapping of one forest belt into another to 
form extensive transition areas. 

SOUTHERN FOREST 

Of the three regions, the Southern belt is the most extensive, comprising approxi- 
mately 50 per cent of the total land area of the State. This region includes the entire 
Coastal Plain, and with extensions into the Piedmont, is estimated at 15,000,000 acres. 
Of this total acreage, some 80 per cent, or 12,000,000 acres remain in forest growth. 

The dominant commercial species are second-growth longleaf and loblolly pine. Gum, 
cypress, and oak occur extensively in the hardwood bottoms of this area. 

CENTRAL HARDWOODS 

The Central Hardwood belt is the Piedmont Plateau of North Carolina, forming 
the transition ground between the Southern Forest region of the Coastal Plain and the 
prevailing hardwood area of the mountains. Comprising 36 per cent of the total land 
area, the Central Hardwood region contains over 11,000,000 acres. Forty per cent of the 
area, or approximately 4,500,000 acres, may be classified as forest lands. No extensive 
tracts, such as those found in the coastal and mountain sections, occur in this area, forest 
growth being confined almost entirely to farm woodland. 

The principal commercial species are red and white oaks, hickory, yellow poplar, and 
second-growth shortleaf and Virginia pine. 

NORTHERN FOREST 

Although the Northern Forest region is small compared with the other forest belts 
of the State, the value of commercial wood production is almost equal to that of the 
Southern Forest region. Approximately 5,000,000 acres in extent, these forest lands 
include over 700,000 acres belonging to the Pisgah and Nantahala National Forests. 

These mountain, or northern, forests are characterized by their great variety of 
species, nearly fifty different trees being recognized as having commercial worth. It is 
possible to classify all species, however, into four major groups: spruce forests, at eleva- 
tions of over 4,500; moist-slope and cove forests, from about 2,000 to 4,000 feet; dry- 
slope and ridge forests, occupying like elevations, but in dry soil ; and the plateau forests 
below 2,500 feet. Of these, the dry-slope and ridge forest type is the most extensive, con- 
taining chestnut, oak, black oak, scarlet oak, pitch-pine, and locust. 

Near extinction of the chestnut has been brought about by the chestnut blight. Total 
loss of this enormous timber resource has been avoided by cutting trees affected soon 
after the attack of the blight. Salvaged within a reasonable length of time, the wood and 
bark are usable commercially. 



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North Carolina : Today and Tomorrow 



119 






The place of the chestnut will, in time, be taken by the associated species. Studies 
made by the Appalachian Forest Experiment Station indicate that of these, the chestnut 
oak will prove the most important. 

The following table presents the divisions of forest lands in North Carolina, by 
regions. 

Table XXIX 

FOREST REGIONS 





Southern 


Central 
Hardwood 


Northern 


Total 
All Regions 


Total Forest Lands 


11,806,751 

4,532,486 

517,201 

4,015,285 

112,966 

7,161,299 


4,345,857 
2,728,267 
548,649 
2,179,618 
23,054 
1,594,536 


4,757,026 
2,226,134 

589,837 
1,676,297 

720,920 
1,769,972 


t*20,909,634 

9,486,887 

1,655,687 

7,871,200 

1856,940 

10,525,807 


Farm Woodland 


Pasture 


Not Pasture 


National Forest Lands 

All other Woodlands 





*In addition to lands listed above, includes forested lands of State and National Parks, Game Refuges, and of Resettle- 
ment Administration areas. Excludes Highways, railroads, towns, marsh, sand dunes, and cultivated lands. 
tNet Acres acquired and approved for purchase, as of June 30, 1936. 

Based upon data supplied by the Forestry Division, North Carolina Department of 
Conservation and Development, the following tabulation gives the principal merchantable 
species in standing board feet, by forest region. The measure is M Board Feet. 

Table XXX 

PRINCIPAL MERCHANTABLE SPECIES IN STANDING BOARD FEET— BY 
FOREST REGIONS IN M BD. FT. 



Species 


Southern 
Forest 


Central 
Forest 


Northern 
Forest 


Total 


Pine 

Oak 

Poplar 


3,742,200 
98,500 


1,196,850 
292,560 


873,552 

1,998,613 

436,386 

241,822 


5,812,602 

2,289.673 
436,386 
405,162 

1,003,000 
163,250 

3,359,687 


Chestnut 




163,340 


Gum 

Cypress 

Mixed 


1,003,000 
163,250 
641,650 






1,652,550 


1,065,487 


GRAND TOTAL, 13,469,760. 



FARM WOODLANDS 

Farm woodlands represent 45 per cent of the total forest lands in North Carolina. 
The per cent of farm woodlands, by forest regions, is as follows: Southern Forest, 38 
per cent; Central Hardwoods, 62 per cent; and Northern Forest, 47 per cent. 



120 North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 

That farm woodland is a valuable asset productive of income in money is becoming 
recognized generally in North Carolina. As a result, farmers are now giving more 
attention to their wooded acres than ever before in the history of the State. In many sec- 
tions, and particularly in the better farming areas of the Piedmont region, permanent 
woodlands to give a sustained yield through the years are recognized as an essential part 
of a well-equipped farm. 

The 1930 Census reported 8,326,434 acres of farm woodland in the State in 1929. As 
noted in Table XXIX, farm woodland in North Carolina amounted to 9,486,887 in 1934, 
an increase of 1,160,453 acres over 1929. This increase in the total acreage, however, has 
not materially affected the 1934 average woodland per farm, given as 30 acres, because of 
the increase in the number of farms in 1934 over the previous census report. 

According to the United States Census of Agriculture for 1935, there were 1,247,515 
acres of idle or fallow land in North Carolina in 1934, a report covering only 120,212 of 
the total 300,967 farms in the State. This fallow land was comprised of crop land in cul- 
tivated summer fallow, or land on which crops were planted for soil improvement or the 
prevention of soil erosion. With all farms reporting, the total acreage would doubtless be 
in excess of two million idle acres. A considerable portion of this acreage should and, in 
all probability, will be given over to producing farm woodlands. 

In addition to this fallow land, there was a vast acreage of land classified as crop fail- 
ure, and for which reforestation appears the only course to return the acres to produc- 
tion and economic worth. 

Herein lies the attractive phase of growing trees upon the farm. Trees are, as a rule, 
grown on the less fertile, stony, thin, or poorly drained soils, and on steep slopes. The 
chief economic reason for timber growing on the farm is to get a money return from 
those portions which would otherwise be unproductive. 

Although comparatively new, forest management on farm woodland is already paying 
considerable dividends to the landowner, as well as adding materially to the State's 
supply of timber. 

Crossties, poles and piles, fence posts, pulpwood, and fuel wood are the chief timber 
products cut on North Carolina farms. 

The latest available figures on Farm Woodland Forest Products are those of the peak 
year, 1929. 

Item No. Farms Reporting Production 

Saw and Veneer Logs 12,696 425,520 M Board Feel 

Firewood 187,519 2,638,271 Cords 

Pulpwood 4,445 104,083 Cords 

Fence Posts 7,752 794,817 Number 

Railroad Ties 4,547 579,056 Number 

Poles and Piles 1,811 147,529 Number 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 121 

The total value of all forest products cut on farms, for home use and for sale, 
amounted to over $15,000,000 in 1929. The average annual value of forest products from 
woodlands is around $12,000,000. 

NATIONAL FORESTS " 

First considered as protection for major watersheds, the National Forests, in their 
rapid expansion, have been responsible for assumption by the Forest Service of full 
responsibility for the land and all the natural resources contained thereon. Therefore, in 
addition to preserving valuable tracts of timber established as National Forests, this new 
program includes the purchase and reforestation of denuded acres. Forest management, 
including special measures to improve timber stands, to prevent and control fire and 
disease, and to establish a sustained yield of the resource — these are all a definite part 
of the forestry program in the National Forests today. 

A wildlife program and the development of recreational facilities have only recently 
been added to the extensive work of the U. S. Forest Service. In a word, the National 
Forests have developed from a single use to a full policy of multiple land use in this 
country. 

Following the original purpose of the National Forest, that of guarding watersheds, 
the first and most extensive areas were set up by the Federal Government in the Moun- 
tain region of North Carolina. A definite change in policy, however, is shown in the fact 
that, although some two and one-half million acres constitute the total purchase units in 
the mountains, only a small portion of which has been approved for purchase, extensive 
purchase units representing over 800,000 acres have been set up in the Piedmont and 
Coastal Plain sections of the State. These later purchases were made possible by the 
General Assembly in 1929, through an amendment to the act authorizing the Federal 
Government to acquire lands in North Carolina for National Forest purposes. 

The total expenditures of the Federal Government for acquiring 575,771 acres of 
land in the State, reported as of June 30, 1936, amounted to $2,992,427, or an average 
price of $5.20 an acre. 

The table on the following page presents information as to purchase units within 
which lands are being acquired, data as of June 30, 1936. 

PISGAH NATIONAL FOREST 

Established in 1914, the Pisgah National Forest is one of the most valuable of the 
entire Appalachian group. Composed of the Grandfather, French Broad, Mt. Mitchell, 
and Pisgah divisions, this National Forest by readjustment proclamations of 1936 now 
lies wholly within the State of North Carolina. 

The timberlands of the Pisgah National Forest when acquired, were generally in a 
low state of productivity as a result of repeated fires, and the removal of all timber by 
lumbering operations from accessible areas — the latter accomplished with little regard 
to protection of the young growth. The timber remaining intact from fire and damage 
through improper cutting was inaccessible to market because of lack of roads, and con- 
sequently was not being utilized. 



122 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 



Table XXXI 

INFORMATION BY FOREST AND COUNTY AS OF JUNE 30, 1936, AS TO PURCHASE 
UNITS WITHIN WHICH LANDS ARE BEING ACQUIRED 

(Compiled from Data supplied by U. S. Forest Service) 



Forest — County 


Purchase Unit 


Watershed 


Total 
Acres in 
County 


Net Acres 

approved for 

purchase 


Acquired 
acres 


PISGAH— 

Ashe 

Avery 

Buncombe 

Burke 

Caldwell 

Caldwell 


Cherokee 

Pisgah 

Pisgah 

Pisgah 

Pisgah 

Yadkin 

Pisgah 

Pisgah 

Pisgah 

Pisgah 

Pisgah 

Pisgah 

Pisgah 

Yadkin 

Yadkin 

Pisgah 


New 


327 

122,300 

70,800 

66,700 

84,500 

34,592 

186,200 

27,800 

127,700 

163,800 

82,800 

109,400 

37,600 

30,856 

129,048 

108,400 


327 
21,311 
31,463 
43,980 
47,521 




Santee-Tenn 


20,583 
30,364 
18,330 
46,128 


Tennessee 


Santee 


Catawba 


Yadkin . . 


Haywood 

Henderson 

McDowell 

Madison 


Tennessee 


60,667 
18,635 
50,997 
43,056 
8,807 
74,821 
393 


37,135 
18,635 
49,291 
25,822 


Tennessee 


Tennessee 


Little Tennessee 


Mitchell 


Tennessee . . 


Transylvania 

Watauga 

Watauga 

Wilkes 


Tennessee 


62,661 
393 


San tee-Tennessee 


Yadkin 


Yadkin . 






Yancey 

Total 


Tennessee 


28,930 


22,036 








1,372,823 


430,908 


331,178 








NANTAHALA— 
Cherokee 


Nantahala 

Nantahala 

Nantahala 

Nantahala 

Nantahala 

Nantahala 

Nantahala 


Tennessee 


287,600 
101,900 
191,700 
287,100 
337,800 
96,800 
46,100 


48,891 
38,113 
38,406 
15,769 
143,159 
5,674 


23,392 

20,838 

163 

7,180 

124,447 

2,628 


Clay 


Tennessee 


Graham 


Little Tennessee . . 


Jackson 


Tennessee 


Macon 


Little Tennessee 


Swain 


Little Tennessee . . 


Transylvania 

Total 


Savannah 












1,349,000 


290,012 


178,648 








UHARIE— 
Davidson 


Uharie 

Uharie 

Uharie 

Uharie 


Pee Dee 


12,000 
263,300 
171,000 
113,700 


304 
16,462 


100 
100 


Montgomery 

Moore 


Pee Dee 


Pee Dee-Cape Fear 

Pee Dee-Cape Fear 


Randolph 


6,288 


104 


Total 






560,000 


23,054 


304 








CROATAN— 

Carteret 

Craven 

Jones 

Total 


Croatan 

Croatan 

Croatan 


Neuse-Atlantic Coast 

Neuse 


109,200 

125,300 

71,800 


48,953 
37,500 
26,513 


31,676 
19,224 
14,541 


Neuse 






306,300 


112,966 


65,441 








GRAND TOTAL . . 






3,588,123 


856,940 


575,771 



North Carolina : Today and Tomorrow 123 

Although the process has been a gradual one, the unsatisfactory condition of much 
of this property has been remedied by modern methods of fire control, better logging 
practices, and by construction of better roads to make available for market mature and 
over-mature timber heretofore inaccessible. 

In addition to improving forest conditions, the conservation and proper manage- 
ment of the land in the Pisgah National Forest have brought about an increase in the 
value of the property. 

Standing merchantable timber, by species and counties, in the Pisgah and Uharie 
National Forests, for 1936 is shown in Table XXXII. 

The Pisgah National Forest Supervisor reports the following timber for sale, 
measurements in M Board Feet. 

County Average Annual Volume 

Chestnut Available All Other Species 

Averv 455 .... 

Buncombe *. 9,254 725 

Burke 1,500 

Caldwell 518 

Haywood 500 .... 

Henderson 1,823 

McDowell 625 75 

Madison 71 .... 

Mitchell 2,968 .... 

Transylvania 7,401 100 

Watauga • • • • 

Yancey 5,000 1,000 

All chestnut on National Forest lands, dead or alive, standing or down, is available 
for purchase at all times. In addition to the above amounts, such products as posts, 
crossties, acidwood, pulpwood, tanbark, and fuel wood are available on nearly all National 
Forest lands. 

Timber and products taken from Pisgah National Forest lands in the fiscal year 
1936, are reported as follows: 

Sawtimber, M Board Feet 7,106 (all species) 

Chestnut Acidwood, long cords 5,126 

Pulpwood, long cords 164 

Fuelwood, short cords 79 

Poles, number 184 

Crossties, number 770 

Posts, number 1,152 

Tanbark, long tons 397 

Shrubs, number 2,177 

NANTAHALA NATIONAL FOREST 

Only slightly lower than the mountain region containing the Pisgah National Forest, 
the mountain section in which the Nantahala National Forest is located produces similar 
species of forest trees. Following the readjustment of National Forest lands in 1936, this 
forest contained a total of 290,012 acres, all lying within North Carolina. 

The first purchases of land for the new National Forest were made in the year 1913. 
Immediately, reforestation, stand improvement, forest management, and adequate fire and 



124 



North Carolina : Today and Tomorrow 



Table XXXII 

TOTAL MERCHANTABLE STANDS ON PISGAH AND UHARIE NATIONAL 

FORESTS BY COUNTIES AND SPECIES 

Volumes in M Board Feet 

(Compiled from Data supplied by Pisgah National Forest) 



SPECIES 


Avery 


Bun- 
combe 


Burke 


Cald- 
well 


Hay- 
wood 


Hen- 
derson 


Mc- 
Dowell 


Madi- 
son 


Total 


Chestnut Oak 


7,108 

4,627 
5,116 

455 
50 

729 


5,962 

6,940 

4,932 

9,254 

5,492 

6,311 

4,915 

1,344 

1,070 

5,995 

10,113 

501 

843 

1,830 

202 


20,110 

6,966 
13,384 

901 


13,293 

6,500 
6,604 

518 
585 
412 


1,743 

1,181 
302 
500 
10 
260 
112 


2,026 

1,199 

2,634 

1,823 

1,011 

766 


12,135 

5,596 

7,979 

625 

277 

609 


8,004 

6,236 

1,676 

71 

90 

253 


70,381 

39,245 

42,627 

13,246 

7,515 

10,241 

5,027 

2,777 

2,779 

28,006 

45,889 

31,560 

55,648 

1,830 

202 


Red, White, Black and 
Scarlet Oaks 


Yellow Poplar 


Chestnut 


Basswood 

Red and Sugar Maple . . . 
Black and Yellow Birch . . 


Black Locust 


201 


133 

849 

4,061 

8,822 

13,396 

22,990 


275 


203 

405 

3,020 

3,429 

608 

1,013 


222 

332 

3,159 

6,317 

6,040 

11,636 


399 
123 

5,075 
5,809 
4,941 
8,001 


Hickory 


*A11 other Hardwoods . . . 
Hemlock 


1,943 
5,068 
2,714 
3,891 


3,936 
5,758 
3,295 
7,038 


817 

573 

65 

236 


White Pine 


**Yellow Pine 


Red Spruce 


Balsam Fir 
















Totals 
















31,902 


65,704 


91,612 


48,214 


5,799 


18,137 


54,927 


40,678 





Species 


Mitchell 


Transyl- 
vania 


Watauga 


Yancey 


Uharie Purchase Unit 




Total 


David- 
son 


Mont- 
gomery 


Ran- 
dolph 


Chestnut Oak 


3,297 

4,195 
4,286 
2,968 
1,649 
1,319 


8,223 

4,865 
10,691 
7,401 
4,105 
3,110 


213 

67 
131 

38 


7,494 

11,050 

8,467 
5,000 
1,767 

379 
2,278 

853 


18 

11 

4 

1 


1,401 

8,080 

603 

41 


424 

2,445 

187 

13 




19,227 

20,177 

23,575 

15,369 

7,559 

4,808 

2,278 

2,008 

2,303 

22,769 

39,714 

2,515 

4,405 

609 

17 

1,843 

10,536 

794 

55 


Red, White, Black and 
Scarlet Oak 


Yellow Poplar 

Chestnut 


Basswood 

Red and Sugar Maples . . 
Black and Yellow Birch . 


Black Locust 

Hickory 


329 

659 

4,946 

8,243 

125 


822 

1,644 

12,258 

13,919 

2,467 

4,112 


4 


*A11 Other Hardwoods . . 

Hemlock 

White Pine 


32 
86 
23 
18 


5,533 
17,466 

275 

609 

17 


Yellow Pine 


Red Spruce 




Balsam Fir 








Loblollv Pine 








Shortleaf Pine 


Longleaf Pine 

Red Cedar 


Totals 


32,016 


73,617 


612 


61,188 


34 


10,125 


3,069 






GRAND TOTAL 


















537,634 





















North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 125 

disease control measures were instituted. As a result, marked improvements have been 
made over the entire area. Both timber and land have shown a most satisfactory increase 
in value, raising the total worth of the Nantahala Forest region to an important place in 
the Appalachian forests. 

Timber cut and sold from the Nantahala National Forest in 1935 is reported as 

follows : 

Sawtimber, M Board Feet 338 

Chestnut Acidwood, cords 4,622 

Chestnut Poles, number 177 

Crossties, number 7, 006 

Pulpwood, cords 971 

Bolts, M Board Feet 28 

Posts, number 100 

W. 0. Staves, number 25,301 

Fuelwood, cords 40 

Poles, number 1,946 

Hemlock Bark, tons 184 

The total returns to the Forest from the above sales was $5,702.75. 

At the present time, management plans are being made for the Natahala National 
Forest, but some time will be required before they are complete. It is estimated that, upon 
completion of these plans, about 10 per cent of the standing merchantable timber, or 
approximately 23,857 thousand board feet, will be for sale. 

There follows a table giving the standing timber on lands of the Nantahala National 
Forest. 

Table XXXIII 

STANDING TIMBER ON LANDS OF NANTAHALA NATIONAL FOREST; 

BY SPECIES AND COUNTY. VOLUME IN M BOARD FEET 

(Compiled from data supplied by Nantahala National Forest) 

Per Cent 

Species of Total Cherokee Clay Graham Jackson Macon Swain Total 

Chestnut 10 1,078 3,609 679 498 17,716 378 23,958 

Poplar 5 539 1,805 339 249 8,857 189 11,978 

Oak 30 3,233 10,827 2,036 1,494 53,147 1,134 71,871 

Basswood, Birch, 

Maple, Ash, Cherry. 5 539 1,805 339 249 8,857 189 11,978 

Hemlock 20 2,155 7,218 1,357 996 35,431 756 47,913 

Yellow Pine 10 1,078 3,609 679 498 17,716 378 23,958 

White Pine 1 108 361 68 50 1,772 38 2,397 

Others 19 2,047 6,857 1,289 946 33,660 719 45,518 

Totals 100 10,777 36,091 6,786 4,980 177,156 3,781 239,598 

Grand Total M. B. M. Nantahala National Forest — 239,571. 

UHARIE AND CROATAN NATIONAL FORESTS 

The Uharie and Croatan National Forests were originally purchase units in the 
Pisgah and Sumter Forests, respectively. Although administration of these areas was 
maintained in 1936 by the aforementioned established forests, the two units were created 
separate National Forests in July of 1936. 



126 North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 

The Uharie Forest had an area approved for purchase of 23,054 acres, with only 304 
acres actually acquired in 1936. Land acquisition has gone forward very slowly in this 
area. 

The dominant forest types of the Uharie are hardwoods, principally oak and hickory. 
Shortleaf and loblolly pine are also found. The species are typical, to a large extent, of 
those found at lower levels in the western North Carolina mountains. 

Land acquisition has gone forward more rapidly in the Croatan area, comprising sec- 
tions of Carteret, Craven, and Jones counties. Up to June 1, 1936, the area approved for 
purchase was 112,966 acres, 65,441 acres of which had been acquired. 

This coastal forest includes lands which have been cut and burned over repeatedly, 
and occasional plantations of second growth loblolly, longleaf, and savanna pine. The 
hardwoods of the swamp lands are almost entirely exhausted, as far as commercial pro- 
duction is concerned. 

The major portion of work in the Croatan National Forest will consist of reforesta- 
tion, particularly with longleaf pine, and protection from fire. Such measures as those 
now designed for this region will undoubtedly return to timber production extensive tracts 
of lands in this section of the State. The forestry practices here will prove an excellent 
example for owners of private timber tracts. 

The existence of the four National Forests in North Carolina, tracts upon which 
only mature timber is cut and forest management is practiced, gives promise of a definite, 
continued supply of timber from these regions. 

PRIVATE FORESTS 

Private forest lands in North Carolina are represented by extensive holdings of 
private individuals, large lumber companies, and pulp manufacturers. These holdings 
constitute the major portion of lands classified as "All other Woodlands", in Table XXIX. 

The chief problem facing the owners of private forests is that of maintaining ade- 
quate control and suppression of fire. The State, through the Division of Forestry, has 
set up a fire control organization which co-operates with counties and with associations 
of individuals, whose combined holdings amount to not less than 30,000 acres. A more 
complete explanation of this Forest Fire Control Organization is contained in a later sec- 
tion of the chapter. 

All private timber tracts located within counties co-operating with the State in Forest 
Fire Control, receive the benefit of this State protection. Additional protection is some- 
times secured, as has been indicated, through protective associations operated in connec- 
tion with the State Divison of Forestry. In counties that do not co-operate, landowners 
may secure special protection under a form of co-operative agreement. 

Although active management of timber is rarely practiced by private landowners, 
of recent years there has been a trend in this direction. The examples set by the National 
Forests, the State Division of Forestry, and some private landowners, in this respect 
have had considerable weight in bringing to the attention of other private timber 
holders the possibilities of securing a sustained yield on their lands. 



> 

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128 North Carolina : Today and Tomorrow 

For many years State Forests have been advocated for North Carolina by the Depart- 
ment of Conservation and Development. To date, progress in this line has been limited to 
an enabling act, enacted by the General Assembly of 1915. In 1929, an acquisition policy 
was adopted, looking toward the establishment of State forests and parks. This latter 
measure was "To provide for a Special Study of the Forest, Cut-over, Open and Shore 
Lands of North Carolina with the Object of Recommending to the Next Regular Ses- 
sion of the General Assembly a Public Policy of Looking to the Selection and Ultimate 
Acquisition of Areas Which Should be State Owned or Controlled for the Production of 
Timber and the Permanent Use and Benefit of the Public." 

The State Park Program has recently moved forward rapidly, three parks having 
been established since the enactment of the above legislation. The Forest Program, as 
far as any acquisition of land is concerned, has remained at a standstill. Under provision 
of the act, however, the Department of Conservation and Development, through its 
Forestry Division, has made extensive studies of lands with the "object of determining 
their location, condition, ownership, and present value." 

While expressing only the long-time policy of the Department, this act has placed 
on record one of the most important features of the State's Forestry Program. Although 
no appropriation has been made available to carry out this law, opportunities for making 
studies of individual areas have, from time to time, presented themselves. 

The matter of proposed Federal aid in land acquisition is still pending. In connection 
with the Submarginal Land Program, and because of its importance in inaugurating a 
State Forestry Program for North Carolina, an excerpt from a letter written by Chief 
Forester F. A. Silcox to State Forester J. S. Holmes, is given: " . . in the policy of the 
SRC (Surplus Relief Corporation), it is understood informally that long-time lease agree- 
ments may be made whereby the State can take over the protection and administration 
of approved areas other than those within National Forests or purchase units." 

Acquisition and development of submarginal farm lands by the Federal Government 
continued in 1936. The approximate date of the beginning of State management, whether 
the State Division of Forestry is designated the administering agency, and the conditions 
attendant upon such a disposition of the lands, are not known at this time. 

Should these developed submarginal areas come under State control, it will doubt- 
less mean the inauguration of State Forests in North Carolina. 

The following areas, which include lands already placed under option by the Resettle- 
ment Administration, were several years ago suggested by the Department as suitable 
for public forests: 

Cedar Mountain 55,000 acres 

Mount Tirzah 90,000 acres 

South Mountains 135,000 acres 

Drowning Creek (Resettlement Administration) .... 130,000 acres 

Bentonville 90,000 acres 

Rockfish 80,000 acres 

Bladen (Resettlement Administration) 80,000 acres 

Fort Fisher 30,000 acres 

Phelps Lake (Resettlement Administration) 220,000 acres 



North Carolina : Today and Tomorrow 



129 



FORESTRY ACTIVITIES OF VARIOUS AGENCIES OPERATING IN 

NORTH CAROLINA 

DIVISION OF FORESTRY 

The Division of Forestry, Department of Conservation and Development, concerns 
itself basically with forest fire control work, a program carried on through co-operation 
with the U. S. Department of Agriculture under the Clark-McNairy law. The Division acts 
as supervising agency for some phases of the National Emergency Conservation Work 
Program now in progress in North Carolina, co-operates in an advisory capacity with the 
Soil Erosion Service and with the Forestry Program of the Resettlement Adiministration, 
directs the work of the State Nursery in Johnston County, carries on an educational pro- 
gram through distribution of materials to schools, acts as administering agency for State 
Parks, and carries out such other routine and miscellaneous activities as are incident to 
the administration of general forestry work in the State. 

FOREST FIRE CONTROL 

The State, through the Division of Forestry, co-operates with counties in which the 
timbered area warrants establishment of a forest fire control organization. Prior to 1935, 
co-operation on the part of counties was voluntary, or optional. The General Assembly of 

Figure 7 



DOLLARS ACRES 
700 350 



500 



400 200 




300 150 



200 100 



1926 



1935 



130 North Carolina : Today and Tomorrow 

1935, however, enacted into law legislation whereby the State could require co-operation 
from counties having large timbered areas and high forest fire hazards. 

Under a written agreement, the co-operating county will reimburse the State for one- 
half the expenditures made within the county for the actual cost of fire protection and 
suppression, up to a stipulated maximum amount. The county's appropriation is matched 
by an equal amount of the State and Federal funds. The basis for the county's share of 
cost is usually figured at one-half cent per acre for the forested lands within the county, 
which, when matched by an equal amount from the State and Federal governments, rep- 
resents a total annual cost of one cent per acre for fire prevention and suppression. 

In counties having extensive timberlands where added protection is needed, the 
State encourages the establishment of Protective Associations by groups of individual 
landowners. Co-operation is extended on an acreage basis and the rates paid depend upon 
the fire problem involved. Costs range from one to three cents per acre. 

The "eyes" of the Forest Service are the lookout towers placed at vantage points in 
co-operating counties throughout the State. During the main fire seasons, which usually 
run from October to the middle of December, and from February to June, these towers 
are manned by lookouts and a crew of from three to five men. The lookout, upon spotting 
a fire, locates its exact position by the use of special maps and an azimuth circle. The 
warden in charge of the area is notified by telephone, direct from the tower, and the crew 
instructed as to the position of the fire. This system assures speedy action on the part of 
the fire suppression crews, who proceed immediately to the scene of the blaze by motor 
truck over specially constructed roads. 

In 1936, there were 70 lookout points used in the State, designated as 63 steel look- 
out towers from 35 to 120 feet in height ; 4 tall buildings ; 1 wooden tower 60 feet high ; 
1 lookout house on Rocky Pinnacle; and 1 municipal water tank used for a lookout 
position. The numbers given do not include the Forest Lookout Towers of the U. S. 
Forest Service in the State. 

A recent survey shows that in order to make detection adequate over the State, 120 
additional lookout points are needed. 

There are at present 600 miles of State-owned telephone lines for reporting fires ; 1 
short wave radio transmitter and receiver; 35 half-ton trucks equipped with 75-gallon 
storage tanks and a motor-driven centrifugal pump and fire fighting equipment for 10 
men; 58 fire fighting trailers; 2 1935 model "22" Caterpillar Tractors with special fire 
fighting equipment, and other miscellaneous tools, knapsack fire pumps, etc., all represent- 
ing an outlay of approximately $50,000. 

Of the 20,000,000 acres of forest land in North Carolina needing protection, nearly 
14,000,000 acres are now being protected from forest fires. 

Figure 7 shows the location of fire control stations in North Carolina. 

STATE NURSERY 

The State Nursery in Johnston County, operated by the Division of Forestry, was 
increased in size in 1936 from 15 to 111 acres. This expansion in the area and the 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 



131 



development of further facilities for producing seedlings, are designed to enlarge the 
capacity of the nursery to meet the increased demands for seedlings made by the various 
Federal agencies operating in the State, which have reforestation as a part of their works. 
The addition of 96 acres of land is expected to increase production in the next several 
years from three to ten million seedlings per year. 

Following the depression, there has been a marked increase in the requests for seed- 
lings from private landowners who desire to reforest sections of their land. With the 
reductions in cultivated areas made under the new soil conservation program, it is 
expected that demands upon the nursery by farmers and other individual landowners will 
be materially increased. 

It is the definite objective of the nursery to encourage private reforestation, and to 
furnish, as nearly as it is possible to do so, an ample number of seedlings, at cost, to aid 
in carrying out this objective. 

Distribution of forest tree seedlings, by species, for the bienniums from 1932 to 
1936, are given in the table following: 

Table XXXIV 

DISTRIBUTION OF TREE SEEDLINGS BY SPECIES 

1932-1936 



Species 

1. Loblolly Pine 

2. Shortleaf Pine 

3. Longleaf Pine 

4. Slash Pine 

5. Black Locust 

6. Tulip Poplar 

7. Black Walnut 

8. Red Gum 

9. Miscellaneous 

10. Mimosa 

11. Maritime 

12. Cypress 

13. Ash 

Totals 



1932-33 



1933-34 



1934-35 



1935-36 



93,006 

56,381 

19,790 

11,331 

25,400 

22,700 

8,846 

2,450 

2,578 



242, 4S2 



258,392 

61,202 

24,152 

31,152 

34,652 

4,621 

9,445 

6,952 

5,040 



392,175 

28,725 

57,325 

30 

510,107 

3,216 

10,906 

5,985 
4,315 



5,650 



435,608 



1,018,444 



2,065,900 

45,850 

471,913 

34,300 

296,065 

118,175 

9,035 

1,417 
17,650 
11,050 

2,110 



3,073,465 



EMERGENCY CONSERVATION WORK (ECW) 

The three major types of work assigned the Emergency Conservation Work Camps 
in North Carolina were, "To help protect, develop, and perpetuate existing forests; to 
help prevent soil erosion, to establish new, and to reestablish old forests." 

This assignment brought about the establishment of ECW projects in connection 
with works of the State Division of Forestry, the Soil Conservation Service, the establish- 
ment of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, the U. S. Biological Survey, National 
Forests, and the Resettlement Administration. In fact, wherever a project called for the 
protection, development, and perpetuation of forests and the prevention of soil erosion, 
the services of the ECW have been engaged. 



132 North Carolina : Today and Tomorrow 

The direction of all ECW camps have been under the direction of the U. S. Forest 
Service, while the establishment of projects and actual supervision of work on all projects, 
other than those upon Federal lands, have been carried out by the State Division of 
Forestry. 

The following table shows the vast amount of work done in North Carolina by the 
ECW, since its inception in 1933: 

Table XXXV 

EMERGENCY CONSERVATION CAMPS — ACTIVITIES, 1933-1936 

Projects Total 
Forest Fires 

Man days 31,212 

Truck Trails, miles 1,097.3 

Fire Breaks, miles 177.8 

Fire Towers, number 55.6 

Telephone Lines, miles 399.7 

State Nursery 2,450 

Man days 
Seed Coll. 

Pine, Bu. (cones) 3,396 

Poplar, Bu. (seeds) 150 

Trees Planted, acres 15,168 

Grass Planted, acres * ? 104,468 

Brush Paving, square yards * 22,790 

Timber Estimating, acres 11,533 

Surveys, miles 56 

Dams built 6,258 

Wells, Waterholes 91 

Trailer sheds 27 

Other Buildings 221 

Bridges built 664 

Stand Improv., acres 5,535 

Other man days * 15,647 

The Forestry Department of the Soil Conservation Service, U. S. Department of 
Agriculture, was installed in the Deep River Project area on May 1, 1934. The initial 
work of this Department followed the general objective of the Soil Conservation Service, 
that of determining the amount of soil erosion, establishing methods and practices to stop 
erosion, and the development of the proper land use to be established in each area upon 
which work should be done. The Soil Conservation and its Forestry Department have 
maintained close co-operation with the North Carolina Department of Conservation and 
Development, the U. S. Forest Service, the Federal relief agencies engaged in forestry 
work, local organizations, and with the individual landowners upon whose acres work has 
been carried on. All Soil Conservation Service forestry activities have been carried out 
in accordance with the policies approved by the State Forester, who is a member of the 
State Soil Conservation Advisory Council. 

A resume of accomplishments from July 1, 1935 to June 30, 1936, follows. 

The eight demonstration projects and twenty ECW camps collected and transferred 
the following tree and shrub seed to the nursery division: 6,072 bushels of conifers; 
48,356 pounds of hardwood seeds; and 38,731 pounds of shrub seeds. This collection rep- 
resents 48 species of trees and shrubs, over 470,000 cuttings and some 50,000 plants 
which were collected and either transferred to the nursery division or used directly in 
the work. 



North Carolina : Today and Tomorrow 133 

A total of 4,488,355 trees and shrubs ware planted on 587 farms during the fiscal 
year. The area planted consisted of 497 acres of cultivated land, 252 acres of pasture land, 
2,256 acres of idle land, and 569 acres of gullied area — a total of 3,575 acres planted. 
Woodland improvement demonstration plots were established, covering a total of 2,756 
acres on 431 farms. Seeding, planting and general gully control work extended over 1,593 
acres. 

In addition to these works, the Soil Conservation Service has co-operated in the 
establishment of nurseries and in the development of others already existing. These 
nurseries include the City Lake Nursery at High Point, the State Nursery of the State 
Division of Forestry, nurseries in Orange and Anson counties, the Hoffman Nursery of 
the Resettlement Administration, and the Friendship Nursery. 

If the present number of operating CCC camps and the eight project demonstrat- 
tion areas continue, it is proposed that the Soil Conservation Service will sign up for 
general improvement, some 800,000 acres of farm lands. Of this total acreage, 22,000 
acres will be retired to new forests, a work which will require between 28 and 30 million 
plants with 120 thousand man days required to plant them. 

Some six to eight million acres of forest land in 35 counties are within the range of 
present camps and projects where fire protection is needed. Only nine of these counties 
have organized fire protection agencies. As a vital part of erosion control work and water 
conservation, the woodland management section must play a prominent role in a fire con- 
trol program in co-operation with the State. 

Woodland management plans have been drawn up for a number of selected farms. 
These plans will include an inventory of the amount of material available by products, 
the farmer's needs, and an estimate of any surplus material for sale. Recommendations 
will be made as to proper management practices, intermediate cuttings, and disposal of 
surplus products. 

Educational work of the Soil Conservation Service will become increasingly im- 
portant. Measures to expand this part of the program to include illustrated talks and 
lectures for groups of students, farmers, 4-H Clubs, etc., have been taken. 

FOREST OWNED AND OPERATED BY THE FORESTRY 
DEPARTMENT OF STATE COLLEGE 

The Forestry Department of State College owns and operates 87,000 acres of forest 
land. These areas are used for the purpose of studies in timber growth and forest dvelop- 
ment. These classes do the technical work such as determining weight of growth, density 
of stand, the mixture of species, and the silviculture practices to be used on the forest. 
These areas are located in different parts of the State which furnishes the conditions for 
studying the different types. One of the forests containing 1,500 acres is located in Dur- 
ham county, another area of 1,500 acres is located in Hyde county, and a large tract of 
84,000 in Jones and Onslow counties. The forestry work carried on during the summer 
school period is centered on these forest areas. The mills operating on the forest tract 
furnish very fine opportunity for the classes to study defects in timber and the applica- 
tion of various log rules, volume tables and other practices in forest administration. The 
policy is to carry on these forests as a business operation, all the charges to be derived 



134 North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 

from the sale of forest products. In this way students take part in a forest business. 
The total timber stand on the school forest contains about 50 million feet of merchantable 
timber and a very good stocking of young stands. The largest amount of the merchant- 
able timber is on the forest in Jones and Onslow counties. 

RESETTLEMENT ADMINISTRATION 

The Resettlement Administration is engaged in the acquisition of approximately 
100.000 acres of submarginal land in Richmond, Moore, Scotland, Hoke, and Bladen 
counties. As these acres are acquired, purchases being made from the owners of the 
land, the Administration through its Land Use Program, establishes definite projects of 
reforestation, restocking of wildlife resources, construction of recreational facilities, and 
the development of other permissible facilities looking toward a full, multiple use 
of the land. 

The Rural Resettlement Division of the Administration is engaged in purchasing 
good farming land in other sections of the State, which may be bought through long 
time government loans by the farmers who sell their submarginal lands and desire to 
move and make a new start on better soil. 

The Hoffman area, the larger of the Land Use Projects, comprises some 60,000 acres 
and extends into submarginal sections of Moore, Scotland, and Hoke counties. Approxi- 
mately 32,000 acres, or over half the entire area, have been set aside for reforestation 
and forest stand improvement. To facilitate forestry work in this, as well as in the 
Elizabethtown area, there is already in operation a large locust and pine seedling nursery 
near Hoffman. Producing at full capacity, this nursery will be capable of growing 20 
million seedlings for planting on these submarginal lands. Construction of eighty miles 
of truck trails and fire lanes to aid in fire suppression and control, is underway. 

The Elizabethtown area lies wholly within Bladen County and consists of approxi- 
mately 40,000 acres. Reforestation will be carried out upon 16,000 acres, as seedlings are 
made available by the Hoffman Nursery. Improvement work upon this project has 
resulted in the construction of 42 miles of truck trails. 

Combining the acres under development as forest lands, 48,000 acres are contained 
in both Land Use Projects. Upon completion of the present development of these forest 
lands, it is expected that the administration of the areas will be turned over to the North 
Carolina Department of Conservation and Development. 

These forests will be made to serve a dual purpose. In addition to producing timber, 
they will enhance the value of the land for wildlife and recreation — two other important 
phases of development in the areas. 

WOOD-USING INDUSTRIES OF NORTH CAROLINA 

There are 25 or more different types of industries in North Carolina whose principal 
raw material is supplied by the forests. Excluding the sawmills and furniture establish- 
ments, there were 393 wood-using industries in the State in 1933. These plants gave 
employment to 12,260 wage earners, paid $4,873,281 in wages, spent $9,396,731 for 
materials, and turned out products valued at $20,250,544. 



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136 



North Carolina : Today and Tomorrow 



In order to present a more accurate picture of the timber cut in North Carolina each 
year to supply the demand of all wood-using industries for raw material, it has been 
thought advisable to choose an average year to be selected from the period 1925-1929, 
rather than a later period unduly affected by the depression. 

SAWMILLS 

The operation of sawmills is classified as a primary wood-using industry. Two general 
classes of sawmills operate in North Carolina, the small portable type which may be 
moved from place to place, and the stationary band sawmills. The average cut per day 
for the portable sawmill runs around eight thousand feet, while the larger stationary 
mills are capable of cutting from seventy-five to a hundred thousand feet of lumber in 
a day's operation. 

An average of twelve hundred sawmills of all types have operated in North Carolina 
since 1899. The peak year was 1909, when 3,307 mills were engaged in producing lumber. 
The year 1932 is low, only 575 sawmills being operated in the State. In 1934, 1,154 saw- 
mills were reported, cutting a total of 571,452 M Board feet. 

Sawmills give employment annually to some 15,000 persons, the salaries and wages 
amounting to over $12,000,000. These mills spend annually over ten million dollars for 
logs and other raw materials, fuel and power, and cut lumber valued at nearly $40,000,000. 

The entire lumber industry in North Carolina was more active during the summer 
of 1936 than in any similar period since 1930. Mills in the Southern Forest region of the 
State are reporting anywhere from 15 to 33 per cent increase in business as compared 

Figure 8 



2500 



2000 



J500 



JOOO 



500 




1840 



'30 '35 



North Carolina : Today and Tomorrow 137 

with last year. Hardwood manufacturers are reporting the best business in years, due to 
increased demands for furniture lumber, oak flooring, and greatly accelerated orders for 
railroad equipment. 

Recommended steps to improve the competitive position of the lumber industry as 
reported by the special Lumber Survey's Committee to the Department of Commerce, 
are as follows: improvement of product in manufacture, fireproofing and other research; 
small house design and pref abrication ; and extensions of publicity and sales helps to 
establish the advantages of wood use and of research in improved design and scientific 
adaptation to more extended industrial use. 

Figure 8 illustrates fluctuations of lumber production in North Carolina from 1839 
to 1934. 

PLANING MILLS 

The manufactured products belonging to this industry include flooring, siding, ceil- 
ing, partition, exterior house trim, and also products of general millwork. Ninety-one 
such mills, excluding those connected with sawmills, operated in North Carolina in 1933, 
turning out products valued at over $4,000,000. The industry gave employment to 1,724 
persons whose wages for the year amounted to $862,461. Cost of materials, fuel, and 
purchased electric energy for operating, amounted to nearly $2,934,000. 

Well over 100,000,000 board feet of wood cut from the forests of North Carolina is 
demanded annually by the planing mills in the State. Practically all species of wood are 
utilized, with pine heading the list. 

In addition to the wood cut from the forests of this State, the planing mills have 
steadily increased their consumption of wood from other states. It is estimated that 
from 20 to 30 million board feet of wood are imported by this industry each year. 

BOXES AND CRATES 

In the manufacture of boxes and crates, pine is the principal wood used. The box 
factories turn out various kinds of products — complete boxes and crates of thick veneer, 
nailed boxes, and knocked-down boxes, commonly referred to as box shooks. 

In 1933, thirteen establishments were in operation, employing 610 persons at wages 
amounting to $252,408 and producing boxes and crates valued at $1,117,752. The cost 
of materials, fuel and purchased electric energy amounted to $697,502. 

Undoubtedly, this industry has suffered heavy losses due to the substitution of card- 
board and fibre boxes for shipping, and because of the fact that the poorer stock used in 
the manufacture of boxes has reduced considerably the margin of profit. 

The industry uses approximately one hundred million board feet of lumber annually, 
with from three to six million board feet being imported from outside the State. 

COOPERAGE 

The 1933 census figures report 17 cooperage establishments in North Carolina, 
employing 163 wage earners who receive $59,748 in wages. The manufactured products 



138 North Carolina : Today and Tomorrow 

were valued at $346,211. A considerable boost has been given this industry by the repeal 
of the Eighteenth Amendment. It is estimated that in 1936, establishments and produc- 
tion have nearly doubled the 1933 report. 

In addition to producing barrels for shipping potatoes and apples and hogsheads for 
storing and aging tobacco, the cooperage plants have added the manufacture of kegs for 
beer, wine, and bourbon. 

BASKETS 

There were eleven factories producing baskets in 1933. This industry employed 715 
persons, paid $228,157 in wages, and manufactured products valued at $854,440. The 
total cost of materials, fuel and purchased electric energy amounted to $350,854. 

The baskets manufactured are used in tobacco warehouses, for packing and shipping 
fruits, berries, and vegetables. A considerable industry in handweaving with rattan and 
willow has sprung up in the mountains of western North Carolina. These ornamental 
baskets have a large sale to the tourist trade. 

AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS 

From eleven factories in 1929 to five reporting in 1933, indicates a serious drop in 
this industry. However, this condition has been somewhat remedied in 1936, due to the 
improved buying power of local markets which consume almost the entire production. 

Products manufactured include hoes, cotton and corn planters, small grain drills, 
fertilizer distributors, peanut harvesters, and grain and pea threshers. The total value of 
these products in 1933, was $305,068. Wages paid to 105 persons amounted to $74,098. 
Cost of materials, fuel, and purchased electric energy was $86,178. 

VEHICLE AND VEHICLE PARTS 

In former years, this was one of North Carolina's main industries. The era of good 
roads and automobiles, however, has brought about great changes. In 1933, only three 
establishments were in operation in the State, manufacturing carriages, wagons, and 
sleds. These factories employed 119 persons, paid $64,900 in wages, and manufactured 
products valued at $344,434. The cost of materials, fuel, and purchased electric energy 
amounted to $193,246. 

WOOD TURNING AND SHAPING 

Products manufactured by this group include numerous small articles, such as 
bobbins, spools, and shuttle blocks used in textile mills; all types of bungs, handles, 
vehicle parts, novelties, and many other pieces. 

The number of plants classified under this group for 1933, was 14 establishments. 
These factories employed 257 persons, paid $117,293 in wages, and manufactured products 
valued at $538,180. The cost of materials, fuel and purchased electric energy was 
$240,870. 

Hand carved wood novelties are sold widely to tourists throughout the western 
North Carolina mountains. . 



North Carolina : Today and Tomorrow 139 

COFFINS AND CASKETS 

The manufacture of burial cases in North Carolina was carried on in 1933 by eight 
establishments. The total value of all caskets, coffins, burial cases and other morticians' 
goods amounted to $806,223. Employment was given to 190 persons, the wages amounting 
to $134,127. Cost of materials, fuel and purchased electric energy was $329,723. 

The principal woods used by this industry are chestnut, pine, oak, cypress, and gum. 
Wood, such as mahogany and walnut for the finer cases, is imported by this industry. 

OTHER WOOD-USING INDUSTRIES 

There are some 230 other establishments classified as Other Wood-Using Industries. 
The products manufactured include brooms, brushes, toys, novelties, excelsior, cedar 
chests, turpentine and rosin, rayon, and numerous other products. The total value of 
products manufactured by these industries is nearly eleven million dollars. Over eight 
thousand persons are employed annually, receiving wages in excess of $3,000,000. 

NAVAL STORES 

Production of Naval stores in North Carolina, ante-dating the lumber industry, 
reached its maximum production in the decade from 1870 to 1880. Although the State 
has continued production, practical exhaustion of the longleaf pine forests in the early 
present century has forced virtual abandonment of the industry. The unquestioned leader- 
ship that was once North Carolina's has passed further South and to the Southwest. 

The following table shows the extent of the decline of Naval Stores in the State. 

Table XXXVII 
TURPENTINE AND ROSIN OUTPUT BY STATES — 1935-1936 



Gum Rosin Gum Turpentine 

State 500-Lb. Barrels 50-Gal. Barrels 

Georgia 909,407 275,450 

Florida 466,929 141,416 

Alabama 160,450 45,637 

South Carolina 53,716 16,697 

Mississippi 32,271 10,045 

Louisiana 15,311 4,733 

Texas 5,657 2,066 

North Carolina 3,259 956 



Considering the great importance of the industry and the many uses to which its 
chief products, turpentine and rosin, may be put — it is highly desirable that production 
of naval stores should be restored in North Carolina. The present supply of gum produc- 
ing trees, entirely second growth, will be added to materially when the extensive tracts 
of young longleaf pine forests now developing in the Southern Forest region begin 
producing. 



140 North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 

Adequate fire control, reforestation — both by natural and artificial means, improved 
methods in scaling trees for gum, preserving and distillation advancements are all con- 
ducive to renewed activity in the Naval Stores industry. Vast opportunities exist in 
North Carolina for putting large acreage under management for a permanent yield of 
these valuable products. 

POSSIBILITIES FOR FURTHER DEVELOPMENT OF 
FOREST RESOURCES IN STATE 

The abundance of timber, the rapidity of its growth and the steadily increasing value 
of its by-products, coupled with sound measures for elimination of destructive cutting 
and fire, perpetuation of supply and conservation of lumber, make North Carolina an 
ideal State for the development of lumber, paper, and many other wood-using industries. 

In view of the fact that the trend in this State is definitely toward a sustained yield 
of timber from the forest, it may be stated that lumber manufacturing in North Carolina 
is a stable industry. In all probability, the amount of timber grown and cut for the 
lumber industry will continue to lead, by far, wood used for any other product. However, 
that the expansion of related industries will be enormous in the South and in North 
Carolina, is a certainty. 

The development of the pulp and paper industry is reaching such proportions as to 
create a revolution in the industry. The basis for the regional shift to the South is the 
enormous supply of cheap wood available. 

North Carolina's supply of wood available for pulp manufacture is in excess of 
66,000,000 cords. In the Southern Forest area alone, that region occupying the Coastal 
Plain of the State, over 43,000,000 cords of pulpwood are available. Under proper forest 
management, it is estimated that the vast pine growing region in this section of the 
State could produce up to IV2 cords of wood per acre per year. Considering the fact that 
the Nation's entire annual pulpwood requirements are now only about 12,000,000 cords, 
the immensity of North Carolina's supply and the possibilities for its utilization become 
apparent. 

In addition to the enormous supply of wood available for pulp and paper manufacture, 
the fact that North Carolina is able to provide unsurpassed competitive price advantages, 
should have considerable weight in influencing paper manufacturers to set up plants in 
this State. 

The cellulose industry, taking its chief raw materials direct from the forests, is in- 
vading the field formerly occupied solely in the South by cotton. Production of rayon from 
southern pine is an outstanding example, expanding steadily in this and other parts of 
the South while most manufacturing lines were engaged in retrenching during the depres- 
sion. Granting the contention that further inroads will be made upon cotton consump- 
tion for producing textiles and allied products, the South will still control the situation, 
for in this region there exist forest resources without parallel in the whole world. 

North Carolina, as one of the leading timber producing states of the South, occupies 
a most fortunate place in respect to further developments in the cellulose industry. 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 141 

Production of chemicals from wood goes back to the early Naval Stores Industry 
when tar, turpentine, and rosin formed the chief products. In recent years, experimen- 
tations by chemical engineers promise to open up a great new field for production of 
chemicals from wood. In this field, North Carolina offers splendid opportunities for the 
hardwood distillation industry. 

This industry is based upon production of charcoal, methanol, and acetic acid. It 
is estimated that a cord of wood yields 48 bushels of charcoal, 815 gallons of pure 
methanol, and 114 pounds of acetic acid. Charcoal produced in distillation is used for 
fuel in households and institutions, dining car grills, hotels, restaurants, and in connection 
with picnic grounds and camping sites. Great possibilities exist for briquetting of char- 
coal for use as fuel in better homes. Further uses of charcoal are : a reagent in a number 
of chemical industries, a constituent of black powder, of stock and poultry feed, in the 
manufacture of carbon products, and recently, as a deodorizing and decolorizing agent in 
the treatment of municipal water supplies. 

The rich hardwood areas contained in the Piedmont and Mountain sections of North 
Carolina offer unlimited supplies of wood for wood distillation. Cull trees that have no 
other commercial use, woods waste cut to lessen fire hazards, and sawmill waste may be 
utilized by the industry and converted into valuable products. 

Other possibilities for a greater utilization of North Carolina forests exist in com- 
mercial production of alcohol from wood, synthetic camphor from southern pine, and 
numerous other processes now in the experimental stage. 

Smaller wood-using industries, now operating in the State but capable of expansion, 
are: manufacture of brooms, brushes, toys, novelties, cedar chests, refrigerators, show 
cases, shuttle blocks, bobbins, and the manufacture of bourbon, wine, and beer barrels, 
casks, and kegs. 



Chapter VIII 

MINERAL RESOURCES OF NORTH CAROLINA 

The mineral resources of North Carolina have long been known to be widely dis- 
tributed, of great variety, and many of them in very large quantities. Field studies have 
been carried on through the years until most of the mineral deposits of importance 
have been mapped. Extractive operations have been carried on for years, but the last 
decade has been marked by a phenomenal development of these resources. 

As in many other states, mining operations have sometimes been subject to undue 
exploitation, and the discovery of larger deposits elsewhere or advances in technology 
have brought about an abandonment of some enterprises. Nevertheless, these same ad- 
vances in science and industry have served to create new demands and open markets 
for minerals to be found in North Carolina. Minerals such as tin, nickel, manganese, 
titanium, and chromium, all to be found in North Carolina, are in greater demand, and 
this demand has given renewed impetus to prospecting, exploration, and development. 

This chapter presents a review of the past development of mining activties in the 
State, a summary of the present status of the industry and suggestions of possibilities 
for future expansion. 

HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT 

The earliest record of mineral resources is perhaps that of the Ralph Lane Colony, 
which in 1585 reported the discovery of iron ore at two places. These were probably lim- 
onite, or "bog iron" ores, and were described as being about "four score miles and six 
score miles from the fort." As far as the record indicates, however, no ore was produced 
until many years later. 

Bar and pig iron was shipped to England in 1728, and hoes and kitchen utensils 
made by enterprising colonists from North Carolina goods competed with British 
products, in New York markets. The English Parliament in 1750 forbade "the estab- 
lishment of rolling and splitting mills," in an effort to stop this competition. 

Some contraband products were still produced along the Cape Fear, Yadkin, and 
Dan rivers, but the industry languished until the period immediately preceding the 
Revolutionary War. During that war, war supplies and pig iron were furnished to the 
American armies. 

Gold was discovered accidentally in Cabarrus County, identification being made in 
1802 from a specimen used as a doorstop. Placer gold was found in streams nearby and 
from this place to many other areas in the State. Incomplete records for gold produc- 
tion, from Treasury Department files, indicate active development, which reached its 
height in 1833. After the easy placer deposits were depleted, mining of weathered veins 
and finally of deeper deposits was carried on. The first vein opening was in 1825. The 
recovery of gold from the free milling ores, or sulphides, required greater expense for 
mining, crushing, and concentration. These increased costs reduced profits, and, with the 
discovery of gold in California, the industry ceased to be of any importance. 

Copper was discovered by the gold prospectors in the early part of the nineteenth 
century. Emmons reports in 1852 that the Fentress Mine produced copper, after the gold 
deposit had been exausted. 



144 North Carolina : Today and Tomorrow 

In 1820, Denison Olmstead, Professor of Natural History at the University of North 
Carolina and later the first State Geologist, reported the occurrence of coal in the Deep 
River section of Chatham County. This coal had doubtless been in use locally before 
1800. 

Clays suitable for making common brick were found widely and used in all the 
settlements. Talc and soapstone were used for building. 

The War of 1812 brought about an increased demand for iron and other mineral 
products, supplying naval works as at Charleston, where cannon, anchors, and iron ship 
fittings were made. In 1850, there were two small iron plants in Gaston County. Another 
important plant was that of the American Iron and Steel Company, on the Cape Fear 
River in Harnett County. This plant utilized coal from the Deep River mines, while 
shells and limestone were shipped upstream to be used for fluxes. The product, con- 
sisting of pig iron, was shipped to Baltimore and used for the manufacture of car wheels. 

The Cranberry Iron and Coal Company erected a fifteen-ton blast furnace at the 
Cranberry Mine in 1884, using charcoal and later coke from West Virginia for fuel. 
The North Carolina Steel and Iron Works also erected a blast furnace of 100 tons capacity 
at Greensboro in 1892. Both of these furnaces found it difficult to compete with the 
development of the industry in Pennsylvania and Alabama. The opening of the great 
ore deposits of the Lake Superior region marked the end of this industry in the State. 

Lead and zinc mining was first started in Davidson County about 1900, and was 
continued at Silver Hill for several years, after the gold-producing surface deposits were 
exhausted. 

Mica, early used for window panes, has been produced for years. Many new uses 
for sheet and scrap mica have been recently made, and means have been found to re- 
cover and use mica which was formerly discarded. Consequently this industry has pros- 
pered, and North Carolina is today the leading producer of mica in the United States. 

Monazite, a phosphate of the cerium metals, usually containing quantities of thor- 
ium silicate, has been produced from surface deposits and in the weathered gneisses of 
North Carolina. Burke, Cleveland, Iredell, and Rutherford counties contained the more 
important deposits. The rare thorium and cerium salts were extracted from the minerals 
and used chiefly for the production of gas mantles. The production reached its peak in 
1895 with 1,500,000 tons, which sold for prices ranging from $7.00 to $11.00 per ton. 
Discovery of larger deposits in India and Brazil, and the decrease in the use of gas for 
lighting, brought an end to the profitable production of these minerals. 

Pyrite, zircon, corundum, and graphite have been mined in North Carolina in earlier 
years, but changes in manufacturing needs and processes have made their extraction no 
longer economical or feasible. Tin and nickel are now being mined in increasing quantities. 

Mining operations respond very quickly to changes in demand, altered processes, 
and price levels. Gold mining in North Carolina illustrates this fact, since the increase 
in price of gold to $35.00 per ounce has brought about a decided revival of interest and 
many operations are now being carried on. Industrial demands for minerals such as 
kyanite, vermiculite, barite, chromite, kaolin, manganese, are now increasing. Many 



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144 North Carolina : Today and Tomorrow 

In 1820, Denison Olmstead, Professor of Natural History at the University of North 
Carolina and later the first State Geologist, reported the occurrence of coal in the Deep 
River section of Chatham County. This coal had doubtless been in use locally before 
1800. 

Clays suitable for making common brick were found widely and used in all the 
settlements. Talc and soapstone were used for building. 

The War of 1812 brought about an increased demand for iron and other mineral 
products, supplying naval works as at Charleston, where cannon, anchors, and iron ship 
fittings were made. In 1850, there were two small iron plants in Gaston County. Another 
important plant was that of the American Iron and Steel Company, on the Cape Fear 
River in Harnett County. This plant utilized coal from the Deep River mines, while 
shells and limestone were shipped upstream to be used for fluxes. The product, con- 
sisting of pig iron, was shipped to Baltimore and used for the manufacture of car wheels. 

The Cranberry Iron and Coal Company erected a fifteen-ton blast furnace at the 
Cranberry Mine in 1884, using charcoal and later coke from West Virginia for fuel. 
The North Carolina Steel and Iron Works also erected a blast furnace of 100 tons capacity 
at Greensboro in 1892. Both of these furnaces found it difficult to compete with the 
development of the industry in Pennsylvania and Alabama. The opening of the great 
ore deposits of the Lake Superior region marked the end of this industry in the State. 

Lead and zinc mining was first started in Davidson County about 1900, and was 
continued at Silver Hill for several years, after the gold-producing surface deposits were 
exhausted. 

Mica, early used for window panes, has been produced for years. Many new uses 
for sheet and scrap mica have been recently made, and means have been found to re- 
cover and use mica which was formerly discarded. Consequently this industry has pros- 
pered, and North Carolina is today the leading producer of mica in the United States. 

Monazite, a phosphate of the cerium metals, usually containing quantities of thor- 
ium silicate, has been produced from surface deposits and in the weathered gneisses of 
North Carolina. Burke, Cleveland, Iredell, and Rutherford counties contained the more 
important deposits. The rare thorium and cerium salts were extracted from the minerals 
and used chiefly for the production of gas mantles. The production reached its peak in 
1895 with 1,500,000 tons, which sold for prices ranging from $7.00 to $11.00 per ton. 
Discovery of larger deposits in India and Brazil, and the decrease in the use of gas for 
lighting, brought an end to the profitable production of these minerals. 

Pyrite, zircon, corundum, and graphite have been mined in North Carolina in earlier 
years, but changes in manufacturing needs and processes have made their extraction no 
longer economical or feasible. Tin and nickel are now being mined in increasing quantities. 

Mining operations respond very quickly to changes in demand, altered processes, 
and price levels. Gold mining in North Carolina illustrates this fact, since the increase 
in price of gold to $35.00 per ounce has brought about a decided revival of interest and 
many operations are now being carried on. Industrial demands for minerals such as 
kyanite, vermiculite, barite, chromite, kaolin, manganese, are now increasing. Many 



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NORTH CAROLINA 
MINING OPERATIONS 



^ NON-METALS 
^ METALS 



<te a 



PLATE No. XVIII 
CHAPTER VIII 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 



l \:> 



inquiries are now being received, and the mining industry is daily becoming more im- 
portant in North Carolina. 

MINERALS OF NORTH CAROLINA 

The minerals known to be found in North Carolina are listed alphabetically in the 
following catalogue. Out of more than 300 minerals there are 70 that have at present a 
definite economic value. More than half of the valuable minerals are known to occur in 
commercial quantities. 



Actinolite 


Calamine 


Emerald 


Jasper 


Aeschynite 


Calcite 


Emery 


Jefferisite 


Agate 


Carnelian 


Enstatite 




Aikinite 


Cassiterite 


Epidote 


Kanmererite 


Albite 


Cerargyrite 


Erinite 


Kaolinite 


Allanite 


Cerolite 


Essonite 


Kerrite (2) 


Alleghanyite 


Cerussite 


Euclase 


Knebelite 


Almandite 


Chabazite 


Euxenite 


Kokscharoffite 


Altaite 


Chalcanthite 






Alunite 


Chalcedony 


Feldspar (1) 


Kreittonite 


Alunogen 


Chalcocite 


Fergusonite 


Labradorite 


Amber 


Chalcopyrite 


Fibrolite 


Lazulite 


Amethyst 


Chalcotrichite 


Fuchsite 


Lead 


Amianthus 


Chert 


Fluorite 


Leucopyrite 


Amphibole (1) 


Chlorite 




Liebigite 


Anatase 


Chloritoid 


Gadolinite 


Limonite 


Andesine 


Chromite 


Gahnite 


Lucasite (2) 


Andradite 


Chrysocolla 


Galaxite 


Maconite 


Anglesite 


Chrysolite 


Galena 


Magnesite 


Annerodite 


Chrysotile 


Garnet (1) 


Magnetite 


Anorthite 


Chrysoprase 


Garnierite 


Malachite 


Anthophyllite 


Clarkeite 


Gedrite 


Marcasite 


Antimony (1) 


Clinochlore 


Genthite 


Margarite 


Apatite 


Coccolite 


Glauconite 


Margarodite 


Aquamarine 


Columite 


Gold 


Marmolite 


Aragonite 


Copper 


Goslarite 


Martite 


Arfvedsonite 


Cordierite 


Goethite 


Meerschaum 


Argentite 


Corundophilite 


Grammatite 


Meionite 


Arsenopyrite 


Corundum 


Graphite 


Melaconite 


Asbolite 


Covellite 


Grossularite 


Melanterite 


Vuerlite (2) 


Crocidolite 


Grunerite 


Menacconite 


Augite 


Crocoite 


Gummite 


Mengite 


Automolite 


Culsageeite (2) 


Gymmite 


Mica (1) 


Autunite 


Cummingtonite 


Gymnite 


Microcline 


Azurite 


Cuprite 


Gypsum 


Microlite 




Cuproscheelite 




Mitchellite (2) 


Baltimorite 


Cuprontungstite 


Halite 


Molybdenite 


Barnhardtite (2) 


Cyanite 


Halloysite 


Molybdite 


Barite 


Cyrtolite 


Halotrichite 


Monazite 


Basanite 




Hatchettolite (2) 


Montanite 


Bastite 


Damourite 


Hausmannite 


Montmorillinite 


Bauxite 


Deweylite 


Hematite 


Muscovite 


Bemenite 


Diamond 


Hercvnite 




Beryl 


Diallage 


Hiddenite (2) 


Nagyagite 


Biotite 


Diaspore 


Hornblende 


Neotocite 


Bismite 


Dichroite 


Hielmite 


Niccolite 


Bismuthinite 


Diopside 


Hyalite 


Niter 


Bismutite 


Disthene 


Hydro fergusonite 




Bornite 


Dolomite 


Hypersthene 


Octahedrite 


Boulangerite 


Dudleyite 


Ilmenite 


Oligoclase 


Braunite 


Dufrenite 




Olivenite 


Breunnerite 




Indianite 


Olivine 


Bronzite 


Edenite 


Iolite 


Orthoclase 


Brookite 


Edwardsite 


Iron 


Orthite 



146 



North Carolina : Today and Tomorrow 



Opal 


Pyroxene 


Sillimanite 


Uranite 


Ottrelite 




Smaragdite 


Uraninite 




Quartz 


Sperrylite 


Uraconite 


Paranthite 


Flint 


Spessartite 


Uranophane 


Paragonite 


Milky quartz 


Sphalerite 


Uranotile 


Pargasite 


Rock crystals 


Sphene 


Uranothallite 


Pearl 


Rose quartz 


Spinel (1) 


Uvarovite 


Penninite 




Spodumene 




Peridot 


Rensselaerite 


Staurolite 


Vanadinite 


Perofskite 


Rhodochrosite 


Steatite 


Vermiculite (1) 


Pharmacosiderite 


Rhodolite (2) 


Stibnite 


Villarsite 


Phlogopite 


Rhodonite 


Stilbite 


Vivianite 


Phosphocerite 


Rhaetizite 


Stolzite 


Voglite 


Phosphuranylite (2) 


Ripidolite 


Succinite 


Wad 


Picotite 


Rogersite (2) 


Sulphur 


Wavellite 


Picrolite 


Rubellite 




Wellsite 


Pitchblende 


Ruby 


Talc 


Willcoxite 


Platinum 


Ruby Spinel 


Tantalite 


Williamsite 


Pleonaste 


Rutherfordite 


Tenorite 


Willemite 


Polycrase 


Rutile 


Tephroite 


Wolframite 


Prochlorite 




Tetradymite 




Proustite 


Sagenite 


Tetrahedrite 


Xanthitane 


Psilomelane 


Samarskite 


Titanite 


Xenotine 


Pycnite 


Saponite 


Tin 




Pyrargyrite 


Sapphire 


Thorite 


Zinc 


Pyrite 


Scheelite 


Thulite 


Zippeite 


Pyrochlore 


Schreibersite 


Topaz 


Zircon 


Pyroclusite 


Scorodite 


Torbernite 


Zoisite 


Pyromelane 


Sepiolite 


Tourmaline 




Pyromorphite 


Sericite 


Tremolite 




Pyrope 


Serpentine 


Troilite 




Pyrophyllite 


Siderite 


Tungstite 




Pyrrhotite 


Silver 


Turnerite 





(1) Group names 

(2) First identified in North Carolina 



These minerals may properly be classified in three groups: metals, non-metals, 
and gems. Detailed discussion of various representative minerals of these groups will 
be presented in the following pages. The presentation will follow the order of this out- 
line: 

Group I. Metals : gold, silver, copper, iron, manganese, tin, chromite, nickel. 

Group II. Non-Metals : abrasives, asbestos, bromine, clays, coal, feldspar, kyanite, 
lithium minerals, marble, limestone, marl, mica, sand and gravel, stone, 
talc, pyrophyllite and soapstone, vermiculite (see mica). 

Group III. Gems. 

The Metals 
Gold and Silver 

The establishment by Federal authorities of a price of $35 per ounce for gold brought 
about a renewed production of that metal from North Carolina mines. Production has 
been recorded from six separate districts or belts in the past, and mines are operating 
in each at the present time. These belts as listed in Bulletin No. 38, Gold Deposits in 
North Carolina, issued by the State Department of Conservation and Development, are 
as follows: 

1. The Eastern Carolina Belt: Franklin, Nash, Warren, and Halifax counties. 



North Carolina : Today and Tomorrow 147 

2. The Carolina Slate Belt: Extending from Person County on the north across 
the intervening counties to Anson and Union counties, thence into South Carolina. 

3. The Carolina Igneous Belt: Paralleling the Slate Belt on the west, and varying 
from 15 to 35 miles in width. 

4. The Kings Mountain Belt: Irregular in shape and extending roughly along the 
west side of the southern half of the Igneous Belt. 

5. The South Mountain Belt: About 300 square miles in Burke, McDowell, and 
Rutherford counties. 



6. The Western Belt: The area west of the Blue Ridge. 



Except for some sedimentary limestones in the Kings Mountain Belt, the rocks in 
all belts are of igneous or metamorphic classification and are distributed in complex struc- 
tures, the eroded remnants of past mountain-making eras. 

The first two belts above are principally areas of schist and slate, cut in two or 
more planes by fissure veins filled with quartz. The quartz usually carries free gold or 
sulphides in the ore zones, though it may be barren. In places, sulphides are dis- 
seminated through the schists. 

In the Igneous Belt, granites, intruded by diorites, gabbros and diabases, are the 
country rock, with the values lying in veins of quartz or sulphides, or both. The ore 
zones as a rule possess gneissic and schistose characteristics in this belt. Mecklenburg 
County, where some of the largest production of the State is found, lies in this region. 

The Kings Mountain Belt contains as country rock crystalline schists and gneisses, 
with occasional lenticular bodies of siliceous materials, magnesium limestone and 
quartzite. The schists and gneisses are quite highly mineralized, especially where peg- 
matites have cut into them. The gold ores are found in quartz veins, mineralized zones, 
and in some of the limestone or quartzite lenses. Quartz with sulphides of iron, lead and 
copper are associated with the gold. Barite is not uncommon. 

The South Mountain and the Western Belts are somewhat alike. Both have mica and 
hornblende gneisses and schists as the predominating country rocks, though in the 
former, lenticular structure is more readily discernible. Alteration products are common, 
and both areas have been cut by granite dikes. The gold values are from quartz stringers 
and veins. These are scattered and small in the South Mountain Belt and seldom 
bunched to permit mining on a large scale. Somewhat the same condition is found 
in the Western Belt, but, in addition, there are veins containing both copper and gold, 
the copper being the predominant metal and gold a valuable by-product. A great deal 
of the gold production of North Carolina in the past few years has come from copper 
mines. 

In all of these belts there are found four types of placer deposits and saprolite, the 
latter term being given to the decomposed country rock which is still in place. These are 
classified further as: 

1. Gravel beds along the streams anl adjoining bottom lands. 



148 North Carolina : Today and Tomorrow 

2. Bench gravels on hillsides, deposited by stream action, but left well above the 
present stream level by later erosion. 

3. Residual gravels in gulch and hillside accumulations. 

4. The talus or accumulations at the base of steep slopes. 

5. Saprolite, which is handled in mining with methods very similar to those used 
in placer operations. 

In all of the above deposits the gold is free and is usually separated from the gravels 
by washing. The size of the metal particles ranges from dust to nuggets, and its high 
specific gravity causes it to be found somewhat concentrated and mixed with the heavier 
gravels. Gold in the saprolite retains the relative position that it had before the rock was 
decomposed. 

Values in the placers vary from a few cents to many dollars a cubic yard. Such de- 
posits tend to occur in pockets, and care must be exercised in their working. 

In mining in the hard rock and occasionally in the saprolite, shafting and tunneling 
are used. Shafts are sunk beside the veins, and drifts or tunnels are sent out along the 
strike or directional trend of the ore bodies. 

No mines in the State are operated solely for silver. All silver comes from the gold 
and copper ores as a valuable by-product. During 1935, the Treasury price for domestic 
newly mined silver was twice increased, the latest quotation being 77.57 cents per ounce. 

Production of gold is shown in Tables XXXVIII and XXXIX. The records of the 
State Geologist show nineteen gold mines and nine recovery mills in active operation 
in eleven counties. Indications point to a much greater output for 1936 than for any 
year since 1915. A list of the active producers follows, arranged according to counties. 

County Name of Owner Name of Mine Location 

Cabarrus Claricy Consolidated Mine, Ltd., Toronto Can Whitney 

Gold Hill 

Isenhour Gold Hill 

Cabarrus Midas Mining Company, Winston-Salem, N. C Allen Furr Rocky River 

Cleveland Syndicate, Inc., Knoxville, Tenn. Patterson Kings Mountain 

Davidson Liberty Mining Corporation, Lexington N. C Liberty Lexington 

Franklin Norlina Mining Company, Essex, N. C Portis Wood 

Guilford Gibson Gold Mining Co., Gibsonville, N. C Gibson Gibsonville 

Henderson Boylston Mining Co., Asheville, N. C Boylston Forge Mt., nr. 

Hendersonville 

Mecklenburg . . . Capps Gold Mine, Ltd., Charlotte, N. C Capps Charlotte 

Mecklenburg . . H. Jardine and Co., Charlotte, N. C. Matthews 

Mecklenburg . . . Stark Gold Mining Corp., Charlotte, N. C McCall, Dunn . . Rozelle Ferry 

Rd., Charlotte 

Mecklenburg . . Rudisil Gold Mining Corp., Charlotte, N. C Rudisil Charlotte 

Randolph Black Ankle Mining Corp., Seagrove, N. C Black Ankle . . . Seagrove 

Rowan Gold Recovery Corp., Sanford, N. C. Gold Hill Gold Hill 

Stanly Crowell Mining Co., New London, N. C Crowell New London 

Stanly N. C. Mining Corp., New London, N. C Parker New London 

Stanly Thompson Mining Co., Albemarle, N. C Thompson Albemarle 

Union Condor Consolidated Mines, Toronto, Can Howie Waxhaw 

Copper 

The copper-bearing areas of North Carolina roughly correspond to the gold belts 
of the western half of the State, and are four in number. The first is the Syenitic Belt, 



North Carolina : Today and Tomorrow 149 

and covers parts of Guilford, Rowan, Cabarrus, and Mecklenburg counties. Syenite, or 
granite, compose the country rocks and the ores chalcopyrite, malachite, and red cop- 
per oxide occur in veins. Gangue minerals are quartz with manganese, siderite, pyrite, 
and limonite. No mines are worked for copper in the district at present. The early pro- 
duction was from the decomposed surface deposits, and no record of quantity or value 
was kept. 

The second area, that of the Central Huronian Slates, consists of highly metamor- 
phosed, coarse and fine acid volcanics with either schistose or slaty appearance. Dikes and 
silicified zones are numerous, sometimes being small and parallel, giving a bedded 
appearance. The copper ore is auriferous chalcopyrite with pyrite. 

The third area, the Virgilina District, extends through Granville and Person coun- 
ties and into Virginia, and is on the east side of the Huronian Slate Belt. Greenstone 
schist and quartzone sericitic schists have been intercalated with granitic masses and a 
smaller amount of gabbroid rocks. The veins, chiefly of quartz, with occasional pockets 
of epidote and calcite, vary from a few inches to fifteen or twenty feet in width and from 
a few hundred yards to five miles in length. Bornite is the principal ore with chalcopy- 
rite and some chalcorite. No mines are operating in the North Carolina half of the dis- 
trict, but with a slight increase in the price of copper profitable operation could be 
resumed. 

The fourth and last area is the Western or Mountain Belt, covering twelve 
counties. There are three subdivisions of this large area: the Swain County area, Ashe 
County area, and the Jackson-Haywood area. Swain County is the only county in the 
State now producing copper, and the whole output comes from the Fontana Copper 
Company of Fontana, North Carolina. The Cullowhee Mine, owned by the North Caro- 
lina Flux Company and located in Jackson County, is still capable of production and until 
1930 was a steady producer. 

Copper mining activity in North Carolina has naturally fluctuated with the price of 
copper. The per cent of the metal found in the ore is extremely high when compared with 
that of the large western deposits. However, different conditions exist in this State. 
The ores must be mined from veins by underground methods and not stripped from 
hillsides with steam shovels. Improvements in operations are serving to lower overhead 
costs and to increase production. 

The peak year for copper production was in 1929, when the Fontana and the Cullo- 
whee Mines together produced 15,000,000 pounds. Statistics have been kept only since 
1900, and to date approximately 60,000,000 pounds of metal have been produced. Sixty- 
six mines in fifteen counties have produced copper ores in previous years. Gold and 
silver have been valuable by-products of the copper industry. 

Iron 

Iron ore is to be found in many scattered deposits over the State. Most of these 
ores may be described as "low-grade," containing smaller proportions of iron. As stated 
in the introductory paragraphs, competition from other regions has brought about the 
abandonment of all iron workings in the State. The Cranberry Mine still operates as a 
stone-crushing plant, shipping iron ore to furnaces in Tennessee, when price conditions 
are suitable. 



150 North Carolina : Today and Tomorrow 

The ores are of four principal types: (1) magnetite, (2) titaniferous magnetite, (3) 
hematite, (4) limonite, or "bog" ores. Magnetite is found, either massive or disseminated, 
in more or less parallel veins or lenses in the gneisses, schists, and other crystalline rocks 
of Avery and Mitchell counties. Other deposits are found in Granville, Stokes, Surry, 
Catawba, and Ashe counties. Ores, low in sulphur, phosphorus and titanium but high 
in iron content, are available in several of the western counties of the State and only 
need better transportation facilities to make production profitable. The Cranberry Mine 
contains magnitite ore with these qualities. With existing shipping facilities, this area 
probably could be ranked second to the more important ores in Alabama. 

Titaniferous magnetites occur in a number of localities in the Piedmont and Moun- 
tain regions of North Carolina, but no deposits have yet been developed far enough to 
determine their worth under conditions of large-scale production. The ores contain on the 
average 13 per cent titanium oxide, and where the percentage is higher, crystals of 
ilmenite are found intergrown with the magnetite. The titanic iron ores and ilmenite, 
iron and titanium oxide, occur in the same complex gneisses, ranging from basic horn- 
blende gneisses to acid granites and other igneous rocks. The two most promising areas 
are the belt to the west of Greensboro extending across Rockingham, Guilford, and 
Davidson counties, and an area north of Lenoir in Caldwell County. 

The hematite and limonite ores occur mainly in mountain valleys in the western part 
of the State, and in the central portions of the Piedmont. Madison, Cherokee, and 
McDowell counties are the most important in the Mountain region, and Catawba, Lincoln, 
and Gaston counties in the Piedmont. W. S. Bailey (Bulletin No. 32, Department of Con- 
servation and Development) regards the so-called "brown hematite" ores as being more 
likely limonite or goethite, both hydrous oxides of iron. As furnished in carload lots, 
they are classed as non-Bessemer ores, and contain 45 per cent to 52 per cent iron, 
0.25 per cent to 1.25 per cent manganese, 3 per cent to 7 per cent phosphorous, traces 
of sulphur, and 8 per cent to 18 per cent silica or sand. The variations in iron and silica 
depend on the care taken in preparing the ore. 

The "bog" ores occurring in the Coastal Plain area of the State are limonite de- 
posits. They are not now important, and were worked only during the Colonial days. 

The only production of iron ore is in conjunction with the rock-crushing plant at 
Cranberry, N. C, owned by the Cranberry Furnace Company, Johnson City, Tennessee. 
Shipments of magnetite ore are made on demand. The ore is exceptionally suited for 
making high-grade pig iron for castings and for special steels and alloys. 

Titanic iron ores are difficult to smelt, and have been generally avoided. The use 
of titanium for hardening steels and in making steel alloys has been the subject of much 
research, and it is hoped there may be a demand for these ores. At present rutile and 
ilmenite, oxides of titanium, supply the market for this element for both metallurgical 
and chemical purposes. 

In general, North Carolina has a fair proportion of the low grade iron ores found 
along the Appalachian Mountain chain, but the only deposits being commercially 
worked today are in Alabama and Nova Scotia. 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 151 

Manganese 

Deposits of manganese ore of fair quality are to be found near Sparta in Alleghany 
County; as magnetite with high manganese content in Ashe County; in "pockets" of 
pyrolusite on Low Creek in Cherokee County; and as fissures and pockets in quartz 
veins in Transylvania County, near Brevard on Boyleston Creek. 

A seam of manganese ore, four feet thick, is found on Shut-In Creek in Madison 
County, and very good ore is found in the western part of Surry County. In Cleveland 
County, near Kings Mountain, a seam of slate approximately 1,000 feet wide carried a 
low manganese content. 

The total production for the period of 1929 to 1935 consisted of two carloads shipped 
to smelter plants in Birmingham, Alabama. More than $35,000 has been spent recently 
in prospecting and investigations, and a manganese concentration plant has been 
erected, but there is no current production. 

In spite of recent reductions of tariff duties on ores containing 10 per cent or more 
of manganese, the price level is still sufficiently high to make the production of man- 
ganese a profitable enterprise in North Carolina. 

The rapid increase in steel production and increased uses for manganese alloys pro- 
vides a sustained demand, and the further development of manganese mining in North 
Carolina should be expected. 

Tin 

The tin deposits of North Carolina have been found in a belt extending from a point 
two miles northeast of Grover, generally parallel to the trend of the rock formations, 
through the town of Kings Mountain and northeastward to Beaverdam Creek, near Lin- 
colnton. In South Carolina to the southwest a tin deposit is found near Gaffney, known 
as the Ross Tin Mine, which may possibly be an extension of the North Carolina belt. 

Pegmatites are the end product of the cooling of molten rock masses which are 
forced into the cracks of the contracting main body and the openings of the surround- 
ing country rock. In addition to quartz and feldspars found in them, there are volatile or 
pneumatolytic mineral zones, which include tin. The pegmatites occur in sheets and lens 
shaped bodies cutting mainly the gneisses and schists. The cassiterite, oxide of tin, is 
found in some, but not all, of these large-crystalled intrusions, called greisen if they 
contain tin. 

Several attempts have been made to work the North Carolina tin ores, with rather 
indifferent success. The United States is dependent for its supply of tin on importations, 
with the exception of a small amount produced in Alaska. The U. S. House of Repre- 
sentatives conducted an investigation of tin production in 1934, and it is possible that 
steps will be taken to locate and develop mines in the United States, either by subsidy 
or other means of encouragement. The investigation was prompted by world monop- 
olistic conditions tending to maintain the price at a high level in peace-time and con- 
trolling the uses of the metal in time of war. 

Food-packing, automotive, and building industries consume most of the tin used 
in the United States. Tinning of metal plates for cans and roofing, terneplate for 



152 North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 

gasoline tanks, alloys such as babbit metal used for engine bearings, are perhaps the 
most important uses for this metal. There is at the present time a firm demand for the 
metal and indications that this demand will increase in the future. 

One important mining company has been actively engaged in exploratory and de- 
velopment work in the area near Lincolnton in Lincoln County. They have recently 
announced the marking of six well-defined bodies of ore-bearing material. It is expected 
that large-scale production will begin in the near future. 

Chromium 

The chromite ore found in North Carolina is in the form of peridotites and other 
igneous magnesium rocks, or their metamorphic derivatives. There are large areas of 
such rocks in western North Carolina, and chromite is found in varying amounts in all 
of them. Several localities are worth prospecting or further development at times when 
the ore is sold for even average prices. 

Four of the most promising areas are: 

1. Mine Hill, five miles north of Burnsville in Yancey County. 

2. Areas near Webster in Jackson County. 

3. Areas on Big Ivy Creek, sixteen miles from Asheville, in Buncombe County. 
Recent prospecting has been done here, where small grains of chromite have been found 
in the peridotite and considerable quantities of sands that may be readily concentrated 
are weathered out on the surface and along this creek. 

4. In the Balsam Gap area, on Dark Ridge Creek, just south of the Dark Ridge 
Crossing on the Murphy Branch of the Southern Railway, is found a vein of chromite 
ranging from two to three feet in thickness. Three carloads of ore have been shipped, 
though there is no production at the present time. 

Chromium was one of the most important needs during the World War, for harden- 
ing steels and manufacturing munitions. Since then, the metal has been adopted for use 
in a great many industries and its applications are varied. Perhaps the most familiar 
use is the ornamental "silver" plating for automobiles. This use, however, requires only 
a small amount of chromium. Most of the consumption goes into treating of steels, where 
a small proportion adds hardness and toughness without causing brittleness. Motor 
parts, body frames, and springs use most of the chromium required by the automotive 
industry. Chromium steels are used also in railroad equipment, since the stronger steels 
require less mass per structural unit and the "dead weight" can be transferred to pay 
loads. 

Recent metallurgical research has developed processes which make possible the 
welding of chrome steels. The addition of high nitrogen ferrochromium reduces the grain 
size while adding other desirable properties. Steels containing 20 per cent or more chro- 
mium may now be forged, cold drawn or welded without change or loss of strength. This 
advance permits the use of chrome steel in machinery, since repairs can be made by 
welding where replacement would have been necessary before. 



North Carolina : Today and Tomorrow 153 

Chromite is also used with a filler and binder, such as fire clay, in the manufacture 
of linings for metallurgical furnaces, because of its high refractory and neutral charac- 
teristics. Bricks and cements made for this purpose require quantities of chromium, in 
amounts second only to the requirements of the steel industry. 

These two industries, together with the paint and chemical industries, absorb 
practically the entire production of chromium. The United States is now the greatest 
consumer among the nations, the demand for this metal having tripled in the last few 
years. This increased demand has brought renewed interest in the North Carolina 
deposits of chromium. 

Lead and Zinc 

The surface deposits at Silver Hill in Davidson County, after having been worked 
for gold and silver, yielded lead and zinc ores for several years up to 1913. Parts of this 
are still considered as suitable for working. Other deposits promising profitable yields 
are located in Haywood, McDowell, and Montgomery counties. One deposit near Troy, 
N. C, showed lead (10 per cent to 20 per cent), zinc (20 per cent to 35 per cent), with 
small amounts of gold and silver. Geologists recently engaged in exploratory work have 
expressed the belief that there are several workable deposits and it is to be expected that 
they may soon be in production. 

The ores commonly found are galena and sphalerite, usually occurring together. The 
ores are separated by floatation, roasted to remove sulphur, and refined in furnaces or by 
electrolysis. Silver and gold are recovered in the refining process. 

Lead is used as a metal, as a carbonate (white lead), or as oxides in the manufac- 
ture of glass and pottery. Zinc spelter (metallic zinc) is used for galvanizing iron and 
in the making of brass, alloys, and sheet zinc. Zinc oxide is used in white paints, the 
chlorides as wood preservatives, while sulphates are used in dyes and for medicinal 
purposes. 

Nickel 

Nickel, like manganese and tin, is now imported into this country, largely from 
Canada and New Caledonia. Prices are high and there is an increased demand for the 
metal, and for these reasons attention is now being directed to the low-grade nickel ores 
of Jackson County, N. C. Special interest has been shown in an outcrop of peridotite 
containing nickel minerals, near Addie on the Southern Railroad. The peridotite is a 
basic igneous type of rock that was intruded into the Cambrian Carolina and Roan 
gneisses and schists at such high pressure as to cause fracturing and the opening of 
fissures. In these openings, and disseminated through some of the enclosing rocks, are the 
nickel silicates, garnierite and genthite. The minerals are not uniformly distributed, but 
estimates have been made reaching as high as 350,000,000 tons of nickel ore for the 
total area. 

Analyses of selected samples show from less than 1 per cent to 40 per cent nickel 
oxide, averaging about 1 per cent. Recovery of the nickel on a commercial scale has not 
yet been accomplished, but it is believed this may be feasible. 



154 North Carolina : Today and Tomorrow 

Stainless steels contain varying percentages of nickel, and are relatively light and 
strong. Gray cast iron containing nickel is also competing with these steels. Large 
quantities of nickel are used in making alloys of aluminum, and for coinage. Monel 
metal is one of the best known nickel alloys. The resistance of this metal to corrosive 
liquids such as sea water, weak acids, dyes, caustic soda, and various solvents, has made 
a place for it in petroleum refining, chemical manufacturing, the textile industry, build- 
ing decoration, and other fields. 

The Non-Metals 
Abrasives 

The abrasive processes, such as cutting, sawing, grinding, and polishing, require 
corundum, emery, garnets, millstones, and novaculite, all of which are to be found in 
North Carolina. Recently, however, synthetic and artificial abrasives have replaced 
most of these materials. 

Corundum is an aluminum oxide having a hardness of 9 and ranking next to the 
diamond, which is rated as 10 on the scale of hardness. Emery, which is a mixture of 
corundum and magnetite, depends on the percentage of corundum for its usefulness as 
an abrasive. Carborundum and related artificial products have replaced these two 
materials. Jackson, Clay, and Macon counties were sources of commercial corundum 
and emery. 

Garnets occur in four varieties in North Carolina : pyrope, almandite, rhodolite, and 
andradite. All are good abrasives, and with the exception of andradite are gem ma- 
terial when clear and transparent. Garnet sandpaper and garnet cloth are used for 
polishing and grinding brass. Large deposits of almandite and rhodolite occur in Jackson, 
Madison, Clay, Macon, and Burke counties. No production is listed at the present time, 
although renewed interest in garnet is shown by recent requests for information. 

Millstone raw material is obtained from the Triassic sandstones in Moore County, 
and from even-grained granites near Faith and Salisbury in Rowan County. Milling 
machinery has largely replaced the use of this stone. Formerly, millstones commanded a 
price of over $100 per pair, and in the peak year of 1919, production was valued 
at $29,025. 

Novaculite, an extremely fine-grained silica rock, has been used to make whetstones 
and was produced in small quantities from counties in the Huronian Slate Belt. 

Asbestos 

Progress and development in the usages of asbestos and asbestos products present 
a future for the mining of anthophyllite and chrysotile, the amphibole and serpentine 
varieties of asbestos, respectively. Anthophyllite occurs in larger quantities in North 
Carolina, and is found mainly in Ashe, Avery, Caldwell, Macon, and Yancey counties. 
Fibrous enstatite and anthophyllite occur near Bakersville and Ledger in Mitchell 
County. Chrysotile is comparatively rare, and no large-scale production has been 
attempted. 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 155 

Asbestos occurs as the filling in fissure veins and other openings in massive serpen- 
tine rocks and metamorphic schists. Anthophyllite is thought to have been derived from 
the metamorphism of chrysotile. The asbestos fibres are parallel, and occur either across 
or along the plane of the vein. Mining by open-pit or underground methods is followed. 
Grouped veins are a prerequisite for profitable production. 

There are three asbestos mines operating in Avery and Macon counties, and recent 
prospecting indicates possibilities for other mining operation. This interest is caused 
by the growing demand for short-fibre asbestos by the building industry, for insulating 
purposes and the manufacture of asbestos wood, asbestos slate, asbestolith, corrugated 
roofing tile, roofing felt, wall board, and composition flooring. Asbestos is also used in 
fire-proof paints, boiler and steam pipe coverings, packing in fire-proof safes, and for 
electrical insulation where heat resistance is required. The best grades are used for 
chemical filters. 

Chrysotile is flexible and is woven into fire-proof curtains for theatres, fire-proof 
gloves and clothing. It is the more expensive variety, and the long-fibred raw material 
is rare. 

Barium 

The principal deposits of barite are found near the towns of Marshall, Stackhouse, 
Sandy Bottom, and Hot Springs, in Madison County; and about five miles from Besse- 
mer City in Gaston County. The deposits are of medium grade, and heretofore trouble 
has occurred in trying to market the products. Technical research has resulted in the 
development of an air and froth flotation method which yields a barite concentrate of 
95 per cent or more. The impurities are quartz in the forms of stringers and sand 
grains, galena, occasional pyrite crystals, a little fluorite, and some calcite. The concen- 
trating method has been employed in South Carolina and Georgia with a high degree of 
success, and several companies are contemplating its application to North Carolina de- 
posits. Some of the deposits have been stained by iron from the decomposition of the sur- 
face rock in the area, and have to be bleached to be salable. 

The chief use of barium is in the manufacture of barium hydroxide, employed in 
the refining of sugar. When ground barium sulphate is mixed with zinc white and used 
as a base for paints, the product is not affected by chemical fumes and does not change 
color as do white lead paints. Barite is used as a filler in both the paper and textile 
industries, in glazing pottery, in rubber goods manufacture, and as a source of barium 
in making certain chemicals. 

Crude barite prices ranged from $4.22 to $5.83 per ton, in 1935. Crude barite, 95 
per cent or more barium sulphate, was quoted from $5.00 to $7.00 per ton. 

Bromine 

The Ethyl-Dow Chemical Company of Wilmington, N. C, is now operating a new 
plant near the mouth of the Cape Fear River, removing bromine from the sea water 
and manufacturing ethylene-dibromide. The plant was constructed in 1933, and has 
operated almost continuously since its completion. 

The plant is located between the ocean and the Cape Fear River. The sea water 
enters an intake and is pumped into a canal leading to a large storage basin and canal 



156 North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 

system leading to the plant, at the rate of 58,000 gallons per minute. The water is first 
acidified with a 10 per cent solution of sulphuric acid and treated with chlorine, which 
liberates and replaces the bromine. The water is then pumped to the top of towers, 
where it falls countercurrent to an upward stream of air that blows out the bromine. 
The water from the bottom of the towers is discharged through the effluent canal to 
the Cape Fear River. The air and bromine is forced by fans to the absorption towers, 
where the bromine is absorbed by a soda ash solution. The liquor, containing sodium 
bromide and bromate, is pumped to storage tanks. The bromine is then freed by 
acidifying the liquor and condensing the bromine to a liquid. 

The ethylene-dibromide manufactured from the bromine at this plant is used in 
making ethyl gasoline. Used in connection with tetra-ethyl lead, it enters into more 
than 70 per cent of all gasoline sold at present. 

Clays and Kaolin 

The pre-Cambrian shales and clays outcropping in the western part of the State are 
valuable for their use in brick, face brick, hollow tile, building and flooring tile, and 
sewer pipe. The rocks are weathered to plasticity in only limited sections, but large 
amounts are available in Stanly, Union, and Montgomery counties. The cost of producing 
brick and tile from these North Carolina deposits is much lower than that for similar 
production in adjoining states, because the clays in this State burn to a hard body at 
from 1800 degrees to 1950 degrees Fahrenheit. 

The Triassic shales in the Deep River and Dan River basins produce clay and shales 
that are easily worked and have good plasticity. The products are good grade and hard- 
finish, burning at about the same temperatures as the pre-Cambrian clays. They are 
adaptable for use in the manufacture of face brick, common brick, hollow building tile, 
salt-glazed sewer pipe, drain tile, roofing, chemical brick and rings, and floor tile. 

The Brevard schists, though not as plastic as the above-named clays, are suitable 
for common and face brick, hollow tile, and roofing. The bonding strength is lower 
and the burning temperature about 200 degrees higher than for the pre-Cambrian clays. 
These schists are found in Henderson, Transylvania, and McDowell counties. 

Secondary or sedimentary kaolins along the French Broad River contain sufficient 
iron oxide and other impurities to produce a red and gray brick finish and to give a 
cream color to white-ware bodies. The quartz content is low, but the finish burning 
temperature is approximately 2200 degrees Fahrenheit. 

The Cambrian shales found in Madison County, near Hot Springs, have been used 
for face and common brick, and finish at slightly below 2000 degrees Fahrenheit, giv- 
ing a full range of flash colors from brown to black. 

Many counties contain suitable clays for manufacturing pressed brick and face brick, 
and small brick plants are scattered over the State. Improved manufacturing methods 
have resulted in a higher quality product, of more uniform grade. A number of the new 
schools constructed throughout the State in the past few years have been built of brick 
manufactured in the same county. 

Potteries are more numerous, and the variety of articles and shapes produced has 
increased until North Carolina pottery is being shipped in carload lots to many of the 



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158 North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 

larger cities of the nation. Clays suitable for manufacture of pottery are found in Burke, 
Catawba, Lincoln, Wilkes, Surry, Randolph, Henderson and Buncombe counties in the 
western part of the State, and in Wayne and Wilson counties in the east. Plate XVII 
shows the location of plants and distribution of deposits for the ceramic industry in 
North Carolina. With the possible exception of granite quarrying, this industry leads 
the mineral products of the State, with an annual value of over $3,500,000. 

Kaolin is produced in Yancey, Mitchell, and Macon counties, and especially in the 
Spruce Pine area, where there are a number of mines in operation. The deposits in the 
Mountain area are of the residual or in situ type, the result of weathering of pegmatite 
dikes or coarse granites. Chemically, the metallic ions combine with oxygen to form ox- 
ides, and the released silica forms quartz. The soluble oxides are leached by percolating 
ground waters, and the insoluble material remains. Alumina, the oxide of aluminum, and 
quartz are the principal constituents found in kaolin deposits. This material is mined 
along the strike or trend of the decomposed pegmatites, in a series of pits. One or more 
pits are worked at a time, the waste and overburden being used to fill the worked-out 
holes. The crude kaolin is washed and the quartz removed. Then it is dried, screened to 
remove float impurities and is ready for market. 

Kaolin is used in china, porcelain and semi-porcelain ware, spark plugs, glass melt- 
ing pots, and different types of tile, particularly for interior flooring and decoration. 
This substance is the primary mineral of all clays, and the famous English clay is 
nearly all kaolin. Until recent years, it was impossible to obtain this latter type of clay 
except by importation from England or Germany. Two reasons account for the former 
use of foreign clays to the exclusion of American products: (1) the early potteries and 
clay-working establishments were operated by Englishmen using English formulae, and 
(2) the American clay was gritty and contained impurities. Today the American kaolin 
and American-produced English clay prepared by the more modern plants rank with the 
highest grade foreign products, in many cases excelling the latter because of a lower con- 
tent of mica impurities. North Carolina is one of the leading States in the nation in 
improved modern production. 

Shipments of kaolin are made to Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey, to be used in 
the manufacture of china and china ware. Large amounts are used in the State, and ex- 
periments by the Ceramic Division of the Tennessee Valley Authority and other agencies 
point to both increased production and domestic consumption. These tests have demon- 
strated the plasticity of the kaolins and prove that a high-grade china can be made from 
North Carolina kaolin clay, feldspar, and quartz, without the addition of ball clays or 
English clays. Because of this plasticity, pieces of ware can be molded in four minutes, 
as compared to fifty to ninety minutes for other clays, while the low coefficient of ex- 
pansion permits a firing time of six to eight hours instead of the usual thirty to thirty- 
six hours. 

Coal 

In the past decade coal has been produced on a small scale in the Deep River area. 
However, the coal contains a high percentage of low-temperature volatile materials, and 
without the proper precautions practiced in modern mining methods, there is danger 
of explosion. This fact has discouraged more extensive commercialization, and coal is 
now mined only in small quantities for immediate local consumption. 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 159 

Tests by the United States Bureau of Mines Experimental Station at Pittsburg 
to determine the possibilities of coke production, show the coal in the Deep River area 
to be equivalent to that found in the Freeport seam in Pennsylvania. A fifteen-pound 
charge taken from the Cumnock Mine showed the following results at a final tempera- 
ture of 800 degrees Centigrade: 

Coke Yield 75 per cent of charge 

Gas Yield 8,000 cubic feet per ton of coal 

Ammonium Sulphate 23 pounds per ton of coal 

Tar (dehydrated) 22 gallons per ton of coal 

The gas can be used locally for brick and tile ovens, and the coke is readily salable. 
The use of pulverized coal as fuel for steam electric plants in this area is feasible, as 
experiments show that the coal seam, including the parting, gives 12,000 to 14,000 b.t.u. 
when pulverized. Several plants have used the coal in this form and found it very 
satisfactory. 

The Deep River coal field is located in parts of Lee, Chatham, and Moore counties, 
in what is known as the southward extension of the Durham Triassic Basin. Changes 
of sedimentation in the Basin indicate that the origin of the coal was probably in localized 
swamps. The total Triassic section varies to a probable maximum of 4,000 feet in thick- 
ness, and coal beds occur approximately half way. There are usually two seams, the 
top one about thirty to forty-eight inches thick and the bottom fifteen to thirty-six 
inches, separated by a "bony" parting. The three layers form an aggregate of about 
six feet in the mines, but outcrop at the surface as indistinct black shaly bands. The 
rocks in the area are shales and sandstones, varying in color from red and drab green 
to black. Small faults and scattered dikes of intruded rocks hinder mining operations 
in parts of the field. 

The Deep River Field is the only area with prospects of commercial coal production. 
The so-called Dan River Coal Field has been carefully surveyed and found to contain 
bituminous black shale, with scattered small lenses of coal only a few inches thick. How- 
ever, these shales contain nitrogen as ammonium sulphate and phosphorus as calcium 
phosphate, and when ground and spread on fields they are better than many commer- 
cial fertilizers. 

Feldspar 

Mineral feldspar was produced locally for North Carolina potteries prior to the 
shipment of the first carload in 1911, and since then its production has become an active 
branch of the State's mining industry. 

The feldspar producing district in this State includes (1) The Cowee-Black Moun- 
tain Belt, (2) The Blue Ridge Belt, and (3) The Piedmont Belt, and embraces Macon, 
Jackson, Transylvania, Haywood, Buncombe, Yancey, Mitchell and Avery counties. The 
last three named comprise the Spruce Pine District, covering 200 square miles, which is 
the largest producing area. 

Two types of feldspar are mined in North Carolina. The first is potash spar or 
orthoclase, and the second is soda spar or the plagioclase type, albite. The first variety 



160 North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 

is produced in the greater quantities and is better adapted for use in the ceramic indus- 
try, though the properties of both are practically the same. 

Feldspars are found in nearly all igneous rocks, but those for commercial use are 
found in pegmatites, an intruded granite with large crystals from slow cooling. The 
characteristic appearance is that of a rock with coarse interlocking crystals, and the 
principal constituents are feldspars, quartz, and muscovite. Associated minerals are 
beryl, biotite, columbite, galena, garnet, kyanite, hematite, magnetite, pyrite, tourmaline 
and others. Usually they all occur in well-formed crystals, and pegmatites are good 
sources of mineralogical specimens. The sources of commercial feldspar are zones where 
the feldspars predominate and quartz and other minerals are almost absent. 

The use of feldspars is governed by their quartz content, and they must be low in 
discoloring impurities, especially iron. When the quartz content is over 5 to 10 per cent, 
the spar may be used as a flux in the manufacture of pottery, electrical porcelain, and 
some enameled wares. Abrasive soaps of the "non-scratching" variety contain finely 
ground feldspar that is practically free of quartz. When spar is used as a binder in the 
manufacture of glass and of carborundum or emery wheels, 25 per cent of the material 
may be quartz. Should commercial extraction become possible, the potash content of 
the orthoclase feldspars could be used in fertilizer. 

Feldspar is mined by the open pit method, and the overburden is removed by scrapers, 
draglines, or hydraulic means. Air and hand drills are employed, and enough dynamite 
is used to loosen the spar. The mineral is sorted by hand and sent to a grinding mill, 
where it is crushed to go through a three-inch mesh, and is then placed on "picking 
belts" from which the quartz, mica, and other impurities are thrown out by hand. 

At present two grinding mills are in operation in North Carolina, and these are of 
sufficient capacity to grind almost the entire output of feldspar from the State. The 
products are graded and shipped according to the free silica or quartz content, and the 
degree of fineness to which the material has been ground. 

Feldspar mining is one of the most important mineral production activities of North 
Carolina, and this State is by far the leading producer in the Nation, making large ship- 
ments to points in the East and Midwest for the ceramic and glass industries. Produc- 
tion statistics are shown in Tables XXXVIII and XXXIX. 

Kyanite 

Large quantities of kyanite are deposited in Yancey, Clay, Haywood, and Iredell 
counties, as well as sections of Cherokee, Graham, Caldwell, Jackson, Mitchell, Avery, 
and Wilkes, with the first four named the most promising for commercial development. 
The material is found near Black Mountain in massive deposits, but as a rule crystals 
occur disseminated in schists. This type of deposit is best adapted to mining operation, 
because it is larger and more easily adjusted to concentration methods. By classifying 
and tabling methods a 90 per cent kyanite product is achieved, but the new flotation 
processes allow a concentrate of 95 per cent or more of the mineral. 

The development of kyanite as an industrial mineral has taken place in the last fifteen 
years, and research is now being conducted to discover new uses for this substance, 
particularly in the field of ceramics. The United States Bureau of Standards reports that 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 161 

porcelain bodies containing high percentages of kyanite possess great tensile strength, 
high di-electric properties, and low thermal expansion. The mineral is used in spark 
plugs, refractory brick, porcelain ware, both china and electrical, sagger clays, and in 
glass to add toughness. 

Kyanite, andalusite, and dumortierite are allied minerals. All three have similar 
usages, contain aluminum silicate, and invert to sillimanite plus glass at a temperature 
slightly over 1350 degrees Centigrade. Although refractory and ceramic uses are the 
same, kyanite is usually calcined because of a higher coefficient of expansion. 

Production and sales from North Carolina were substantially greater in 1935 than 
in the previous year. The Celo Mines, Incorporated, of Burnsville, Yancey County, has 
been a steady producer of kyanite concentrates and has recently enlarged its plant, while 
several small producers ship impure lump kyanite ore. The only figures available on this 
mineral are for the United States a whole. The 1936 Minerals Yearbook gives 4,000 tons 
as domestic production for 1935, and imports in excess of 1,000 tons. Prices ranged 
from under $10 per ton for impure "dornick" ores, to between $25 and $36 per ton for 
kyanite concentrates. 

Lithium 

Although lithium is a metal, it is listed with the Non-Metallic Group of minerals 
because most of its uses are non-metallic. 

Spodumene, a lithium-aluminum metasilicate, is found in Gaston, Lincoln, Cleve- 
land, and Alexander counties in certain of the pegmatites. Lepidolite, amblygonite, and 
lithiophilite are other lithium minerals, the first a mica and the last two phosphates. 

Spodumene is more evenly distributed than most metalliferous minerals found in 
veins, and spodumene pegmatites often form ridges and hilltops because of their re- 
sistance to weathering. They are light colored, and of smaller grain than most peg- 
matitic material. Colored minerals are usually lacking, though occasional small black 
tourmaline and beryl crystals are found, some of them suitable for gem material. Cas- 
siterite, or tin oxide, is often found where the quartz and muscovite replacement is 
prominent. 

In recent tests conducted by the United States Bureau of Mines, representative 
samples of the North Carolina deposits yielded 15 per cent to 20 per cent spodumene 
concentrates containing 6 per cent to 7 per cent lithia (lithium oxide), and the Kings 
Mountain area in this State compares favorably with such regions as the Black Hills of 
South Dakota, the Emudo district in New Mexico, Pala in California, and the area at 
Cat Lake in Manitoba, Canada. Research in progress on the metallurgy of lithium 
minerals gives promise of a new and profitable industry for North Carolina. 

Lithium metal is used in small percentages for hardening aluminum and bearing- 
metal alloys, but the most important developments are in the non-metallic field. The most 
notable new use is in the process of air conditioning. Concentrated lithium chloride solu- 
tion sprays will dehumidify air, and the solution may be regenerated by boiling out the 
collected moisture. This system is especially advantageous for industrial drying. Various 
lithium salts are used for medicinal purposes, and lithium hydroxide is used in alkali 
storage batteries. Lithia is substituted in zincless glazers to prevent cracking in white 



162 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 



and opalescent glass products and in enamels, while the use of lepidolite instead of feld- 
spar in porcelains improves the appearance of the ware and increases resistance to 
sudden temperature changes. 

The following statement in the Minerals Yearbook for 1936 indicates that prospects 
are excellent for large-scale commercialization of lithium in this State. 

"During 1935, Frank L. Hess and Oliver C. Ralston, of the United States Bureau 
of Mines, investigated disseminated spodumene deposits in the vicinity of Kings Moun- 

Table XXXVIII 

MINERAL PRODUCTION IN NORTH CAROLINA— 1915-1925 

By Five-Year Periods 
(U. S. Bureau of Mines Statistics) 



Product 


Unit 


1915 


1920 


1925 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Abrasives 






$ 12,002 




$ 14,226 






Clays 


Short Tons 






8,545 


43,672 


18,983 


$ 310,683 


Coal 


Long Tons . 






11,540 




58,160 


65,153 


Copper 


Pounds .... 


17,170 


3,005 










Gold 


Ounces .... 


8,320.55 


172,001 


54 


1,100 


896.87 


18,540 


Granite: 

Rough 

Crushed 


Tons 

Tons 




191,796 
1,246,810 




1,968,912 


1,200,640 


2,864,490 


Feldspar 

Limestone 


Tons 


20,635 


55,991 


35,883 


187,136 


76,806 


496,563 


Tons 




82,672 




135,675 


148,530 


238,310 


Mica Sold : 

Sheets 

Scrap 


Pounds .... 
Short Tons . 


281,074 
2,840 


266,650 
33,943 


1,084,946 

2,823 


405,654 
91,653 


592,478 
5,095 


105,376 

74,818 


Mineral Waters . . . 


Gallons .... 


132,813 


18,745 


115,315 


15,545 






Sand and Gravel . . . 


Short Tons . 


377,739 


113,180 


520,125 


409,591 


1,108,035 


886,351 


Silver 


Ounces .... 


1,463 


743 


10 


11 


108 


75 


Talc, Soapstone, 
and Pyrophyllite 


Short Tons . 


1,454 


21,501 


2,267 


75,474 


6,040 


48,550 


Quartz: 

Silica 


Sho t Tons . 












21,286 



tain, North Carolina, and as a result of this work an eastern source of lithium minerals 
may be developed as soon as the concentrating problems are solved." 

Limestones, Marbles, and Marls 

The yearly production of limestones, marbles, and marls in North Carolina is now 
valued at half million dollars, and this figure may be increased with further development 
of the industry. 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 



163 



Limestones occur as such and as the variety, dolomite, which is calcium-magnesium 
carbonate. Calcareous marl, shellrock, and impure limestones are found in the Coastal 
Plain and are suitable for making lime, while true limestones occur in the Piedmont and 
Mountain areas in Swain, Henderson, McDowell, Madison, Buncombe, Catawba, Chero- 
kee, Clay, Cleveland, Gaston, Jackson, Lincoln, Macon, Mitchell, and Stokes counties. 
This material is used principally in crushed rock and road metal, dehydrated and hy- 
drated lime, since few locations produce limestone with high enough calcium carbonate 
content for the manufacture of Portland cement. The State Highway and Public Works 
Commission operates several quarries for road metal, while building stone is produced 
for local construction. 



Table XXXIX 
VALUE OF MINERAL PRODUCTION IN NORTH CAROLINA- 



-1929-1935 



Product 


1929 


1930 


1931 


1932 


1933 


1934 


1935 


Clay (Kaolin) 


$ 282,682 


$ 391,571 


$ 195,700 


$ 202,528 


$ 102,814 


$ 106,742 


$ 119,272 




Coal 


177,000 


100,000 


* 


* 


* 


* 


* 




Copper 


* 


* 


* 


* 


* 


* 


• 




Feldspar: 

Crude 

Ground 


598,938 
1,236,206 


593,552 
1,012,915 


505,525 
761,080 


300,877 
614,936 


471,312 
707,667 


465,214 
847,835 


482,729 
1,043,979 


Gold and Silver 


11,283 


22,963 


12,956 


6,847 


13,463 


24,056 


85,114 


Granite 


5,344,032 


3,473,406 


3,607,966 


1,323,780 


1,631,464 


1,706,570 


1,422,174 




Limestone and Marble 


277,846 


244,038 


98,956 


128,172 


305,029 


134,026 


120,418 


Mica: 

Sheet 

Scrap 


150,293 

53,855 


112,451 
75,400 


51,657 
5,312 


18,322 
4,837 


21,107 
6,918 


38,674 
47,246 


77.5Q8 
153,553 


Quartz 


28,709 


23,835 


11,460 


* 


65,483 


* 


* 




Sand and Gravel 


1,020,533 


437,555 


238,053 


99,640 


201,113 


225,588 


310,291 




Talc 


81,306 


105,000 


170,250 


202,229 


135,523 


165,523 


220,074 




*Undistributed 


2,266,411 


1,820,000 


808,508 


354,110 


579,000 


1,892,312 


2,267,360 


**Total 


11,529,094 


8,412,686 


6,467,423 


3,256,278 


4,240,893 


5,653,786 


6,302,562 



*Thesp figures withheld to avoid disclosure of individual operations. Value of these products is included in Undis- 
tributed and Total. 

**Pigures not available for brick and tile, bromine, cement products, and pottery. 

Marble deposits in the southwest corner of the State follow an almost continuous 
belt, 1000 to 2500 feet wide and 23 miles long, extending across Macon and Cherokee 
counties, while Mitchell, McDowell and Swain counties also contain marble deposits. The 
grade of the stone is determined by grain size and color, as well as purity. Crystalliza- 
tion varies from medium to fine grain, with a predominance of the former, and the 
colors range from white through mottled gray and blue-gray to pinkish. Along a line 
from northeast of Topton and east of Red Gap in Swain County, to near Hewitt, there 
are elongated lenses of marble from gray to almost black, and cream colored to pink 
in color. 



164 North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 

There are areas for profitable quarrying in North Carolina, with good grades of 
marble for building, ornamental, and monumental purposes, although no marble of 
statuary grade has been found in the State. Until recently North Carolina marbles 
were considered to have too much jointing and fracture to be well adapted to commercial 
use, but quarrying and core drillings have revealed areas containing sizeable blocks 
of the stone, some being too large for freight car shipment. 

There are three production companies and four quarries for marble in the State, 
one in Swain and three in Cherokee County, as follows: 

Columbia Marble Quarries at Marble and at Murphy. 
J. M. Kilpatrick Company at Marble. 
Nantahala Company at Hewitt. 

Recent tests by the United States Bureau of Mines and the Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology show high tensile and compression strengths for North Carolina marbles. 
They are nearly unstainable because of their low absorption of water, oil, grease, and 
organic substances. The fine-grained white marble is equivalent to the famous Carrara 
marble for most purposes. 

Marls occur in extensive areas and are found in nearly all of the eastern counties of 
the Coastal Plain. The calcium carbonate content ranges from 30 per cent to 96 per 
cent, the higher percentage marls being used for either hydrated or dehydrated lime. 
Marl as dug from the pits is used for agricultural purposes. The impurities are sand, 
clay, pyrite, and organic substances. Marl deposits occur in twenty-one counties, as fol- 
lows: Beaufort, Bertie, Bladen, Brunswick, Columbus, Craven, Duplin, Greene, Halifax, 
Hertford, Jones, Lenoir, New Hanover, Northampton, Onslow, Pender, Pitt, Robeson, 
Sampson, Wayne, and Wilson. 

Mica 

North Carolina produced 55 per cent of the total output of mica in the United 
States in 1935. New Hampshire, producing 14 per cent of the total, was second. New 
uses of ground and scrap mica are being developed, and it is expected that the marked 
increase in production during 1935 will be maintained. The production of mica in 
the State is shown in Tables XXXVIII and XXXIX. There are now eighty-eight mines 
and eighteen plants located in sixteen counties, in active production. 

The mica is found in two varieties, muscovite and phlogopite, the former being more 
abundant. Twenty counties or more, in an area one hundred miles wide lying parallel to 
the Blue Ridge, contain mica deposits. Of these, Avery, Macon, Mitchell, Jackson, Hay- 
wood, and Yancey are the more important. Feldspar and mica occur and are produced 
together. The better grades of mica in "books" of suitable size for punching and cut- 
ting is found in irregular and scattered pockets of pegmatites, while mica suitable for 
large sheets is still more rare, often commanding prices from $80.00 to $200.00 per 
pound. 

Mica is found with kaolin in the weathered pegmatites. New processes have been 
developed for washing the kaolin and recovering the fine mica, and more than one-third 
of the scrap mica is produced this way. Scrap mica is also produced by grinding musco- 
vite, chlorite, and sericite schists. 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 165 

The uses to which mica is put are many and varied, depending largely upon the 
size of the "books" or sheets in which it is found. Sheets of varying size are required in 
many kinds of electrical machinery and fittings. Ground mica is used to give luster to 
paints and wall papers, in lubricating oils, roofing, fireproofing and insulating materials, 
and as bonding and filling material in various rubber products. 

Vermiculite, a hydrated form of mica, is found in large quantities in the extreme 
western counties of the State. These deposits are the only ones now known that are 
capable of profitable production, having a much more favorable market than the vermi- 
culite deposits of Montana and Colorado. This mineral has a large and permanent ex- 
foliation and expansion when heated. The fluffy product resulting is then pressed, giving 
a material having most of the characteristics of cork but also being fireproof and suit- 
able for easy working. 

The most important present use is in insulating wall plasters, but recent experi- 
ments indicate possibilities for use in house insulation, cements, refractory bricks, 
paints, fillers, and accoustic plasters. The raw vermiculite sells for approximately $7.00 
per ton, while the calcined or expanded material sells for varying prices up to $20.00 
per ton. 

Granite 

The granites of North Carolina are widely distributed and greatly varied in char- 
acter and color. The most famous of these varieties is the "Salisbury pink" of Rowan 
County and the "Mt. Airy" granites. 

While granites, gneisses and allied stones are to be found in every physiographic 
region, the chief producing centers are located in Rowan, Surry, and Vance counties. 
Smaller workable areas of excellent stone are to be found in counties on the inner mar- 
gin of the Coastal Plain, especially in Johnston, Nash, Wake, and Wilson counties. 

The granites of the Coastal Plain area are massive biotite forms, varying from fine 
even-granular to coarse porphyritic texture and from gray to pink in color. Well devel- 
oped jointing prevents quarrying of large blocks, and most of this granite is used as 
crushed stone for construction purposes. 

The texture of granites in the Piedmont section varies from fine to medium, and 
the color from nearly white to the darker shades of gray. The beautiful pink granite 
found in the vicinity of Salisbury is another variety. 

Granite rocks are widely distributed in the Mountain Section, most frequently 
schistose and biotite bearing, though massive formations are also plentiful. 

Several unique granitic rocks, which are useful for decorative work in building and 
monumental construction, are found in the State. The chief of these are leopardite, a 
quartz-porphyry found near Belmont Springs, Mecklenburg County; orbicular gabbro- 
diorite, found near Cooleemee, Davie County; and blue-gray or black granite near Bar- 
ber Junction in Rowan County. 

The production of granite is shown in Tables XXXVIII and XXXIX. The uses, 
ranked in the order of commercial importance, are: crushed stone, building stone, curb- 
ing and flagging, monumental stone, and paving blocks. 



166 North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 

Sand and Gravel 

The sand and gravel produced in North Carolina consists chiefly of building sand, 
paving sand, engine sand, gravel for railroad ballast, gravel for road making, and a 
small amount of fine sand for polishing and grinding. No glass sand has yet been pro- 
duced, although a great many deposits have been examined and tests have been made 
on samples from Moore County in the vicinity of Aberdeen. 

Sand, for all types of products, is composed chiefly of the mineral quartz, SiO\ and 
when pure it is colorless or white with a glassy appearance, with hardness of about 7 in 
the standard scale. The quality of sand depends on the shape and size of the grains 
and on the amount of impurities, which in turn depend on the type of rocks from which 
it was formed. Since the rocks of this State are chiefly the crystalline variety, com- 
posed of quartz, feldspar, muscovite mica and the ferro-magnesian minerals as biotite 
mica, hornblende, augite, etc., the chief impurities are organic material, feldspar, mica, 
hornblende and clay which is the result of weathering of these minerals. Most of the 
clay, mica, and organic matter is eliminated by washing and screening. 

The gravels found in the lower Piedmont and Coastal Plain areas are composed of 
quartz pebbles, from veins in the Proterozoic rocks, rounded by weathering and stream 
action. The gravels of the upper Piedmont and Mountain areas are formed from the 
older crystalline rocks, and are more or less rounded. Many of these gravels have to be 
crushed and screened before using. 

The deposits of gravel in the Mountain and upper Piedmont areas are found along 
the stream bottoms, but in other lower sections they are widely distributed. The best 
deposits are in "beach terraces" along old shore lines lying generally just east of the 
"fall line." Important deposits have been worked in Anson County near the Pee Dee 
River, Moore County, Harnett County near Lillington on the Cape Fear River, and 
along the Roanoke River in Halifax and Northampton counties. 

Talc, Soapstone, and Pyrophyllite 

Talc, when pure, is a light green or white foliated mineral composed of magnesium 
silicate. The most important deposits in North Carolina are found in Swain County 
near the towns of Hewitt, Maltby, and Kinsey. Other deposits are to be found in 
Yancey, Mitchell, and Avery counties. 

This is a secondary mineral formed from magnesic rocks. While occasionally pure 
talc is formed, the usual result is talc schist, or soapstone. The latter is found in mas- 
sive bodies with a fine granular to cryptocrystalline structure, forming with the binding 
impurities a soft but uniform body. 

Pyrophyllite, a hydrous aluminum silicate, is almost identical in form and charac- 
teristics, and is used as a substitute for talc in many products. Though rare, North Caro- 
lina contains large quantities, the only commercial deposits to be found in the United 
States. The principal production is now being made in Moore, Randolph, and Orange 
counties. Recent new discoveries have been made, which indicate the possibilities of 
many new uses, replacing special clays, sizing materials, fillers, and low-grade materials 
used in battery boxes, rubber goods, and roofing materials. At present, pyrophyllite is 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 167 

strongly competitive at prices up to $5.00 per ton. It is being used also in certain 
ceramic processes. 

Talc, soapstone, and pyrophyllite are mined by open pit methods. When soft and 
in sufficient quantities, loading is done by steam shovels. Improved methods have been 
devised to remove grit from talc deposits, recovering high concentrations of uniform 
quality. This is important in connection with ceramic uses, where purity and freedom 
from iron are necessary. Talc is used for filler in paper processes, as lubricant, in toilet 
powders, paints, crayons, and heat insulators. Soapstone is used extensively for wash 
tubs, sinks, table tops, switchboards, hearthstones, and furnace linings. Better and more 
compact grades are used as gas-burner tips, slate pencils, tailors' chalk, and in sculpture. 

Because of their similarities in character and use, talc, soapstone, and pyrophyllite 
are considered as one product in Tables XXXVIII and XXXIX. 

The producers of talc and pyrophyllite in North Carolina, listed by counties, are: 

County Name of Owner Name of Mine Location 

Cherokee Clinchfield Sand and Feldspar Co. Maltby Murphy 

Cherokee Carolina Talc Co Carolina Talc Co Murphy 

Cherokee W. R. Lunsf ord Maltby Marble 

Cherokee J. M. Kilpatrick Marble 

Macon Philip S. Hoyt Franklin 

Madison Georgia Talc Co Marshall 

Madison A. B. Silver Little Edwards Mars Hill 

Moore Standard Mineral Co., Inc Gehardt Hemp 

Moore Talc Mining & Milling Corp Glendon Glendon 

Randolph Tennessee Mineral Products Co Staley Liberty 

Swain Nantahala Company Nantahala Hewitt 

Gem and Precious Stones 

North Carolina has produced gems and precious stones in wide variety. Among 
these are varieties of quartz and opal, varieties of beryl and spodumene (hiddenite), 
garnet (particularly rhodolite), zircon, rutile, cyanite, epidote, tourmaline, and 
diamonds. Gems have been found widely scattered in the different counties of the Pied- 
mont and Mountain sections, Alexander, Burke, Cleveland, Iredell, Jackson, Lincoln, 
Macon, Mitchell, Transylvania, Warren, and Yancey counties having all been producers 
from time to time in the past. There has never been any systematic prospecting or 
mining for precious stones in the State. Most of the discoveries have been accidental, 
but some valuable deposits have been found, and for a long time North Carolina was a 
regular producer of gems. 

Diamonds 

Thirteen authentic specimens have been identified with reference to location. The 
largest diamond on record from this State, weighing 4 1-3 carats, was found in 1886 
near Dysartville. Diamonds have been found in McDowell, Burke, Rutherford, Lincoln, 
Mecklenburg, and Franklin counties. 

Rubies and Sapphires 

These are the more familiar gem varieties of the mineral corundum. Transparent 
corundum crystals occur in many other colors, and all are valuable. These gem stones 

12 



168 North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 

have been produced at Corundum Hill in Macon County. Sapphires have also been found 
at Montvale in Transylvania County, and at Sapphire in Jackson County. The best ruby 
was valued at $1,500. Ruby corundum has been found in Macon and Transylvania 
counties. 

Beryl 

When clear and transparent, this stone is commonly sold as an emerald. It is found 
principally at Hiddenite, in Alexander County. Hiddenite, a mineral, is also found at 
the place of the same name, and is of value. It is a variety of spodumene, yellow to green 
in color, associated with the aquamarine and emerald. It is mined in veins occurring in 
the biotite gneiss. This is the only known deposit of such mineral. 

Quartz 

The mineral quartz furnishes many of the common gem stones, and is found in many 
colors and forms. It may be cut and polished to make attractive gems. Cairngorn 
stone (smoky quartz), amethysts, citrine topaz, and rock crystal are the more important 
varieties found in North Carolina. Sagenite, or Venus Hairstone, crystal quartz enclos- 
ing hairlike crystals of rutile, is found in Alexander and Iredell counties. Other quartz 
gems are chrysoprase, rose quartz, morion, and aventurine. Quartz gem stones are found 
in Alexander, Iredell, Macon, Catawba, Burke, Randolph, Lincoln, and Ashe counties. 

Other gem or precious stones found in North Carolina are staurolite, spinel, peridot, 
lazulite, and serpentine. Most of these minerals are common, and only the rare, clear 
and transparent varieties, free from flaws, are treasured. 



Chapter IX 

WATER RESOURCES OF NORTH CAROLINA 

An abundant, though not excessive, annual rainfall throughout the State provides 
ample quantities of water to supply the needs of our numerous streams and rivers 
for continuous flow during all seasons of the year. These streams form well-developed 
river systems throughout the length and breadth of North Carolina, which serve to 
make the State well drained; provide abundant quantities of surface water for indus- 
trial, municipal, and domestic use; offer excellent opportunities for hydro-electric and 
mechanical water power development; are readily adapted for navigational purposes 
in the eastern section; and present recreational advantages in the form of swimming, 
boating, and sport fishing. 

The Great Divide, formed by the Blue Ridge and other mountain ranges, separates 
the drainage of the State into two main groups of river systems: those lying west of 
the Divide, which ultimately empty their waters into the Gulf of Mexico through the 
Ohio and Mississippi River systems; and those east of the Divide, which drain into 
the Atlantic Ocean. This Divide, following the highest mountains and table lands on 
the eastern side of the American continent, crosses the State in a northeast-southwest 
direction, entering the northern boundary of the State between Surry and Alleghany 
counties and emerging on the southern boundary between Polk and Henderson counties. 
The river basins lying west of the Divide include the systems of the New River, Wa- 
tauga, French Broad, Little Tennessee, and Hiwassee rivers; while those east of the 
Divide having Atlantic Ocean drainage include the systems of the Broad, Catawba, 
Yadkin, Cape Fear, Neuse, Tar, Dan, Roanoke, and Meherrin-Chowan rivers. The fol- 
lowing tabulation lists the principal rivers, showing the areas of their respective 
drainage basins lying within the boundaries of North Carolina. 



DRAINAGE AREAS IN NORTH CAROLINA 
Table XL 



GULF OF MEXICO DRAINAGE 



ATLANTIC OCEAN DRAINAGE 



River Basin 

New River . . . . . 

Watauga 

French Broad . 
Little Tennessee 
Hiwassee 



Drainage Area 
in Square Miles 

760 

220 

2,825 

1,875 
650 



River Basin 

Broad 

Catawba 

Yadkin 

Cape Fear 

Neuse 

Tar 

Dan-Roanoke . . . 
Meherrin-Chowan 



Drainage Area 
in Square Miles 

1,450 
3,250 
9,300 
8,500 
4,450 
3,075 
3,375 
1,175 



A considerable coastal area of the State is not included in the above tabulation, 
since the drainage areas of the river basins emptying into the Atlantic are considered 
to extend in an easterly direction only as far as tide-water. This coastal area includes 
a number of lesser rivers which are relatively short, though generally broad and deep. 
Among these may be mentioned the Pasquotank, Little and Perquimans rivers, lying 
north of Albemarle Sound; Alligator River, south of Albemarle Sound; Pungo River, 
emptying in Pamlico River and Pamlico Sound ; Whiteoak and New rivers, discharging 
into the ocean; and the Waccamaw River, which enters South Carolina and the Atlantic 
Ocean through Winyah Bay. 



170 North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 



STREAM GAGING 



Of primary importance to the intelligent utilization of water resources in any area 
is the activity of stream gaging. The State of North Carolina has recognized the great 
value derived from such work, in co-operation with the U. S. Geological Survey and 
other agencies has maintained and operated numerous gaging stations throughout the 
various river basins, compiling valuable continuous discharge records at these stations. 
While additional stations and more data are desirable, the information which has been 
recorded to date is quite representative of stream flow conditions throughout the State. 
The work has been carried on continuously since 1889, and at present there are a total 
of 95 active gaging stations located in the principal drainage basins on the main rivers 
and their tributaries. Records have been gathered at 69 other stations which are no 
longer active, and these, together with the active stations, make a total of 164 locations 
throughout the State at which stream flow data has been recorded. There are four sta- 
tions having continuous records of 40 years or more ; two located in the Little Tennessee 
river basin, and one each in the French Broad and Hiwassee river basins. There 
are two stations having records of 35 years or more, one in the Cape Fear basin and one 
in the Yadkin river basin. Three stations have records between 20 and 30 years of length ; 
16 have records between 10 and 20 years; 62 between 5 and 10 years; and 77 have rec- 
ords of less than 5 years. Copies of any stream flow records in the State may be obtained 
from the Water Resources and Engineering Division of the North Carolina Depart- 
ment of Conservation and Development, or from the U. S. Geological Survey District 
Office at Asheville, N. C. 

WATER SUPPLIES 

The use of water for drinking purposes is of first importance in any development of 
water resources. The abundant quantities of water available has led to the develop- 
ment of 129 municipal public water supply systems derived from surface supplies. In 
addition to the surface supplies, there are 146 towns which have public water supplies 
developed from ground water sources. Together, these make a total of 275 cities and 
towns in the State having developed public water supplies, which represents a large 
percentage of the total number of more important towns, considering the fact that the 
1930 census lists a total of only 68 cities and towns in North Carolina as having a 
population of 2,500 or more. 

Of the 275 public water systems, there are 98 filtered surface supplies, 31 unfiltered 
surface supplies, 128 well supplies, and 18 spring supplies. In general, towns lying in 
the coastal plain, piedmont and eastern mountain regions, which have developed surface 
supplies, have found that filtration is necessary, due to pollution of the streams from 
sewage, industrial and trade wastes. In the mountain and western piedmont sections, 
where the concentration of population and industrial establishments is less, pollution of 
the streams, particularly the smaller ones, is much less than in other sections of the 
State ; and it is possible to utilize unfiltered surface water, with only sterilization treat- 
ment, for public use. Although supplies developed from wells are found throughout 
the State, this type of supply is more common in the Coastal Plain and eastern Pied- 
mont sections. The few towns which utilize springs as developed supplies are located 
principally in the Mountain region. 






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170 North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 



STREAM GAGING 



Of primary importance to the intelligent utilization of water resources in any area 
is the activity of stream gaging. The State of North Carolina has recognized the great 
value derived from such work, in co-operation with the U. S. Geological Survey and 
other agencies has maintained and operated numerous gaging stations throughout the 
various river basins, compiling valuable continuous discharge records at these stations. 
While additional stations and more data are desirable, the information which has been 
recorded to date is quite representative of stream flow conditions throughout the State. 
The work has been carried on continuously since 1889, and at present there are a total 
of 95 active gaging stations located in the principal drainage basins on the main rivers 
and their tributaries. Records have been gathered at 69 other stations which are no 
longer active, and these, together with the active stations, make a total of 164 locations 
throughout the State at which stream flow data has been recorded. There are four sta- 
tions having continuous records of 40 years or more ; two located in the Little Tennessee 
river basin, and one each in the French Broad and Hiwassee river basins. There 
are two stations having records of 35 years or more, one in the Cape Fear basin and one 
in the Yadkin river basin. Three stations have records between 20 and 30 years of length ; 
16 have records between 10 and 20 years; 62 between 5 and 10 years; and 77 have rec- 
ords of less than 5 years. Copies of any stream flow records in the State may be obtained 
from the Water Resources and Engineering Division of the North Carolina Depart- 
ment of Conservation and Development, or from the U. S. Geological Survey District 
Office at Asheville, N. C. 

WATER SUPPLIES 

The use of water for drinking purposes is of first importance in any development of 
water resources. The abundant quantities of water available has led to the develop- 
ment of 129 municipal public water supply systems derived from surface supplies. In 
addition to the surface supplies, there are 146 towns which have public water supplies 
developed from ground water sources. Together, these make a total of 275 cities and 
towns in the State having developed public water supplies, which represents a large 
percentage of the total number of more important towns, considering the fact that the 
1930 census lists a total of only 68 cities and towns in North Carolina as having a 
population of 2,500 or more. 

Of the 275 public water systems, there are 98 filtered surface supplies, 31 unfiltered 
surface supplies, 128 well supplies, and 18 spring supplies. In general, towns lying in 
the coastal plain, piedmont and eastern mountain regions, which have developed surface 
supplies, have found that filtration is necessary, due to pollution of the streams from 
sewage, industrial and trade wastes. In the mountain and western piedmont sections, 
where the concentration of population and industrial establishments is less, pollution of 
the streams, particularly the smaller ones, is much less than in other sections of the 
State ; and it is possible to utilize unfiltered surface water, with only sterilization treat- 
ment, for public use. Although supplies developed from wells are found throughout 
the State, this type of supply is more common in the Coastal Plain and eastern Pied- 
mont sections. The few towns which utilize springs as developed supplies are located 
principally in the Mountain region. 



North Carolina : Today and Tomorrow 



171 



Information relating to the chemical quality of the surface waters through the State 
has been compiled and published as Economic Paper No. 61 of the North Carolina 
Department of Conservation and Development, entitled Preliminary Report on the Chem- 
ical Quality of Surface Waters of North Carolina with Relation to Industrial Use. In 
this publication are the results of analyses of 185 water samples, of which 174 samples 
are from surface sources and 11 samples from underground sources. 

Table XLI is abstracted from this publication, and included herewith to illustrate 
the quality of surface water which may be expected in each of the three main physio- 
graphic divisions of the State. 

Table XLI 
AVERAGE ANALYSIS OF SURFACE WATERS BY REGIONS 





Coastal Plain 


Piedmont Plateau 


Mountain Region 


No. Analyses 
Considered 


Parts per 
Million 


No. Analyses 
Considered 


Parts per 
Million 


No. Analyses 
Considered 


Parts per 
Million 


Silica (Si0 2 ) 


16 

16 
16 


13. 
0.6 

4.7 


38 
37 
38 


16. 

0.81 
5.2 


74 

74 
74 


10. 

0.21 

2.4 


Iron (Fe) 


Calcium (Ca) 




Magnesium (Mg) 


16 

15 
15 


1.9 
5.4 
1.1 


38 
38 
32 


1.9 

4.2 
0.98 


74 

74 
74 


1. 

2.2 

0.58 


Sodium (Na) 


Potassium (K) 




Carbonate radicle (CO3) 

Bicarbonate radicle (HCO3) 

Sulphate radicle (SO4) 


26 
15 
16 


0. 
21. 
4.9 


34 
36 

38 


0.0 
21. 
5.9 


74 
74 
74 


0. 
12. 
2.4 




Chloride radicle (CI) 


17 
19 
17 


7.8 
0.60 
57. 


38 
37 
36 


4.6 

0.83 
62. 


74 
72 
74 


1.9 

0.33 
31. 


Nitrate radicle (N0 3 ) 

Total dissolved solids at 180' C . . 


Total hardness as CaCC>3 (calc.) . . 
Color 


15 

14 
16 


19. 
34. 
66. 


36 
32 
35 


20. 

31. 

102. 


74 
73 
60 


10. 

14. 
34. 


Turbidity 




Suspended matter 

Alkalinity 


17 

15 


48. 
15. 


35 

33 


61. 

18. 


74 
29 


11. 

11. 



POTENTIAL WATER POWER 

In the descent of the rivers from the mountains, both east and west of the Divide, 
there exists tremendous amounts of potential water power which can be readily con- 
verted into hydro-electric energy. A large amount of this power has been developed by 
various power companies but there still exists a great deal of undeveloped potential water 
power on the main rivers and their principal tributaries throughout the whole State. 

The U. S. Army Engineers, as directed and authorized by Congress, have published 
comprehensive reports on the more important rivers, in which they have suggested and 
analyzed various plans for development considering power, flood control, and navigation, 
both singly and collectively. Practically all of the potential water power sites have been 
analyzed and their possibilities reported in these publications. These reports are by far 






172 North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 

the most comprehensive and valuable sources of information on potential water power 
and the following table is based on their conclusions. 

Table XLII 

SUMMARY OF POTENTIAL WATER POWER DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH 
CAROLINA— CAPACITIES EXPRESSED IN HORSE POWER 

Cape Fear River Basin 

(Independent Operation) 

Bynum Haw River 39,600 

Moores Mill Haw River 30,000 

Mandale Haw River 30,000 

New Hope Haw River 45,000 

Smiley Falls Cape Fear River 31,900 



Total 176,500 

Roanoke-Choivan River Basin 

(Plants operated with regulation as part of unit of 17 basic plan 

projects) 

Joyces Mill Dan River 650 

Gorge Dan River 2,000 

Clemmons Ford Dan River 3,600 

Gaston Roanoke River 86,000 

Roanoke Rapids Roanoke River 56,000 



Total 148,250 

(Plants operated independently without upstream regulation) 

Gorge Ran River 1,800 

Roanoke Rapids Roanoke River 56,000 



57,800 
Tar River Basin 

(Installations part of coordinated scheme of development for this river 
consisting of 2 flood control reservoirs, 2 power reservoirs and 2 navi- 
gation locks and dams.) 

Sapony Creek Tar River 6,700 

Tarboro Tar River 5,630 



Total 12,330 

(If power development alone is considered there are four (4) possible 
developments, assuming regulation from coordinated operation.) 

Fishing Creek near Meltons Bridge 

Tar River below Webbs Bridge 

Tar River at mouth of Sapony Creek 

Tar River at Tarboro 

Plants would develop 8,690 H.P. primary power 

56,799,800 Kwh primary power ) A __ 1]flllv 

14,156,344 Kwh secondary power j Armuaiiy 

Neuse River Basin 

(Projects as part of coordinated scheme of power and flood control 
development including also two additional purely flood control proj- 
ects: Wiggins Mill on Contentnea Creek, and Bakers Mill on Little 
River.) 

Falls Neuse River 14,750 

Milburnie Neuse River 12,750 

Wilson Mills Neuse River 11,400 

Smithfield Neuse River 12,050 

Total 50,950 



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172 North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 

the most comprehensive and valuable sources of information on potential water power 
and the following table is based on their conclusions. 

Table XLII 

SUMMARY OF POTENTIAL WATER POWER DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH 
CAROLINA— CAPACITIES EXPRESSED IN HORSE POWER 

Cape Fear River Basin 

(Independent Operation) 

Bynum Haw River 39,600 

Moores Mill Haw River 30,000 

Mandale Haw River 30,000 

New Hope Haw River 45,000 

Smiley Falls Cape Fear River 31,900 



Total 176,500 

Roanoke-Chowan River Basin 

(Plants operated with regulation as part of unit of 17 basic plan 

projects) 

Joyces Mill Dan River 650 

Gorge Dan River 2,000 

Clemmons Ford Dan River 3,600 

Gaston Roanoke River 86,000 

Roanoke Rapids Roanoke River 56,000 



Total 148,250 

(Plants operated independently without upstream regulation) 

Gorge Ran River 1,800 

Roanoke Rapids Roanoke River 56,000 



57,800 
Tar River Basin 

(Installations part of coordinated scheme of development for this river 
consisting of 2 flood control reservoirs, 2 power reservoirs and 2 navi- 
gation locks and dams.) 

Sapony Creek Tar River 6,700 

Tarboro Tar River 5,630 



Total 12,330 

(If power development alone is considered there are four (4) possible 
developments, assuming regulation from coordinated operation.) 

Fishing Creek near Meltons Bridge 

Tar River below Webbs Bridge 

Tar River at mouth of Sapony Creek 

Tar River at Tarboro 

Plants would develop 8,690 H.P. primary power 

56,799,800 Kwh primary power \ Annnallv 

14,156,344 Kwh secondary power j Aimuan y 

Neuse River Basin 

(Projects as part of coordinated scheme of power and flood control 
development including also two additional purely flood control proj- 
ects: Wiggins Mill on Contentnea Creek, and Bakers Mill on Little 
River.) 

Falls Neuse River 14,750 

Milburnie Neuse River 12,750 

Wilson Mills Neuse River 11,400 

Smithfield Neuse River 12,050 

Total 50,950 












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PUBLIC WATER SUPPLIES 



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PLATE No XX 
CHAPTER IX 



North Carolina : Today and Tomorrow 173 



(If power development alone is considered, which is not justified eco- 
nomically, then all six sites are developed for power.) 

Falls Neuse River 21,400 

Milburnie Neuse River 21,400 

Wilson Mills Neuse River 29,500 

Smithfield Neuse River 14,700 

Bakers Mill Little River 4,280 

Wiggins Mill Contentnea Creek 2,410 

93,600 
Yadkin River Basin 

Correlated System, without flood control 

Major Projects 

Wilkesboro Yadkin River 23,320 

Styres Yadkin River 32,850 

Junction Yadkin River 37,850 

Cooleemee South Yadkin River 12,800 

Loves Ford Rocky River 7,430 

Crumps Ford Rocky River 26,500 

Greater Blewett Falls Pee Dee River 126,500 

Morven Pee Dee River 50,900 



Total 318,150 

Independent Projects, without flood control 

Major Projects 

Wilkesboro Yadkin River 23,320 

Styres Yadkin River 27,380 

Junction Yadkin River 25,960 

Cooleemee South Yadkin River 12,800 

Loves Ford Rocky River 7,430 

Crumps Ford Rocky River 25,550 

Greater Blewett Falls Pee Dee River 69,600 

Morven Pee Dee River 21,650 



213,690 
Independent Operation, without flood control 

Minor Projects 

Elkin Yadkin River 14,350 

Donnaha Yadkin River 46,650 

Uharie Uharie River 4,000 

Nances Ford Rocky River 7,000 

Martins Bridge Little River 8,500 



Total 80,500 

Cataivba-Broad River Basin 

Coordinated System, without flood control 

Major Project 
Clinchfield Broad River 24,350 



Total 24,350 

Minor Project 

Lincolnton South Fork Catawba 

Primary discharge, project storage 330 second-feet 

Capacity discharge, 1000 second-feet Area reservoir, 11,100 acres 

GRAND TOTAL 730,530 

NAVIGATION 

From time to time navigational improvements such as dredging, channel deepening 
and straightening, locks and dams, etc., have been made on North Carolina streams by 
the U. S. Army Engineers, as approved and authorized by Congress. River navigation 



174 North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 

improvements in this State have been confined to the streams emptying into the Sounds 
or Atlantic Ocean within the borders of the State : namely, the Roanoke, Chowan, Me- 
herrin, Tar, Neuse, and Cape Fear rivers. The portions of the Yadkin, Catawba and 
Broad rivers lying in North Carolina are not considered navigable, and no improvements 
for this purpose have been made on them. Similarly, the streams of the western 
basins, or Ohio River drainage in North Carolina, are not navigable and have received 
no improvements. 

The status of the navigable portions of the streams and channels in the State, as 
of June, 1936, is summarized below. 

PRINCIPAL RIVERS 
Meherrin River 

Depth of 10 feet and width of 100 feet available from mouth to Murfreesboro, 12!/2 
miles. Above Murfreesboro probable controlling depth of 3 feet to Skinners Landing. 

Chowan River 

Navigable for entire length of 50 miles between Albemarle Sound and confluence 
of Nottoway and Blackwater rivers. Controlling depth of 12 feet between the Sound 
and mouth of Meherrin River, and controlling depth of 9 feet between mouth of Meher- 
rin River and confluence of Blackwater and Nottoway rivers. 

Roanoke River 

Controlling depth of 6 feet between mouth and Hamilton, 62 miles. Controlling 
depth of 3 feet between Hamilton and Wei don, 67 miles. Not navigable above Weldon. 

Pamlico and Tar Rivers 

Controlling depth of 10 V2 feet from mouth of river to Washington. Above Wash- 
ington controlling depth of 6 feet to a point 11 miles below Greenville; 4 feet to a point 
3 miles below Greenville; 2.6 feet to Greenville, and thence 1 foot to the mouth of 
Fishing Creek. 

Neuse River 

Channel 300 feet wide with controlling depth of 12 feet exists from mouth to New 
Bern. Controlling depth of 4 feet from New Bern to a point 23 miles above; thence 
2V2 feet to mouth of Contentnea Creek, 32 miles above; thence 1 foot to Seven Springs, 
75 miles above New Bern. 

Cape Fear River 

A channel 27 feet deep exists over the ocean bar, and channel 30 feet deep from the 
mouth to Wilmington. Controlling depth of 19 feet from Wilmington to a point 9 miles 
above; thence controlling depth of 9 feet to Fayetteville, head of navigation, 115 miles 
above Wilmington. 

OTHER IMPROVEMENTS 

Intracoastal Waterway 

Controlling depth of 12 feet from Norfolk, Va., to Beaufort, N. C, thence 12 feet 
to Wrightsville Causeway, thence IOV2 feet to the Cape Fear River. Controlling depth of 
8 feet between Cape Fear River and Little River, South Carolina. 






North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 175 

Waterway Connecting Stvan Quarter Bay with Deep Bay, N. C. 

A channel 6 feet deep at mean low water and bottom width of 50 feet exists through- 
out the Waterway. 

Belhaven Harbor, N. C. 

A channel 12 feet deep at mean low water to Belhaven, N. C, from the Inland Water- 
way, Norfolk, Va., to Beaufort Inlet, N. C. 

Far Creek, N. C. 

A channel 7 feet deep at mean low water to Englehard. 

Rollinson Channel, N. C. 

A limiting low water depth of 4 feet. 

South River, N. C. 

A controlling mean low water depth between the mouth and Aurora of 7 feet. 

Silver Lake Harbor, N. C. 

The project depth of 5 feet at mean low water in the entrance channel. 

Bay River, N. C. 

The controlling mean low water depth of 8 feet to Bayboro, 16 miles above the 
mouth, and the practical head of navigation. 

Swift Creek, N. C. 

A channel 5 feet deep at mean low water with a minimum width of 50 feet from 
the mouth to Vanceboro. 

Smiths Creek (Pamlico County), N. C. 

A mean low water depth of 8.5 feet at the entrance with a depth of 8 feet in the 
harbor. 

Contentnea Creek, N. C. 

This stream obstructed by a shoal at its mouth and in poor condition. 

Trent River, N. C. 

A channel 12 feet deep at mean low water and 300 feet wide exists at New Bern, 
a channel 6 feet deep at dead low water to Pollocksville, 18 miles above, thence a 
channel with controlling depth of 3.5 feet to Trenton, 38 miles above, and the head of 
navigation. 

Channel Connecting Thoroughfare Bay with Cedar Bay, N. C. 
A controlling low water depth of 4 1/2 feet. 

Beaufort Harbor, N. C. 

Controlling depths as follows: Gallants Channel, 11 V2 feet; Bulkhead Channel, 12 
feet; channel in front of Beaufort, 12 feet. 

Watenvay Connecting Pamlico Sound and Beaufort Harbor, N. C. 
A project depth of 7 feet at mean low water. 



176 North Carolina : Today and Tomorrow 

Waterway to Jacksonville, N. C. 

A controlling depth of 5 feet from the Intracoastal Waterway to Jacksonville. 

Morehead City Harbor, N. C. 

A channel 12 feet deep at mean low water in Beaufort Outer Harbor to the foot 
of Tenth Street in Morehead City, and thence a channel 6 feet deep at mean low water 
connecting the western end of the harbor with Bogue Sound. The channel from the inlet 
to the marine terminals has a mean low water depth of 30 feet. 

Beaufort Inlet, N. C. 

A controlling mean low water depth of 30 feet. 

Harbor of Refuge, Cape Lookout, N. C. 

A controlling depth at the harbor entrance of 42 feet. 

Northeast (Cape Fear) River, N. C. 

Controlling low water depths of 15 feet to a point 2% miles above the mouth; thence 
6 feet to Bannerman's Bridge, 48 miles above the mouth; and thence 3 feet to Crooms 
Bridge, 56 miles above the mouth. 

Black River, N. C. 

Controlling low water depths of 5 feet to Point Caswell, 24 miles above the mouth, 
2!/2 feet to Hawes Narrows, 32 miles above mouth, and 1^ feet to Clear Run, the head 
of navigation, 66 miles above the mouth. 

Shallotte River, N. C. 

Controlling mean low water depth of 3^2 feet to the town of Shallotte, 9 miles 
above the mouth and the head of navigation. 

Smiths Creek, Wilmington, N. C. 

Controlling mean low water depth of 7*4 feet. 

POLLUTION 

Pollution of our streams and rivers is becoming an increasing nuisance in North 
Carolina. There are numerous towns and municipalities emptying sewage, both treated 
and untreated, into the rivers and streams of the various drainage basins. In addition 
to sewage, there are a number of textile processing mills and other industrial establish- 
ments emptying dye and other types of trade wastes into the streams. Particularly is 
this true in the Piedmont and upper Coastal Plain areas where industries are more cen- 
tralized. The concentration of polluting materials serves to make the streams waste- 
disposal units which in some cases become particularly objectional during periods of low 
stream flow. 

Another factor, erosion of soils, contributes largely to the pollution of the streams. 
It has been estimated that the silt yield of the coastal streams is as high as 0.25 acre feet 
per annum per square mile of drainage area. Although this value may not be excessive 
in comparison with the silt pollution of some other rivers in the United States, still it is 
enough to give a muddy, turbid appearance to the Piedmont and Coastal Plain streams. 



North Carolina : Today and Tomorrow 177 

It is a matter of interest that historical notes of the early part of the past century de- 
scribe the waters of these streams and rivers as exceptionally clear and sparkling. 

The Soil Conservation Service, under the U. S. Department of Agriculture, has for 
the past several years made extensive studies of soil erosion and its related subjects, in 
Guilford and Randolph counties, and at other places in the Piedmont section. A great 
deal of information relating to erosion, silting in reservoirs, etc., has been collected by 
this agency, in addition to valuable aid and assistance rendered to the farmers in prop- 
erly terracing their farm lands to prevent further erosion. The central office of this 
agency is located at High Point, N. C, and additional information desired about their 
program may be procured there. 



X! 
X! 

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H 
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Ph 




Chapter X 

WILDLIFE RESOURCES 

North Carolina continues to rank as one of the foremost States in the Union in 
abundance and variety of wildlife. Climate, topography of the land, the fact that the 
State remains predominantly agricultural, vast acreages of forest lands, enormous 
bodies of fresh and salt water, numerous rivers and streams of uniformly high physical 
characteristics — all combine to form ideal conditions for the production of all species of 
fish and game native to the temperate zone. To these favorable natural conditions has 
been added, in recent years, the aid of one of the country's most comprehensive game 
programs, administered by the Division of Game and Inland Fisheries, North Caro- 
lina Department of Conservation and Development. 

Realizing that regulatory measures alone were inadequate to halt wildlife depletion, 
and that restrictions have within themselves no power to restore where reductions have 
taken place, the wildlife program now operating in North Carolina includes, in addition 
to certain game laws, extensive facilities for restoration and permanent care of wild- 
life. Definitely connected with land use in its modern application, the wildlife 
resources of North Carolina are of such importance as to merit the attention of all con- 
servation agencies in the State. The National Forests, the National Park, State Parks, 
Soil Conservation Service, and the activities of several Federal Relief bodies in North 
Carolina now embrace in their activities projects having to do with wildlife resources. 

The participation of these agencies concerned primarily with land use, and greatly 
expanded facilities for wider operations on the part of regular established channels, 
have assured enlargement and perpetuation of the State's valuable wildlife resources. 

Private co-operation and enterprise have been important factors in the success of 
the wildlife program in this State. Individuals and groups of sportsmen have set up 
large hunting preserves and refuges throughout the State. Upon these lands, both leased 
and owned, protection, management and actual propagation activities are carried on. 

Western North Carolina Game Refuges 

The Western North Carolina Game Refuges are recognized all over the nation as 
being outstanding developments of this type. These areas are of such significance to 
the State Wildlife Program that special attention is given to the work being done here 
in this survey. 

Mt. Mitchell State Game Refuge: Located at the headwaters of the Toe River in 
Yancey County, this refuge was established November 1, 1927, on Pisgah National 
Forest, State, and privately owned lands. The refuge borders for a distance of eleven 
miles on the county lines of McDowell and Buncombe counties. The division of lands is 
as follows: Pisgah National Forest, 14,376 acres; State Park, 1,224 acres; State Division 
Lands, 167 acres ; and private lands, 233 acres — a total of 16,000 acres in the refuge. 

The refuge boundary is marked by a cleared strip and all entrances are posted. 
Dogs, guns, and traps are not permitted. 

The total stream mileage within the refuge amounts to 40 miles, all well stocked 
with rainbow and speckled trout. In addition to this stream mileage, some 30 or 35 






180 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 



miles of Curtis Creek, and tributaries, lying partly in the refuge, are now being stocked 
with trout. Fishing is permitted in the refuge during certain open days in the year. 

The refuge operates a cold water hatchery in connection with the work at the game 
farm; however, production from this hatchery is at present very limited. 

Game wardens patrol the entire refuge area, exterminating predators, maintaining 
regulations, and exercising management of all game upon the range. 

Through such a program as that instituted upon the Mt. Mitchell Refuge, constant 
restocking of the entire area adjacent to the refuge is obtained. The improved condi- 
tions are reflected in the large tracts of land in this locality given over to privately- 
owned public shooting grounds, the outstanding lands set aside for this purpose being 
13,000 acres in the Big Tom Wilson Tract and 5,000 acres in the Threadgill Boundary. 
Approximately 75,000 acres of the Pisgah National Forest lands adjacent to the refuge 
constitute public hunting grounds. 

Daniel Boone Refuge: This refuge is located on the eastern slopes of Grandfather 
Mountain in Avery and Caldwell counties. It contains 16,000 acres of land, 33 miles of 
streams, and has some 65,000 acres of National Forest lands lying adjacent as public 
hunting grounds. Operations here are very much the same as those conducted at the 

Mt. Mitchell Refuge. 

Wayah Bald State Game Refuge: This is the smallest of the three refuges, and is 
located in Macon County on Nantahala National Forest, State, and private lands. The 
total area covers 9,909 acres. 

Approximately 132,000 acres of National Forest lands adjoin the refuge and 
constitute public hunting grounds. 

The following table is based on an estimate on game and fish on the Western North 
Carolina State Game Refuges in 1935: 

Table XLIII 



1 

Kind of Game 


Mt. 
Mitchell 
Refuge 


Daniel 
Boone 
Refuge 


Wayah 

Bald 
Refuge 


Totals 


Deer 


350 

7 

45 

600 

300 

1,600 

800 

50 

30 

800 

50 

150 

12,000 


40 

6 

15 

500 

400 

1,200 

850 

60 

50 

600 

12 

200 

9,000 


75 

2 

175 

150 

650 

250 

12 

10 

50 

300 

15 

200 

2,250 


465 

13 

62 

1,275 

850 

3,450 

1,900 

122 

90 

50 

1,700 

77 

550 

23,250 


Elk 


Bear 

Raccoon 

Opossum 


Squirrel 


Rabbits 


Mink 


Muskrat 


Turkey 

Ruffed Grouse 


Pheasant 

Quail 


Fish over 6" (trout) 



Further facilities for the propagation and conservation of wildlife, including 
aquatic and bird life, will be discussed in brief surveys covering the resources by groups. 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 181 

Upland Game Birds 

In North Carolina, this group includes quail, wild turkey, dove, ruffed grouse and 
pheasants. 

Quail: More people hunt quail in this State than the combined numbers of those who 
hunt the other upland game birds. In fact, the quail ranks second to the rabbit in the 
number of hunters attracted. 

With ideal climatic conditions and adequate food and cover, almost the entire State 
constitutes excellent range for the quail. In fact, North Carolina is generally credited 
with being one of the most favored of all states for this game bird, and has a national 
reputation for its excellent quail shooting. The heaviest concentrations are in the Pied- 
mont section, especially in Guilford, Forsyth, Iredell, Randolph, Davidson, Chatham, 
Montgomery, Rockingham, Stokes, Anson, Mecklenburg and Wake counties. Although 
there are large stocks of birds in most of these counties, in all probability there are equal 
numbers in several eastern counties. Ashe and Buncombe counties in the west, and 
Halifax, Johnston, Beaufort, and several other counties of the east furnish good shoot- 
ing. Many non-resident hunters maintain large shooting preserves in some of the 
counties named. 

Although the State operates a quail farm adjacent to the Frank Stedman Fish 
Hatchery in Cumberland County, and some propagation is done on Game Preserves, 
natural reproduction of quail is chiefly relied upon. The present trend toward game 
management on the farm, and especially of this species of game bird, will, in all prob- 
ability, make artificial propagation on a wide scale unnecessary. 

The abundance of quail, particularly in the Piedmont, has been responsible for 
the establishment of a number of hunting clubs and preserves, which are visited each 
year by large numbers of famous hunters from this and other states. Many farmers 
of this section are deriving a considerable income from the practice of leasing lands, 
containing cover and good feeding conditions, to these hunters. 

Depletion of quail in North Carolina is localized in regions where repeated fires, 
uncontrolled predators, and lack of interest on the part of landowners exist. Conditions 
generally over the State are good. 

Wild Turkey: A definite program instituted by the State Division of Game and 
Inland Fisheries has been set up to rehabilitate the supply of wild turkey in North 
Carolina. In addition to intensive work at the game farms, operated in connection with 
refuges, the Division proposes to select suitable wilderness areas throughout the State 
and to conduct natural breeding experiments, based upon the reasonable assumption 
that birds produced in this manner will remain wild and not become domesticated by 
contact with points of human habitation. 

The original range of the wild turkey was virtually the entire State. Today, birds 
are found in fairly large numbers only along the Roanoke, Pamlico, and Neuse rivers; 
in several counties of the southeastern part of the State; in Chatham, Caswell and 
Randolph counties in the Piedmont; and upon the Pisgah National Game Refuge in the 
mountains. 



182 North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 

North Carolina, even with its depleted stock, is one of the best wild turkey regions 
in the United States. Between three and five thousand birds are taken in this State 
annually. 

Dove: Like the quail, dove occupy a large range in North Carolina. The supply 
remains fairly equal from year to year, furnishing good hunting for large numbers of 
resident and non-resident sportsmen. The heaviest concentrations are in the Coastal Plain 
and Piedmont Region. 

Ruffed Grouse: The ruffed grouse is native to the mountain section of North Caro- 
lina. Once near complete exhaustion, protection and extensive propagation operations 
have built up the stock until today, several western counties are inhabited by large num- 
bers of grouse. Ashe, Watauga, Yancey, Jackson, and Macon counties supply the best 
shooting. 

Pheasants: This is an imported game bird and efforts to stock various sections of 
the State have met only with fair success. Hunting of the pheasant is not allowed in 
North Carolina. 

Big Game Species 

Deer: Deer is the most popular, and considered by many the most important of all 
North Carolina big game animals. The importance attached to this big game species is 
manifest in the fact that North Carolina has some 200,000 acres of land, controlled by 
State and Federal governments, upon which production and conservation of deer has 
become a major activity. 

Pisgah Federal Game Preserve: The Pisgah Game Preserve covers 98,000 acres of 
western North Carolina mountain lands. Although the game being restocked includes 
bear, wild turkey, grouse, squirrel, raccoon and all species of native furbearers, the 
principal activity consists in restocking deer. 

The necessity for intensive restocking and protection in western North Carolina is 
clearly shown by the fact that a complete closure of the open season for hunting deer 
has been effected in a number of counties. 

The rehabilitation of deer, however, is progressing rapidly within the mountain 
area. In fact, development upon the Preserve has been so rapid as to necessitate declar- 
ing open dates for hunting, two hunts having been held in order to prevent deer from 
reaching proportions too great for their own welfare. 

The success of the Pisgah Federal Game Preserve and that attending the work of 
the Western North Carolina State Game Refuges makes the outlook for restocking the 
entire mountain area most hopeful. 

Fort Bragg Refuge: The outstanding example of successful game management, 
deer restocking in particular, is afforded in the results obtained upon the Fort Bragg 
Refuge, a project undertaken solely by the Military Post, and carried out upon the lands 
of the great Artillery Reservation in the Sandhills of North Carolina. 

The overflow of deer from this reservation and the restocking work being carried 
on upon private hunting preserves maintains a supply of this big game animal in this 
region. 






North Carolina : Today and Tomorrow 183 

Holly Shelter State Game Refuge: This refuge, operated by the State Division of 
Game and Inland Fisheries, covers 60,000 acres. Although bear, and quail and other 
small game are present in abundance, the wilderness swamp areas of the refuge furnish 
ideal conditions for natural reproduction and protection of large numbers of deer. 

On the whole, the eastern part of North Carolina presents no particular problem, 
excellent range being found for large numbers of deer in Gates, Halifax, Beaufort, Tyrrell, 
Dare, Washington, Pamlico, Craven, Brunswick, Bladen, Bertie, Onslow, Pender, Mar- 
tin, and several other counties of this secttion. Over three thousand male deer are 
taken in this section each year. Shooting of does is prohibited in all sections of North 
Carolina. 

Bear: In eastern and western North Carolina, bear inhabit practically the same 
range as deer. The swamps of the eastern part of the State contain large numbers of 
this big game animal, while the lands adjacent to refuges in the mountains are well 
supplied. The open season in the east usually extends about 20 days longer than that 
set for the mountain region. 

Wild Boar: This distinctive type of game was introduced in Graham County in 
extreme western North Carolina over a score of years ago. The range remains largely 
restricted to this county, no efforts having been made to breed the animal elsewhere in 
the State. Wild Boar hunting in Graham County is receiving recognition from sports- 
men in many parts of the country. 

Elk: There are only a few elk in the State today, the number being confined entirely 
to the Western North Carolina State Game Refuges. 

FURBEARERS 

The State Game law classifies the following species as furbearers: muskrat, rac- 
coon, opossum, beaver, mink, otter, wildcat, and skunk. There is no closed season on 
wildcat, weasel and skunk. The State allows county regulation of the taking of fox. 

Muskrat, raccoon, opossum and skunk are found in fairly large numbers in all sec- 
tions of the State. Mink, otter and beaver are depleted, the last named species being 
almost, if not quite, extinct. There is no open season on beaver in North Carolina. 

The fox is found in large numbers in many sections of the State. Fox hunting in 
the Sandhills, in the Piedmont, and in the mountain area around Tryon, in Polk County, 
attracts large numbers of sportsmen each year. 

While the State operates no farm for the propagation of furbearers, other than the 
work done in connection with the refuges, there are several fur farms in the State where 
silver fox are bred and raised in considerable numbers. These farms are located in the 
mountain section in Henderson County. 

North Carolina produces many excellent pelts and skins for market, the total value 
amounting to some $2,000,000 annually. 

Migratory Waterfowl 

During the fall and winter practically all species of migratory waterfowl found along 
the Atlantic Coast visit North Carolina's large sounds and lakes. Quite a number of 



184 North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 

ducks and geese winter on the larger power lakes in the Piedmont region and in the 
mountains. Included are eight to ten varieties of ducks, several members of the goose 
family, brant, coot, gallinule, rail, snipe, and woodcock. 

Currituck, Roanoke, Croatan, Pamlico, Bogue, and Core Sounds, and Great Matta- 
muskeet Lake furnish some of the best wintering quarters for migratory waterfowl on 
the entire Atlantic Coast, and are visited by many thousands of birds each year. 

Feeding conditions, seriously damaged several years ago, are now greatly improved 
in these areas, and species, which are depleted at other points along the coast, seem to 
be fairly plentiful here. 

The activities of the Federal Government in administering laws affecting migratory 
waterfowl with greater restrictions enforced, extensive research work in regard to 
breeding grounds, flyways, banding, improving feeding conditions, and the establishing 
of waterfowl sanctuaries, have all been instrumental in bringing about a program which 
it is hoped will maintain the supply on a constant level, stop depletion, and eventually 
result in some increase in the number of waterfowl. The Federal Regulations govern- 
ing waterfowl are automatically the statutes of the various states visited by wildfowl. 

One of the largest sanctuaries in the east was assured for migratory waterfowl 
with the purchase by the U. S. Government of Mattamuskeet Lake in Hyde County. This 
great body of water, some 50,000 acres in extent, furnishes exceptionally fine conditions 
for great numbers of ducks, geese and swan — the last bird named being protected from 
shooting. Shooting of ducks and geese over certain restricted areas of Mattamuskeet 
Lake is permitted under Federal regulations. 

The total economic value of migratory waterfowl to North Carolina amounts to a 
very considerable sum of money, counting expenditures made for room and board given 
hunters, sale of hunting equipment, guide and dog hire, transportation costs, etc., but 
no accurate estimate can be made. 

Game Fish 

The program to preserve an abundance of game fish in North Carolina has kept 
pace with the efforts to increase and maintain the supply of other forms of wildlife. 

The Division of Game and Inland Fisheries, North Carolina Department of Con- 
servation and Development, is operating six hatcheries for the propagation of fresh 
water game fish. Five of these hatcheries — Murphy, Morrison, Roaring Gap, Boone, and 
Toe River — are producing cold water species, such as brown, speckled, and rainbow 
trout, and small mouth bass. The Stedman Hatchery produces warm water species, 
principally the large mouth bass and bream. 

The production from these hatcheries will be greatly augmented by hatcheries con- 
structed by the Federal Government in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park and 
in the submarginal land area in the Sandhills, the latter development being a project of 
the Resettlement Administration. 

The hatchery in the National Park was constructed by the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries 
on the North Carolina side of the Park at Kephart Prong. The rated capacity of the 
hatchery is a half million trout annually. The output will be placed in streams within 
the boundaries of the National Park and the Pisgah National Forest. 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 185 

It is estimated that nearly 4,000,000 game fish of warm water species will be pro- 
duced in the Hoffman Hatchery in Richmond County. Fish from this hatchery will be 
distributed in the waters of the purchase area, and into streams upon adjacent lands. 

Cold Water Species 

This group of game fish, found in the western mountain section of the State, includes 
trout, muskellunge, small mouth bass, bream, perch, and several minor species. 

The waters of lakes and streams in this area are well suited for the species named. 
Stream conditions are generally excellent, except for pollution in a few restricted rivers. 

Trout: In the mountains, the trout is king. The brook, or speckled trout, is native 
to and thrives in the colder waters of the high altitudes. Rainbow and brown trout are 
found in streams at lower elevations. 

Fishing has become so heavy in mountain streams of recent years that a continued 
supply of all species will doubtless depend, to a great extent, upon artificial restocking. 
In waters where demands are not so heavy, natural reproduction appears sufficient to 
stock the waters. 

Operating at maximum capacity, the hatcheries producing trout turn out over 
3,000,000 fish each year. Adding the considerable number of fish from natural repro- 
duction, there is little danger that trout waters will ever be "fished out." 

Muskellunge: At present, this northern game fish species is found in North Caro- 
lina only in the Tennessee and French Broad rivers. There are, however, some 150 
miles of streams in this State, now supporting small mouth bass, which are considered 
good for muskellunge. These waters, besides the Tennessee River already mentioned, 
are the Tuckaseegee and Cheoah rivers and several lakes in the area. 

Numerous lakes and streams at the lower mountain elevations are inhabited by both 
large and small mouth bass, bream, perch, and other species of game fish. 

Lake Santeetlah, Lakes James and Rhodhiss, and Lake Tahoma are all favorite fish- 
ing grounds. Outside of the excellent fishing streams in the National Forests and in the 
State Game Refuges, there are other waters well known to anglers. One of the principal 
grounds for trout fishing in the mountains lies in Elk River, (leased), in Avery County. 

Combining stream mileages on National Forest lands and in State Refuges, there 
are some 500 miles of water on public lands available for angling during designated 
open days. 

Warm Water Species 

The principal species belonging to this group include large mouth bass, striped bass, 
bream, and a variety of perch and other members of the sunfish family. These warm 
water species are found in all fresh water capable of supporting fish, east of the moun- 
tain region to the coast. 

In view of the fact that producing waters are so extensive in the Piedmont and 
Coastal regions, and that spawning areas, particularly in waters below the Fall Line, 
are in excellent condition, the brunt of stocking the various species has been and will 



186 North Carolina : Today and Tomorrow 

continue to fall on natural reproduction. To facilitate the success of this program, the 
State has recently adopted a program whereby sections of rivers and their tributaries 
where spawning areas are extensive are closed to fishing for a period. This procedure 
has been highly successful in waters thus closed, and has resulted in general improv- 
ment extending outside the restricted areas. It is expected that this program will be 
made permanent, and will in time include all waters needing restocking of warm water 
game fish. 

Large Mouth Bass: This great game fish is distributed more generally and is found 
in greater abundance in the warm waters of North Carolina than any other major 
species. Experienced sportsmen are authorities for the statement that eastern North 
Carolina waters provide some of the best bass fishing in the country. Specimens from 
six to eight pounds are not uncommon. 

The following waters contain large mouth bass in abundance: North River, Curri- 
tuck and Camden counties; Alligator River and tributaries, Dare and Tyrrell counties; 
Lake Phelps, Washington County; tributaries of the Pamlico River, Beaufort County; 
tributaries of the Neuse River, Craven County; Trent River, Jones County; New River, 
Onslow County; and tributaries of the Cape Fear River in New Hanover, Brunswick 
and other counties. 

For the past few years, Mattamuskeet Lake in Hyde County has been overstocked 
with a distinctive type of bass having the characteristics of the Kentucky bass, and dif- 
ferent in some respects from the large and small mouth species. Crappie and white 
perch are also numerous in this lake. Although it is a Federal Migratory Waterfowl 
Sanctuary, administration of fishing privileges in this body of water has been turned 
over to the North Carolina Department of Conservation and Development. 

Striped Bass: Striped (rock) bass fishing is at its best in North Carolina. Although 
some depletion has been noticed, the Roanoke River is one of the most important spawn- 
ing grounds in the country. This migratory game fish enters the sounds and Pamlico, 
Neuse, Cape Fear and other rivers in large numbers. Fish are taken in these waters, 
weighing from 60 to 75 pounds. 

Other Warm Water Fish: The bream, perch, and other members of the sunfish 
family are found in lakes, private ponds, and rivers over the Piedmont and Coastal 
sections. These species supplement the sport of bass fishing, and for some provide the 
major feature of an outdoor excursion. 

Although excessive soil erosion and pollution have removed some waters from pro- 
duction, the physical qualities of the streams and lakes, in general, are good. Soil con- 
servation activities in the Piedmont will doubtless, in time, reduce the high turbidities 
of some waters, thus allowing them to be restocked with game fish. 

Fluctuating water levels in the Piedmont power dams do not allow ex- 
tensive spawning, and for this reason, artificial stocking is needed to supplement the 
normal production of fish. 

Salt Water Species 

The sounds, mouths of large rivers, and the Atlantic Ocean bordering the coast of 
North Carolina are all inhabited by an abundance of salt water game fish. The principal 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 187 

species include the Channel bass (red drum), cero, bluefish, seatrout, dolphin, amber- 
jack, mackerel, pompano, sheepshead, and croakers. The tarpon is taken during some 
of the summer months by parties properly equipped for, and familiar with, this type 
of fishing. 

The channel bass waters of North Carolina are considered the finest on the Atlan- 
tic Coast. Oregon Inlet is the best known fishing ground for this species. Hatteras, 
Ocracoke, Drum Inlet, Brown's Inlet, Topsail Inlet and New River Inlet are also popu- 
lar grounds. Specimens ranging up to 75 pounds are numerous in these waters. 

The best season for fishing the northern inlets is in the months of April, May and 
June. Catches, however, are made through the summer and into October and November. 

Bluefish, seatrout, mackerel, pompano and croakers are taken in the river mouths, 
sounds, and all up and down the entire coast. 

One of the most popular deep sea species on the North Carolina Coast is the cero, 
or kingfish. Great concentrations of this powerful game fish, specimens weighing from 
15 to 30 pounds and larger, are found in the vicinity of Morehead City and Beaufort. 

Dolphin and amberjack are taken consistently off Cape Hatteras and Cape Look- 
out, where the gulf stream makes its nearest approaches to the mainland. This warm 
current, with its vast wealth of tropical fish life, reaches within a score of miles of 
these capes. 

Non-Game Species of Birds and Wildfowl 

The life zones and bird distribution in North Carolina follow fairly well defined 
lines of topography and season. These life "zones", though merging into one another 
gradually and not abruptly, are defined in North Carolina as follows: Canadian Zone, 
Alleghanian or Transition Zone, Carolinian or Upper Austral Zone, and Lower Austral 
or Austro-riparian Zone. 

These various zones, and the principal species of birds found in each, are described 
by C. S. Brimley, Co-author with T. Gilbert Pearson and H. H. Brimley of Birds of 
North Carolina, a publication of the North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey 
in 1919. 

The following extracts are taken from this work : 

"The Canadian Zone: This is the most northern of the life zones that enter North Carolina, where 
it occupies only the tops of the higher mountains, above 4,000 or 5,000 feet elevation. The following 
are birds which in the breeding season are found in this zone and not elsewhere in the State: Golden- 
crowned Knight, Redbreasted Nuthatch, Black-capped Chickadee, Brown Creeper, Winter Wren, Pine 
Siskin, Crossbill, Raven, Hairy Woodpecker, Downy Woodpecker, and Golden Eagle. The Carolina 
Junco is found in this zone and also in higher portions of the Alleghanian. 

"The Alleghanian or Transition Zone includes that portion of the mountains below 4,000 or 
4,500 feet and above 2,500 feet elevation. The principal characteristic breeding birds — are as fol- 
lows: Wilson's Thrush, Bewick's Wren, Cairns' Warbler, Black-throated Green Warbler, Chestnut- 
sided Warbler, Blackburnian Warbler, Golden-winged Warbler, Canadian Warbler, Warbling Cireo, 
Scarlet Tanager, Song Sparrow, Vesper Sparrow, Baltimore Oriole, Rose-breasted Grosbeak, Least Fly- 
catcher, Olive-sided Flycatcher and Yellow-bellied Sapsucker. 



188 North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 

"The following birds enter the Alleghanian Zone from the Carolinian: Carolina Wren, Carolina 
Chickadee, Worm-eating Warbler, Kentucky Warbler, Louisiana Water-thrush, Hooded Warbler, 
Southern Downy Woodpecker, and Southern Hairy Woodpecker. 

"The Carolinian or Upper Austral Zone: This zone occupies the mountain valleys below 2,500 
feet elevation, and the greater part of the central region of the State, its eastern and southeastern 
limit being roughly a line drawn from Weldon to Raleigh, thence to Charlotte and on to Tryon in 
Polk County. 

"The birds that enter this zone from the Lower Austral, but do not extend into the Alleghanian, 
are: Brown-headed Nuthatch, Mockingbird, Yellow-throated Warbler, Pine Warbler, Prairie Warbler, 
Summer Tanager, Bachman's Sparrow, Blue Grosbeak, Orchard Oriole and Black Vulture. 

"The following birds do not range below into the Lower Austral, though they do range upward 
into the Alleghanian: Yellow Warbler, Redstart, Goldfinch, and Whip-poor-will. 

"Lower Austral or Austro-riparian Zone ... is perhaps the most sharply distinguished of the 
zones in this State, and as regards birds, it divides naturally into a coastal strip and an inland por- 
tion. Its upper limit is formed by the lower boundary of the Upper Austral defined above. Few 
land birds occur in the whole of this region which do not also enter the Carolinian Zone . . . The most 
characteristic land birds of this zone are the Chuck-wills-widow, Nonpareil, Swainson's Warbler, Pro- 
thonotary Warbler, and Red-cockaded Woodpecker. 

"Typical aquatic and salt-marsh summer birds . . . are Marian's Marsh Wren, Boat-tailed Grack- 
ler, Fish Crow, Osprey, Oystercatcher, Piping Plover, Willet, Clapper Rail, Louisiana Heron, Egret r 
Snowy Egret, Little Blue Heron, Water Turkey, Florida Comorant, and Black Skimmer. 

"Seasonal Distribution: . . . For convenience, therefore, it is usual to group birds as residents, 
summer visitors, winter visitors, transients, and stragglers. 

"As residents, reference is made to those birds which are found throughout the year . . . Turkey 
Vulture, Carolina Wren, English Sparrow, and Mourning Dove. We should bear in mind, however, that 
resident birds may be residents as to species, yet not as individuals. The Robins, for example, which 
are with us in the winter, leave in spring for their summer homes farther north, and their places are 
taken by breeding birds which have wintered south of the State. 

"Summer visitors occur only in summer, the term being confined mainly to birds which rear their 
young in the State, as the Catbird, Kingbird, and Purple Martin, but which depart in autumn. 

"The name, winter visitor, applies to birds which come to this State to dwell during the colder 
months . . . White-throated Sparrow, Marsh Hawk, Junco. 

"Transients are strictly birds of passage, and appear only in spring or fall . . . Many which 
are transient in the central or eastern portion of the State are summer visitors in the mountains. 
Among these are the Scarlet Tanager, Baltimore Oriole, and various warblers. 

"A straggler is a bird which has wandered from its usual home. Among such will be found the 
Man-O'-War Bird, White Ibis and Ani." 

In North Carolina, all non-game birds are protected by law, except the following : 
English Sparrows, Great Horned Owl, Cooper's Hawk, Sharpshinned Hawk, Crow, 
Jays, Blackbirds, Starlings, and Buzzards. 

It may be stated that recognition of the value of song and insectivorous birds is 
general throughout North Carolina. Boy Scouts, School groups, Civic clubs, the Izaak 
Walton League, and various farmer organizations are all interested in preserving the 
birds. 

The Value of Wildlife to North Carolina 

It is impossible to estimate, in dollars and cents, the invigorating and recreational 
value of wildlife in North Carolina. Any attempt to calculate this value upon a basis 
of numbers of hunters and fishermen in the State will fall far below the actual worth 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 189 

of the resource. An analysis of this kind does not include the less tangible benefits, 
such as increase in the value of the land, aid to crops, and the vast amount of pleasure 
obtained by those who consider wildlife from a purely aesthetic point of view. 

However, the relative value of hunting and fishing as a form of outdoor recreation 
may be shown. 

Several years ago, a representative of the Southern Newspaper Publishers' Asso- 
ciation assembled the following figures for North Carolina: 

Hunters and Fishermen 385,690 

Baseball Fans 193,133 

Football Fans 96,566 

Golfers 72,425 

Tennis Players 28,970 

Total Football, Golf, Tennis and Baseball Fans 391,094 

These figures are most enlightening, showing as they do that the total number of 
people classified as players and fans in all other major outdoor sports is only slightly 
over 5,000 more than the number of fishermen and hunters in North Carolina. 

It is possible to approximate fairly closely the yearly income to the State from 
game. Estimating the average expenditure per hunter and fisherman to be $5.00 — a 
most conservative figure — the total amount spent in the State each year by resident 
hunters would be approximately $2,000,000. Expenditures made by non-resident hunters 
would push this total up to well over $2,000,000. 

Continuing along this line, the average number of hunters and fishermen report- 
ing their takes does not exceed 40 per cent of the total number of persons who engage 
in the sport. By multiplying the number of each edible species taken by these sports- 
men who made reports, by the actual market value, it is found that the value of game 
reported taken amounted to over $1,000,000. It is reasonable to expect that the other 
60 per cent not reporting took as much as the 40 per cent which did report. Therefore, 
the total value of game to the State, based upon expenditures of sportsmen and the value 
of game taken, would amount to some $4,500,000. 

In the light of the above facts, it would appear that the sum of money, less than 
$250,000, spent in North Carolina by State and Federal agencies and private indi- 
viduals for the management and conservation of wildlife, places this $4,500,000 
industry in a position of being grievously underfinanced. 

The burden of responsibility for the conservation of wildlife falls, of course, upon 
the Division of Game and Inland Fisheries, North Carolina Department of Conserva- 
tion and Development. However, an increasing amount of work toward the improve- 
ment of general conditions upon the part of National Forests, State and National Parks, 
sportsmen and farmers is expected. Much worthwhile work is being done by the 
Soil Conservation Service and the Resettlement Administration. The former agency, 
with projects and camps in 20 Piedmont Counties, is making extensive plantings of 
shrubs and trees, valuable for their production of food for game. In addition to this 
practice, farmers are aided in providing more adequate cover and better feeding condi- 
tions through legume crops . . . both important to the upland types of game inhabiting 
this region. 



190 North Carolina : Today and Tomorrow 

The Resettlement Administration, in its development of the Hoffman and Eliza- 
bethtown Land Use Projects, is establishing large game reservations and bird sanctu- 
aries. The construction of warm water fish hatcheries and fourteen clear water lakes, 
to be stocked with game fish species, is being carried on. 

The findings of the biological experts and technicians connected with these agencies 
will be invaluable to the State in developing wildlife resources upon public lands, and 
to the landowners in their efforts to improve game conditions upon private lands. 

The State program, thus supplemented, will be equal to the task of providing 
opportunities for increasing numbers of people whose outdoor recreation is definitely 
linked with the wildlife resources of North Carolina. 



Chapter XI 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES 

From the beginning of the earliest settlements in North Carolina, commercial fish- 
eries have played a large and important part in the development of the Coastal section. 
Counties bordering the Atlantic Ocean and sounds, and adjacent to the large rivers 
flowing into these bodies of water, have had commercial fishing as their chief occupation. 

The importance of the industry as a means of furnishing occupation, is shown in 
the fact that some 15,000 persons are directly dependent upon the industry, employed in 
fishing, transporting by land and sea, handling on shore, in establishments preparing the 
catch for market, and in marketing. 

Employment in commercial fisheries and related industries for 1934, is given in the 
U. S. Bureau of Fisheries Report of that year : 

Fishermen Related Industries 

On Vessels 757 Persons Engaged 

On Boats and Shore Proprietors 104 

Regular 2,620 Salaried Employees 21 

Casual 2,012 Wage Earners 

Transporting Average for Season 1,269 

On Vessels and Boats. . 98 Average for Year. . 465 

Commercial Fishing Grounds 

The above tabulation does not include a large body of persons engaged in numerous 
oyster shucking houses. Since this last report by the Bureau of Fisheries, new establish- 
ments have begun operation, raising the total number of "persons engaged." 

Extending a distance of nearly 300 miles from the Virginia line to South Carolina, 
the coast of North Carolina furnishes a double line of commercial fishing grounds. 
"Inside" are the numerous sounds and large river mouths, combining to form approx- 
imately 3,000 square miles of fishing waters. "Outside" lie the waters of the Atlantic 
Ocean. 

The abundance and variety of commercial fish are determined, to a great extent, 
by the characteristics of these waters. To the north lie Currituck and Albemarle Sounds, 
both large fresh water bodies with no permanent direct outlet to the sea. Currituck 
Sound produces quantities of black bass, perch, and striped bass. Black bass are, how- 
ever, no longer taken commercially. Eight large rivers empty into Albemarle Sound, 
credited with being the largest coastal body of fresh water in the world. Two valuable 
species of food fish, the white shad and striped bass — both anadromous — inhabit these 
waters at certain seasons. 

Roanoke and Croatan Sounds form natural passages between Albemarle and Pam- 
lico Sounds, the Croatan being considered one of the best fishing grounds in the State. 

Pamlico Sound is salt water, the second largest sound on the Atlantic Coast. In 
addition to furnishing large quantities of mullet, spot, croaker, channel bass, bluefish, 
sheepshead, and hog fish, the bottom of this sound in many places is ideally suited for 
the growing of high quality oysters. 

Core and Bogue Sounds are both salt water, and are the farthest south of the larger 
coastal bodies of water. Bogue Sound is noted for the quantity and excellence of escal- 
lops, the yield in former years often running as high as $200,000 annually. South of 
Bogue Sound, the coast is fringed virtually the entire distance to the South Carolina line 



192 North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 

with small sounds, such as Bear, Brown, Stump, Topsail, Myrtle Grove, and Wrights- 
ville — all of which have some form of fishing operations. 

Among the most important waters for commercial fishing are the mouths of such 
large rivers as the Chowan, Roanoke, Perquimans, Pamlico, Neuse, New, and Cape Fear. 

Production of Fin Fish and Shell Fish from North Carolina Waters 

Despite improvement in equipment, such as power vessels, modernized gear, better 
methods of refrigeration, and increased facilities for wider distribution of the catches, 
the total yield of the fisheries of the State has not shown a corresponding increase dur- 
ing the past fifty years. This is not necessarily a reflection of the abundance or scarcity 
of the supply of sea products since there are many influencing factors that must be 
considered, the primary one being that of markets. 

An examination of the total catches and values of the takes from 1918 to 1934 may 
be made from the following table: 

Table XLIV 

(Compiled from U. S. Bureau of Fisheries data. Expressed in thousands.) 

Year Pounds Value 

1918 210,502 $2,979 

1927 144,466 2,778 

1928 141,899 2,629 

1929 217,595 2,544 

1930 168,939 1,837 

1931 98,161 1,088 

1932 86,214 827 

1934 163,462 1,762 

While the catch of some species has declined steadily during this period, others 
have been taken in as great abundance as formerly. Storms in recent years destroyed 
many boats and much fishing gear which the fishermen have been unable to replace, 
thus cutting down the size of the catches. Other factors have been extremely low prices 
and restricted demands for sea foods, influences which have forced fishermen to curtail 
operations. Even in view of these facts, in recent years there has been considerable waste 
of sea foods through spoilage as the fishermen were not able to dispose of hundreds of 
thousands of pounds of fish. 

The depression, of course, influenced the figures for 1930, 1931 and 1932, both in re- 
gard to the catch and the value. Activities connected with the menhaden, oyster, and 
shrimp industries were especially depressed during this period. While a return to normal 
business conditions is expected to relieve the menhaden, oyster, and shrimp industries, 
depletion of shad fisheries has been going on for many years and this industry will not 
be materially affected by better times. The total yield of food fish has been maintained, 
to some extent, only by the increased utilization of the cheaper and less desirable vari- 
eties, and an increased intensity of fishing, along with improved methods of production 
in the plants. 

Shad: The problem of rehabilitating and conserving the shell fisheries of North Car- 
olina is of primary importance and is being given thorough consideration. Plans to this 
end have been made by the Board of Conservation and Development, and will be put 
into effect. A summary of the proposals concerning this fishery is as follows : a deadline 
for fishing near the ocean to permit the entrance and departure of shad to and from 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 193 

the ocean; definite open and closed limits; closed periods each week during the season; 
location and protection of shad spawning areas; stricter fishing regulations; resump- 
tion of shad hatching operations and the rearing of a limited number of the hatch to 
fingerling size in cooperation with the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries; and a detailed study 
of the shad situation in North Carolina. 

The efficacy of such a program, once put into operation, is clearly shown in the 
Alaska Salmon industry. Like the shad in many of its characteristics, salmon were fac- 
ing complete depletion. It was only after the most strict regulations were put into force 
that depletion stopped and rehabilitation began. In any event, temporary loss on the part 
of the shad fishery is certainly to be preferred rather than permanent suspension of 
the industry because of the total depletion of the resource. 

The peak production in shad came in 1897 when nearly nine million pounds were 
taken. The second high year in production was 1902, over six and one-half million 
pounds representing the total catch. The takes remained fairly even through the years 
up to 1931, when production dropped to the lowest in the history of the industry. Only 
621,000 pounds of shad were taken in this year. In 1934, the total catch had increased 
to 1,274,000 pounds. 

All Other Food Fish: The following table shows the relative values of the total 
catches of all fish, including shad, taken in North Carolina waters: 

Table XLV 

North Carolina Production of food fish, by species. 
(Compiled from U. S. Bureau of Fisheries Report, 1934.) 

Species Pounds Value 

Alewives 14,897,000 $90,901 

Bluefish 1,766,500 63,515 

Butterfish 43,500 745 

Catfish and Bullheads 162,600 3,173 

Croaker 7,682,800 91,058 

Eels 44,300 2,043 

Gizzard Shad 24,000 230 

Hickory Shad 99,700 4,634 

Mullet 3,889,300 105,289 

Pickerel 1,200 66 

Pompano 400 60 

Shad 1,274,000 193,187 

Spadefish 6,000 150 

Spot 4,788,000 73,035 

Spotted Trout 1,849,100 96,165 

Sturgeon 1,600 160 

White Perch 522,200 22,243 

Black Bass 1,500 75 

Bowfiin 600 6 

Carp 108,600 4,316 

Cero 4,400 220 

Red Drum 132,500 2,750 

Flounders 987,500 42,150 

Starfish 820,000 12,325 

Kingfish 302,000 7,240 

Pigfish 92,000 1,130 

Pinfish 180,000 900 

Sea Bass 75,400 3,045 

Sheephead 3,700 80 

Spanish Mackerel 47,700 2,358 

Gray Trout 7,729,400 180,588 

Striped Bass 362,000 35,675 

Sunfish 100 1 

Yellow Perch 17,200 480 

Totals 154,567,900 $1,395,596 



194 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 



Menhaden: The menhaden industry is greatly influenced by the demand for acid 
scrap, dry scrap, oil, and meal. Production reached its peak in an abnormal catch of 
180 million pounds in 1918. Although natural fluctuations have characterized the men- 
haden catch since the beginning of the fishery, within the last decade a decline has been 
apparent in the available supply of the resources. The effect of this decline has been 
aggravated, to some extent, by the fact that present handling plants were built during 
the years when catches were excessively large. With the reduction of menhaden catches 
and a lack of raw material, the factories have been forced to curtail operations drastically. 

Table XLVI 

Catches of Menhaden and Products Manufactured by the Industry. 
(Compiled from U. S. Bureau of Fisheries Report.) 



Year 


Catch 


Products 


Dry Scrap and Meal 


Acidulated scrap 


Oil 


1927 
1928 
1929 
1934 


Pounds 

98,987,000 

99,302,355 

173,489,840 

106,651,100 


Tons 

7,353 

8,346 
7,103 
3,207 


Value 

$ 357,659 
480,780 
347,894 
107,552 


Tons 

7,468 
7,333 

5,887 
4,768 


Value 

$ 161,790 

186,476 

158,184 

85,800 


Gallons 

782,778 
633,806 
753,722 
407,300 


Value 

$ 330,685 

248,897 

323,904 

72,960 



In 1927, fifteen factories were converting menhaden into scrap, meal, and oil. The 
number operating dropped to 12 in 1928 and 1929; and in 1936, only seven factories 
were in operation. 

A study of Table XLVI, and the factors influencing production, reveals that even 
with the decrease noted, very little opportunity has been offered for an increase in price. 
This condition results from the fact that the value of meal and scrap has been influenced 
adversely by competitive materials of more uniform supply. Production costs have in- 
creased rapidly, in fact so rapidly that the problem of the cost of production exceeding 
the sale value of scrap, meal, and oil faces the industry. 

Three general recommendations are made for the industry by the U. S. Bureau of 
Fisheries : production from a given quantity of raw material may be increased by reduc- 
ing the losses of materials in the present process ; higher quality products are in greater 
demand and, consequently, have more value; and production costs may be reduced by 
the application of new methods on vessels and at the factory. 

In North Carolina, the industry, according to the Bureau of Fisheries Report, is 
concentrated at two points — in the vicinity of Southport, and around Beaufort. Fish 
are present in the water adjacent to the coast from April until January. However, the 
bulk of the catch is not made until the fall. The spring run, which is quite small, gen- 
erally lasts from April until January. The fall run is attributed largely to a southern 
migration of fish and comes between September and January. Vessels operating out of the 
Southport district fish from Cape Fear northward along the coast. Vessels hailing from 
the Beaufort district fish to the south toward Cape Fear and northward as far as Cape 
Hatteras. Fish are also taken in Core Sound. 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 195 

SHELLFISH 

Taken in the order of their more recent returns, shellfish are now considered. 

Crabs: The soft crab industry centers in two counties — Carteret and Currituck. 
Production in Carteret County in 1936 amounted to some 70,000 dozens, valued at nearly 
$53,000. Currituck County produced nearly 700 dozens, amounting to nearly $500 in 
value. 

Hard, or blue, crabs are found all along the coast. The extremely cold weather 
which played havoc with crabs in Chesapeake Bay during 1934 placed a heavy demand 
on the industry in this State for several years, a demand that was hard to meet because 
of the adverse weather conditions which held over the North Carolina coast in the winter 
of 1935-36. 

Shrimp: As in the case of the soft crab industry, shrimping is confined to two 
counties — Brunswick and Carteret. The prosecution of this fishery and the packing 
and allied industries, however, is of great importance to entire communities in this 
State, contributing as these industries do an important food product for domestic and 
foreign trade. 

Improved handling and marketing methods have greatly accelerated the shrimp 
fishery during recent years. Heavy demands are being made upon all shrimp produc- 
ing waters, and it has become essential that proper steps be taken to assure the fu- 
ture supply of this crustacean. Conservation practices should not only deal with the 
technological development of fishing, but should also include plant operation, and im- 
proved business methods. The establishment of new markets for shrimp is also to be 
desired. 

Production figures in 1934 and 1936 are fairly even, showing a stable condition. In 
1934, the catch amounted to some 2,600,000 pounds, valued at nearly $81,000. For 1936, 
the catch was approximately 2,400,000 pounds, valued in excess of $78,000. 

Clams: Production of clams in commercial quantities is limited to the waters of 
Brunswick, Carteret, Pender, and Onslow Counties, with a few being taken in Hyde and 
Dare counties. Only one species, the hard clam, is taken. The catch for 1934 amounted 
to 338,000 pounds, and was valued at $33,647. 

Practically the entire production at present is carried out of the State by motor 
truck. A most satisfactory increase in valuo to this State might be obtained through 
handling and marketing hard clams in North Carolina. 

Escallops: Confined to the waters of Carteret County, the escallop fishery was at 
one time a most valuable phase of the fishing industry- However, in 1932, 1933 and 1934, 
production dropped far below that of former years. The grass on which ducks and geese 
feed and to which the escallop spat attaches itself was killed out along the Atlantic 
Coast. As a result, escallops in commercial quantities have been very scarce. Consider- 
able damage has been done the fishery by fresh water entering the producing areas 
during the times of flood and high winds. 



PRODUCTION AND VALUE OF PRINCIPAL 
FIN FISH AND SHELLFISH SPECIES 

1934 


POUNDS (Millions) 
110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 


FIN FISH 


DOLLARS (Thousands) 
3 60 120 180 240 300 360 


' 1 ' i ' 1 ' 1 ' | ' 




i i i 1 1 i 




MENHADEN 






































!^'.'. V i ALEWIVES 






























l-'J GRAYTROUT 




































;. CROAKER 






























> SPOTS 
































H MULLETS 






























\\ SPOTTED 
1 TROUT 






























J BLUEFISH 
































SHAD 




















l I i 




POUNDS (Thousands) 
5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 


SHELLFISH 






1 1 






Soft 












HARD & SOFT 
SHELL CRABS 






Soft 




Hard \ 


Hard 












SHRIMP 








































OYSTERS a&M 




















SOURCE: 

U.S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES REPORT, 1934 


• 



Figure 9 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 197 

"There appears to be no reason why escallops should not thrive almost anywhere 
in the waters of the coastal section, having the same salinity as that on the present 
producing grounds, and where there is suitable quantities of grass. The matter is im- 
portant enough to risk the outlay necessary to transplant a few thousand bushels for 
experimental purposes." (Fifth Biennial Report). 

Present escallop grounds extend from the neighborhood of Davis Island, in Core 
Sound, to the western part of Bogue Sound. The larger escallops are found in Beaufort 
Harbor, Newport River, and lower Bogue Sound. 

Table XLVII 

Production of Bay Escallops in North Carolina. 
(Compiled from U. S. Bureau of Fisheries Report.) 

Year Pounds Value Year Pounds Value 

1928 1,394,124 $125,845 1931 495,000 $50,250 

1929 686,220 37,960 1932 91,458 6,560 

1930 431,826 53,923 1934 36,000 6,000 

Diamond Back Terrapin: The demand for Diamond Back Terrapin has increased 
rapidly within the past three years. The work of rehabilitating terrapin in North Car- 
olina was begun several years prior to the repeal of the Eighteenth Amendment. As 
a result, the fishery was in good condition to supply the greatly increased demand, 
which followed that act. 

The work of the U. S. Fisheries Biological Station at Beaufort has been valuable 
in restocking the Diamond Back Terrapin, planting from five to ten thousand each year. 
Under regulations designed to protect the industry against the depletion previously ex- 
perienced, the terrapin industry presents an opportunity for development. 

Production and Value: The relative production and value of the principal species 
of fin fish and shellfish are shown in figure 9. 

From the accompanying graph, it is found that of the total production of principal 
species, menhaden represents 70 per cent of the total catch ; alewives, 10 per cent ; 
gray trout, 4 per cent; mullet, 3 per cent; and shad, less than 1 per cent. 

Menhaden also led in value, reaching to 28 per cent of the total value of the prin- 
cipal species. Shad, though representing less than one per cent of the total catch, amounted 
to 15 per cent of the total value. Gray trout was third with 14 per cent. Alewives repre- 
sented 8 per cent of the total value; while mullet and croakers were 8 per cent each; 
spot and spotted trout, 7 per cent each; and bluefish, 5 per cent. 

Among the shellfish, hard crabs were 52 per cent of the total catch of principal 
species, and represented 28 per cent of the total value; soft crabs, 3 per cent of the 
catch and 15 per cent of the total value; shrimp, 31 per cent of the catch and 34 per 
cent of the total value; and oysters, 13 per cent of the catch and 23 per cent of 
the total value. 



198 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 



North Carolina's Rank in Commercial Fisheries Industry: North Carolina remains 
far in advance of all other South Atlantic States in the commercial fisheries industry. 
Florida, as a complete fisheries unit, leads North Carolina, but only the east coast fish- 
eries are considered a part of the South Atlantic group ; the west coast fisheries of Florida 
being a part of the gulf state fisheries. No separate analysis of east and west coast 
fisheries being available, total production and value are given for Florida. 

Table XLVIII 

COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY 
COMPARISON WITH OTHER STATES 



Item 
Fishermen 

Vessels: 

Motor 

Sail 

Total net tonnage 

Boats: 

Motor 

Other 

Accessory boats 

Production — Fin Fish: 
Menhaden, lbs 

Value 

Alewives, lbs 

Value 

Gray Trout, lbs 

Value 

Croaker, lbs 

Value 

Mullet, lbs 

Value 

Bluefish, lbs 

Value 

Shad, lbs 

Value 

Production — Shellfish : 
Crabs, lbs 

Value 

Shrimp, lbs 

Value 

Oysters, lbs 

Value 

Total Production: 

All Fin Fish, lbs 

Value 

All Shellfish, lbs 

Value 

Grand Totals: 

Production, lbs 

Value 



North Carolina 



South Carolina 



Georgia 



Florida 



5,355 



93 

298 
1,638 



1,334 

1,829 

112 



106,651,100 
$ 355,503 
14,897,000 
$ 90,901 

7,729,400 
$ 180,588 

7,682,800 
$ 91,058 

3,889,300 
$ 105,289 

1,766,500 
$ 63,515 

1,274,000 
$ 193,187 



4,795,000 
$ 103,448 

2,563,900 
$ 80,367 

1,160,700 
$ 53,092 



154,567,900 

$ 1,395,596 

8,894,000 

$ 276,629 



1,493 

5 
67 



94 
762 



2,000 
130 



700,000 

19,000 

3,000 

180 

208,600 

31,290 



8,000 
$ 160 

1,801,400 
? 54,042 

2,861,900 
$ 101,774 



1,168,400 

63,063 

4,722,800 

162,228 



46 
421 



122 

423 

6 



18,751,500 
$ 63,859 



7,000 

280 

59,000 

2,600 



232,000 
38,400 



483,500 
$ 7,252 
6,842,900 
? 203,127 

568,700 
£ 31,361 



19,233,900 

116,490 

7,907,000 

243,020 



7,508 

202 
3,316 



2,064 

2,966 

18 



38,983,400 

$ 121,643 

214,900 

$ 1,055 

10,000 

$ 500 

52,400 

$ 1,194 

23,966,300 

$ 641,127 

1,933,900 

$ 100,675 

782,200 

$ 66,986 



1,114,700 
$ 26,977 
16,292,200 
$ 497,870 

2,036,000 
$ 101,631 



97,899,100 
2,117,934 

20,901,600 
1,516,788 



163,461,900 
£ 1,672,225 



5,891,200 
225,291 



27,140,900 
259,510 



118,800,700 
P 3,634,722 



^North Carolina : Today and Tomorrow 



199 



Table ;XLIX 
INDUSTRIES RELATED TO COMMERCIAL FISHERIES INDUSTRY 



Item 


North Carolina 


South Carolina 


Georgia 


Florida 


Transporting: 

Persons Engaged: 

On Vessels 


87 ' 
11 


104 
58 


23 
10 


56 
36 


On Boats 


Totals 


"98 


162 


33 


142 


Wholesale and Manufacturing: 

Establishments 


84 

I 104 

21 

1.269 

465 

$275,175 

$ 609,942 

267 
$ 56,633 


31 

40 

564 

223 

$ 146,763 

$526,301 

8 
$ -937 


29 

37 
15 

945 

235 

$158,356 

$ 640,996 

14 
$ 7,335 


241 

253 
157 

1,796 
916 

$ 787,572 
$ 1,438,418 

402 
$ 32,988 


Persons engaged : 

Proprietors 

Salaried employees 

.Wage earners: 

Average for Season 

Average for Year 


Salaries and Wages Paid 

Manufactured Products 


Fisherman's Mfg. Products: 

Persons engaged 


Products 



Oysters 

Although there are more than a million acres of potential oyster bottoms in the 
'State, production is limited to some 12,000 acres. The acreage of bottom in Pamlico Sound 
and contiguous waters actually producing oysters for market represents a mere fraction 
of the total oystering grounds which could be made productive by the application of 
modern methods of oyster culture. Development of these thousands of acres is of major 
importance to the State. 

The most recent exhaustive study of oyster bottoms in North Carolina was made 
by Galtsoff and Seiwell of the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries in 1928. Biological studies are 
• conducted almost continuously by the Bureau of Fisheries Biological Station at Beaufort. 



No. 



The following extracts are from the Galtsoff and 'Seiwell report Economic Circular 
66: 



"Oysters are found widely scattered throughout Pamlico Sound, but not all the Sound can be 
considered as good oyster territory. The most favorable location . . . appears to be along the western 
side from Roanoke Marshes on the north to Orchard Creek and Garbacon Shoal on the south. The 
bays and estuaries in this region present especially favorable locations. 

"Harbor Island Beds: On the shoal south of Harbor and Wainright Islands, the bottoms are hard 
sand. Oysters are generally well-shaped, but south of Harbor Island are beds containing great num- 
bers of small oysters. The beds in this vicinity are liable to sanding in case the shoals shift in time 
of storm. 

"Portsmouth Beds — on tjie shoals between Royal Shoals,.and Ocracoke Inlet. These beds contain 
numerous well-shaped oysters. The Portsmouth beds are subject to sanding from shifting shoals. 

"Point of Marsh ,and Raccoon Key Beds — on a half 7 mile wide shoal, extending from Point of 
;Marsh to Raccoon Key and ;{he Swan Islands. Oysters are well-shaped and of excellent quality. 

"Neuse River Beds — include the oyster beds in • the-, Neuse River lying below Garbacon Shoal. 
In general, the beds along 'the* Neuse River produce oysters^ of -good quality. 



200 North Carolina : Today and Tomorrow 

"Bay River Beds — opposite Petty Point and in the second channel opposite Red Can Buoy north 
of the mouth of Banner Bay. The hard shoals of Banner Bay offer good farming bottom. 

"Old Sow-Brant Island Beds — on the shoals between north entrance of James Bay and Old Sow 
and Brant Island up to Mouse Harbor. Oysters are well-shaped and of good quality. The beds appear 
well protected from sanding. 

"Oyster beds lying between the mouth of Pamlico River and Bluff Point — include the following 
beds: Judith Island bed on shoals west of Judith Island; Shell Point bed south of Shell Point; Swan- 
quarter Bay beds, eastern side of Swanquarter Bay; Great Island beds, west of Great Island; and 
West Bluff Bay beds, scattered over West Bluff Bay shoals. Oysters are large and well-shaped on 
the Judith Island and Shell Point beds. In the other beds, oysters tend more toward growth in 
clusters and are not as large or well shaped. 

"Wyesocking Bay beds — near Hog Island and Mount Pleasant Bay in center of Wyesocking Bay. 
Generally overcrowded conditions prevail, resulting in small, irregular shaped oysters. 

"Far Creek and Pains Bay beds — about five miles south of the mouth of Long Shoal River. 
Oysters are not numerous, but are usually large. 

"Stumpy Point Bay beds — about ten miles south of Roanoke Island. Large quantities of good 
quality oysters are found. 

"Croatan Sound — lying between Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds. Presence of fresh water makes 
this area unsuitable for oyster growing. 

"Roanoke Sound — conditions not favorable for oyster growing. 

"Core Sound — extends from southeastern extremity of Pamlico Sound to Beaufort Harbor. The 
northern side of the sound is indented with numerous bays and estuaries. The principal beds are 
found in these areas, and include West Drum Shoal bed, artificial, being planted first in 1925; Styrian 
Bed, with well-shaped oysters of good quality; Eastmouth Bay Bed, lying on a soft, muddy bottom, 
oysters being of an inferior quality. 

"In summary, it may be said that Core Sound is well suited for the growing of marketable 
oysters. Oysters grown in West Bluff Bay, Wyesocking Bay, Far Creek, and adjacent parts of Pam- 
lico Sound are very poor. Better oysters were found in Swanquarter Narrows, Judith Point, and 
around Brant Island. High quality oysters were found in Bay River, Pastor Shoal, Mason's Bay, at 
Point of Marsh, Raccoon Key, Swan Island, and in Neuse River. 

"Certain localities in Core Sound, such as Oyster Creek, Atlantic, Willis Creek and others, are 
especially suitable for oyster farming." 

The following table shows the catch of oysters in pounds and the value of produc- 
tion, 1927-1936: 

Table L 

(Catch in thousands of pounds:) 
Year Pounds Value 

1927 3,041 $200,742 

1928 2,900 167,490 

1929 3,587 245,533 

1930 2,205 155,148 

1931 1,500 90,061 

1932 1,203 51,339 

1934 208 53,092 

1936* 200 55,000 

*Estimated for 1936 

The significance of North Carolina's oyster resources is much greater than the com- 
paratively small catches indicates. The waters of Pamlico Sound are a source of great 
quantities of seed oysters for the bottoms of Chesapeake Bay. No data is available on 
the amount of seed oysters exported, but judging by the operations of Maryland and 
Virginia boats in the Pamlico area, the figures must be significant. 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 



201 



In regard to the possibilities for successful oyster farming in the coastal region, cir- 
cumstances and general conditions here are very favorable. There is a vast acreage 
of barren bottom suitable for growing high grade, marketable oysters. A large supply 
of excellent seed stock for planting can be obtained at lower cost than in other regions ; 
and there is virtually no pollution. These areas have never suffered severely from natural 
enemies of the oyster, which in other states cause serious damage. There is an almost 
unlimited market for cultivated oysters in the State and throughout the South Atlantic 
region. 

Within the past three years, effective work in planting seed oysters and shells has 
been carried on by the CWA, the ERA, and WPA, under the sponsorship of the De- 
partment of Conservation and Development. This program is still being carried on by 
the Works Progress Administration. Since the beginning of oyster planting by these 
relief agencies, some 2,000,000 bushels of oysters and shells have been planted. 

Industries Related to the Commercial Fisheries of North Carolina 

Prior to 1930, variations in the number of wholesale and manufacturing establish- 
ments followed closely the abundance or lack of raw material necessary for operation. 
The same factor has been present, but to a smaller degree, in influencing operations in 
in subsequent years. 

The following table presents comparative figures for Industries related to the Fish- 
eries of North Carolina, 1927-1934: 

Table LI 



Item 

Wholesale and Mfg. Establishments 

Persons employed 

Total salaries-wages 

Value mfg. products 



1927 



1928 



1929 



1930 



1931 



1934 



71 
555 
$ 354,720 
$ 1,036,841 



106 
700 

280,379 
1,230,475 



90 

740 

371,966 
1,230,535 



71 
331 

233,924 
966,970 



64 
290 



84 
468 

179,967$ 275,175 
447,095J$ 666,575 



The depression was the dominant force retarding wholesale and manufacturing in 
1930, 1931, and 1933. This fact is borne out when it is learned that the catch in 1932 
showed a slight increase over 1931, while the value of production dropped to the lowest 
level in the industry since 1902. 

Persons employed represent all salaried employees and wage earners, the latter 
group being computed from average for the year employment. In this connection, it 
is interesting to note that, although 232 more persons were employed in 1928 than in 
1934, the total salaries and wages paid in the latter year was only some $5,000 less 
than in 1928. The value of production in 1934, however, was only 54 per cent of that 
of 1928. 

Actually production of manufactured products in 1930 and subsequent years is not 
comparable with former years, since fresh and frozen packaged fishery products are now 
included in the total value. However, a graphic picture of the decline in the value of 
manufactured products, considering the fact that fresh and frozen packaged products 
are now added, is given. 



202 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 



The U.S. Bureau of Fisheries has made available the following County data on In- 
dustries related to the Fisheries of North Carolina, the report being for the year 1934. 

L ' ■ ''' " r ■" ■ ■ ? '■ -i - 

Table LII 

INDUSTRIES RELATED TO THE FISHERIES OF NORTH CAROLINA — 1934 

By Counties 





Beaufort 

County 


Bertie 
Pasquo- 
tank and 
Wash- 
ington 
Counties 


Bruns- 
wick 
County 


Carteret 
County 


Dare 

County 


New 
Hanover 
County 


Onslow 

and 
Pender 
Counties 


Pamlico 

and 
Craven 
Counties 


TOTAL 


Establishments 

Persons engaged : 

Proprietors 

Salaried employees. . 

Wage earners: 

Average for Season 
Average for Year . 

Paid to salaried Em- 
ployees 

Paid to wage earners . . 

Total Salaries and wages 


12 

15 
1 

373 
160 

$ 600 
$ 54,981 


5 

6 

7 

163 
36 

$ 12,800 
$ 20,738 


5 

7 
7 

207 
106 

$ 33,247 
$ 46,753 


33 

36 
5 

296 

82 

$ 7,500 
$ 44,402 


3 

4 

38 
12 

$ 5,940 


4 
5 

15 

8 

$ 6,019 


6 . 

8 

20 
5 

$ 3',285 


16 

23 
1 

157 
56 

$ 1,250 
$- 37,660 


84 

104 
21 

1,269 
465 

$ 55,397 
$ 219,778 


$ 55,581 


$ 33,538 


$ 80,000 


$ 51,902 


$ 5,940 


$ 6,019 


$ 3,285 


$ 38,910 


$ 275,175 


Value of Manufactured 
products 


$ 172,185 


$ 50,379 


$119,816 


$ 242,242 


* 


* 


$ 3,400 


$ 40,350 


$ 1666,575 



Includes products manufactured by both wholesale dealers and fishermen. 
*The value of products manufactured in Dare and New Hanover Counties has been included with that for Brunswick 

County, 
tlncludes $38,203 total for Chowan, Tyrrell and Martin Counties. 

A further analysis of the production of wholesale and manufacturing plants in 
North Carolina, showing the quantity and value by counties and products, is given in 
Table LIIL 

Some Problems and Future of the Industry: Fluctuations, perhaps more decided 
than for any other industry of similar importance, have characterized the commercial- 
fisheries of North Carolina in the past. However, in view of recent trends, there are 
indications of greater stabilization in the industry. 

Not only are the fisheries subject to variations in economic conditions, but they are 
affected materially by the weather and biological factors. During periods of severe 
weather, fishing activities are naturally at a standstill, and then again, the availability 
of fish varies. Still another factor demanding special consideration is the high perish- 
ability of seafoods. 

The principal immediate problems confronting the fisheries have to do with 
marketing. During the period of generally depressed business conditions, ' the demand 
for seafoods from North Carolina dropped to the lowest ebb in many years. Because 
of the slackened demand and lower prices, fishing operations were curtailed, and even the 
reduced supply of fish was not absorbed by the markets. This resulted in the waste of 
a considerable volume of fish. ,- ■ ■ ■ 



North Carolina : Today and Tomorrow 



203 



. Table LIU 

FISHERIES OF NORTH CAROLINA, 1934 
Production of Manufactured Products 



Quantity 



Value 



BY MANUFACTURING ESTABLISHMENTS: 
Alewife roe, canned: 

Bertie ' 

Alewives, corned, Spot, salted and packaged fish: 

Bertie, Carteret, Washington 

Menhaden Products: 

Brunswick and Carteret: 

Acid scrap and meal 

Dry scrap 

Oil • 

Mullet, salted: 

Carteret and New Hanover 

Crab Meat, fresh picked: 

Beaufort, Carteret, and Dare 

Oysters, fresh shucked : 

Beaufort 

Carteret 

Pamlico 

Craven, Onslow and Pasquotank 

Oyster shell lime and poultry shell: ' 

Beaufort, Pamlico, Washington 



Standard Cases . 
Pounds 



Tons. . . 
Tons . . . 
Gallons . 

Pounds . 

Pounds . 

Gallons . 
Gallons . 
Gallons . 
Gallons . 

Tons . . . 



Total . 



5,665 
2,446,000 

5,771 

3,207 

407,000 

507,000 

437,042 

41,320 
20,425 
29,800 
18,100 

1,050 



16,609 
25,800 

122,345 
107,552 
72,960 

22,419 

143,437 

36,370 
16,155 
25,140 
16,280 

4,875 



$ 609,942 



BY FISHERMEN: 
Alewives, corned: 

Beaufort 

Bertie 

Chowan 

Martin 

Tyrrell 

Washington 

Alewives, tight pack roe: 

Chowan 

Alewives, tight pack cut: 

Chowan ."..''.. 

Mullet, salted: 

Hyde 

Oysters, fresh shucked: 

Carteret 

Onslow 

Scallops, bay, shucked: 

Carteret 



Pounds . 
Pounds . 
Pounds . 
Pounds . 
Pounds . 
Pounds . 

Pounds . 

Pounds . 

Pounds . 

Gallons . 
Gallons . 

Gallons . 



Total 

GRAND TOTAL 



30,000 
300,000 
1,962,000 
450,000 
500,000 
300,000 


$ 240 
3,000 
21,350 
4,500 
5,000 
3,000 


103,700 


5,185 


54,200 


2,168 


10,000 


400 


2,850 
2,000 


1,790 
2,000 


4,000 


8,000 




$ 56,633 







$ 666,575 



These conditions emphasized some of the most acute problems of the industry, 
more especially those connected with marketing and the handling of fish. The particular 
need of more adequate storage facilities, more widespread distribution, and new and 
improved forms of processing was brought out. 

Officials for a number of years have been devoting much thought to measures to 
improve and develop the industry. Various proposals, among which are the organiza- 
tion of cooperatives, the establishment of definite standards and grades of seafoods, the^ 
provision of more adequate storage facilities, new processing methods, and a campaign 



204 North Carolina : Today and Tomorrow 

to increase the consumption of seafoods, have been considered by the Department of 
Conservation and Development. 

In 1935, a co-operative was formed through the Emergency Relief Administra- 
tion, which advanced the funds for establishing a main plant, three branches, and initial 
operating expenses. The main plant at More head City provides storage space for 800,- 
000 pounds of seafood. This plant also has facilities for processing and marketing 
seafoods in new forms. 

This additional storage space should help to fill a great need of the commercial 
fisheries. With the larger storage facilities and constantly improving methods of han- 
dling, the improved quality of product should bring better prices to the fishermen and 
build a more prosperous and stable industry. 

Many of the plans suggested for the benefit of the industry are considered worthy 
and practicable, and the Department of Conservation and Development hopes to put 
those most needed into effect as soon as means with which to carry out such activities 
are provided. 

Extensive efforts should be made to increase the popularity and demand for sea- 
foods in this part of the country. A step toward this goal is the improvement in quality 
and variety of products being made available to the public. North Carolina and adjoining 
States have not consumed seafoods at a per capita rate equal to that of the country 
as a whole. When this point is reached, North Carolina alone would be able to absorb 
the average annual production of her fisheries. From the standpoint of palatability and 
healthful qualities of fish and other marine products, as well as the assistance it will 
give an important industry of the State, efforts to increase the demand for this type of 
food will be justified. 

Aside from markets and associated considerations, the principal problems of the 
industry concern the maintenance of the source of supply. Due consideration is given 
these problems by the Board of Conservation and Development, to which has been dele- 
gated broad regulatory authority over the fisheries by the General Assembly. The Board 
is striving by means of protective measures to preserve the supply of seafoods. It recon- 
ciles, insofar as is possible, the immediate needs of the fishermen and the demand 
for some restrictions to prevent unnecessary waste and to preserve a permanent source 
of income. At times it is necessary to make decisions that are unpopular in immediate 
effects, but which are vitally needed if the natural resources upon which the fishermen 
draw are to be maintained as a source of future income and public food supply. 

A steadily declining supply of shad has caused the Board to formulate a long-time 
program for the replenishment of this valuable branch of the fisheries. The diamond- 
back terrapin has been brought back almost from extinction to a status where it may 
once again assume an important place as an income-producer for the fishermen. 

One of the most useful commercial fishery projects launched within the last few 
years is the planting of oysters. This activity, sponsored by the Department of Con- 
servation and Development, and carried out by various relief agencies, including the 
CWA, ERA, and WPA, has resulted in the spreading of more than 2,000,000 bushels 
of seed oysters and shells over suitable sound bottoms in the State during the last three 
years. 



North Carolina : Today and Tomorrow 205 

The oyster planting program has several objectives, among which are the re-establish- 
ment of beds badly damaged or wiped out by suffocation from storm-driven sands in 1933 
and 1934, the creation of new producing areas, and the demonstration of oyster culture. 

Oyster cultivation is generally acknowledged to be one of the most promising indus- 
trial opportunities in the State. As has been previously pointed out in this chapter, only 
about one per cent of the acres of sound bottoms in North Carolina believed capable of 
growing oysters is at present productive. Liberal lease terms for suitable shellfish 
bottoms are provided to encourage individual initiative in the development of the industry. 

Cultivated oysters have always had a ready demand in the State because of their 
attractive size and good flavor. They virtually always bring a premium over the bivalves 
produced on public grounds, and a number of the growers have contracts for their entire 
crop. By careful selection and other measures, privately controlled oyster grounds will 
produce continuous crops. Any persons interested in oyster culture should communicate 
with Capt. John A. Nelson, State Fisheries Commissioner, Morehead City. 

Up to the present there have been only limited attempts at private culture of other 
shellfish in North Carolina and it is believed that escallops and clams offer opportuni- 
ties similar to those presented by the oyster. The U. S. Bureau of Fisheries maintains 
a biological laboratory at Beaufort for scientific studies of shellfish and its officials 
are glad to advise individuals interested in this subject. 

Another possibility in the commercial fisheries suggested by the U. S. Bureau of 
Fisheries is salt water pondfish culture. Dr. Prytherch, of the Beaufort biological station, 
hopes to test the practicability of such a project by demonstration, when funds can be 
obtained for this purpose. He proposes to start by penning up several thousand young 
mullets in an inexpensive pond, and rearing and fattening them up for the market. If 
the venture with this first species of fish should prove practicable, he believes similar 
methods with other fish would be successful. Here is an enterprise that appears to have 
merit and to be worthy of private tests if public funds are not made available for the 
demonstration. 

Reports of the Fisheries Commissioner show that some 25 species of fin fish are 
taken in commercial quantities from North Carolina waters. In addition, other com- 
mercially valuable North Carolina seafoods include shrimp, oysters, clams, escallops, 
and crabs. Formerly a considerable quantity of North Carolina seafoods has been 
shipped to other centers and marketed from those points, but there appears to be a 
trend toward more direct marketing of pro !ucts from plants in this State. 

Until comparatively recently, most of the seafoods taken from the waters of this 
State have been marketed in the round or as the products came from the water. Pan- 
dressed fish and fillets are now being offered to the trade, and local markets for these 
products are being established. It is believed that seafoods in these forms will become 
increasingly popular and that a larger percentage of the products will be shipped. 

Canning, drying, salting and other processing methods appear to offer inducements 
for further development of the seafoods products business. Preparation of fish, shellfish, 
crustaceans, and other resources of the sea in new and more attractive forms should do 
much to stabilize the industry, absorb seasonal surpluses, and create new public demands. 
The commercial fisheries, according to many indications, is one of the most promising 
fields presented by the State. 



Chapter XII 

RECREATION 

The forms of recreation enjoyed within a State are determined, to a great extent, 
by topography and climate. North Carolina is indeed fortunate in having within her 
boundaries a number of regions where both climate and terrain are varied enough to 
allow many forms of outdoor recreation throughout the entire year. 

For most outdoor sports, scenery is a necessary adjunct. In this respect, North 
Carolina ranks among the foremost states of the nation. In fact, the richness and great 
variety of trees, plants, and animals possessed by North Carolina might well be called 
the major attraction for increasing thousands of people who enjoy outdoor recreation in 
North Carolina. 

Within the past few years, further impetus has been given the development of 
recreational facilities, especially State and municipal enterprises, by the various Federal 
relief agencies which have been and are now operating within the ' State. The list 
of projects undertaken by the CWA, ERA, and WPA, in the field of recreation is an im- 
posing one, ranging as it does from the construction of small playfields in industrial and 
rural areas, to building mammoth stadia. These are works which will be of increasing 
value to the area in which they are located. 

The activities of the Emergency Conservation Work, in co-operation with other 
interested Federal and State agencies, have been outstanding in the development of 
public recreational facilities. Under the direction of the National Park Service and the 
State Park Service, Division of Forestry, the ECW has contributed the major portion of 
work toward the development of North Carolina's six State Parks, as well as the im- 
provement work in the Great Smoky Mountains Park. 

Considered strictly from the standpoint of economic value, recreational facilities 
established primarily for the tourist trade rank first in importance. In several sections 
of the State, entire communities are dependent upon the tourist trade, which, in these 
sections, has become the major industry. Reports from these resort centers in North 
Carolina at the close of the 1936 summer season tell of the best year since 1929, and one 
of the most successful years ever experienced by the resort operators. 

RESORTS 

The diversity of climate, topography, and scenery in North Carolina is emphasized 
by the types of recreation enjoyed in the different resort sections of the State. 

Mountain Resorts 

Of late years, practically the entire mountain region of North Carolina has come to 
be considered one great resort area. The construction of good roads has made accessible 
many new and interesting areas, and has permitted rapid development of these regions 
for the great influx of health and recreation seekers pouring into the North Carolina 
mountains. 

The invigorating air is conducive to active participation in many forms of outdoor 
sports, including mountain climbing, horseback riding, hiking, camping in the open, 
fishing the trout streams and hunting in season, golfing on some of America's most 



i 



208 North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 

picturesque courses, swimming and boating in the waters of crystal clear lakes, and 
motoring over the splendid highways to view the truly magnificent scenery. 

The mountains of North Carolina represent the greatest upheaval of the Appala- 
chian Range, furnishing scenery of surpassing beauty, and a variety of shrubs, trees, 
and wildflowers unequalled in a similar area anywhere in the world. The magnificence 
of the vast forests and the charm of extensive natural gardens have long been interest- 
ing fields of study for some of the country's most eminent naturalists. 

Mineral springs and a widely known healthful climate greatly enhance this resort 
region, thousands of people being attracted to this section solely for these health benefits. 

Recreational facilities and accommodations for tourists are excellent and widespread 
over the region. Even the smaller mountain villages contain hotels, inns, and boarding 
houses. 

The tourist season for the mountain resorts opens in the spring and extends well 
into the fall. The section lying within the thermal belt, the Tryon area, has a mild 
climate the year round, making this country unique in that here is found an all-year 
resort lying within the mountain range. 

Coastal Resorts 

Approximately 300 miles in length, North Carolina's coast furnishes almost 
unlimited opportunities for recreation and sport. Westward from the seaboard are some 
of the most inviting inland bodies of water in eastern America, notably White Lake, Lake 
Waccamaw, Mattamuskeet Lake, and Phelps Lake. Throughout the entire eastern coastal 
area, swimming, boating, and fishing in lakes, rivers, sounds, and the Atlantic Ocean, 
are sports which attract hundreds of thousands of visitors from early spring to fall. 
Excellent ocean beaches are scattered from the northern "banks" at Nags Head to the 
mouth of the Cape Fear River below Wilmington. 

Lying within the very center of one of the greatest game areas in the country, 
eastern North Carolina furnishes excellent opportunities for fresh and salt water 
angling; hunting of big game, such as deer, bear, wild turkey; and the shooting of 
waterfowl. 

Beautiful and varied scenery is not lacking for those who visit this area. The 
"banks", or the barrier reef, represent a natural asset of unusual attraction. On this 
narrow sand spit, extending virtually the length of the coast, are Cape Hatteras and 
the famous old lighthouse, Kill Devil Hill with its imposing monument to the Wright 
brothers, and on the northern "banks", great sanddunes piling up to a height of 70 feet 
or more. Off the Wilmington coast is Smith Island, covered with palmetto trees, their 
northern limit of growth, and other sub-tropical flora. 

The historical significance of this entire region, and particularly Roanoke Island, 
Bath, Edenton, New Bern, Kill Devil Hill, Halifax, Ocracoke, Elizabeth City, Beaufort, 
Morehead City, Wilmington, and the Cape Fear region, is sufficient to make this area a 
shrine for many thousands of visitors each year. 

Sandhills Resorts 
The thermal belt in the long-leaf pine section of North Carolina, with its abundance 
of sunshine, contains some of the most popular winter resorts in the country. Pinehurst 
and Southern Pines are two of the major wintering places in the Mid-South. 



North Carolina : Today and Tomorrow 209 

Considered one of the most healthful regions in the United States, the Sandhills 
area is visited each year by large numbers of people from the north. The mild winter 
climate permits all forms of outdoor sports, such as golf, tennis, equestrian activities, 
hunting, fishing, field trials, horse and dog shows, archery, and other sports. 

Golf matches and tournaments with outstanding players in the country competing, 
draw great numbers of visitors to this section each year. 

When the great peach orchards are in bloom and the dogwoods flower to fill the 
woods with acres of blossoms, the Sandhills region is indeed a land of "beautiful vistas." 

Piedmont Resorts 

The Piedmont region, though not consid ared a resort section, has several attractions 
which draw many tourists to this area. Sedgefield, near Greensboro, is one of the popu- 
lar resort sections in the Piedmont. The excellent golf courses and other facilities for 
recreation found here raise Sedgefield to the rank of premier resorts in the mountains 
and the Coastal Plain section. 

Many visitors are attracted to the Piedmont area to view Chapel Hill and the Uni- 
versity of North Carolina, with its interesting old buildings and beautiful grounds. Duke 
University, with its formal landscaped grounds and magnificent buildings, is another 
point attracting large numbers of visitors. Historical places are numerous throughout 
the entire area, the battlefields of Kings Mountain, Moores Creek, and Guilford Court- 
house having been designated as National Military Parks. Thousands of people visit 
Winston-Salem each year to witness the Easter service conducted according to ancient 
Moravian custom. Hillsboro, Durham, Salisbury, Greensboro, Charlotte, Lexington, and 
Raleigh contain many points of historical interest. 

Some of the finest upland game bird shooting in the State, particularly quail shoot- 
ing, is found in Chatham, Guilford, Forsyth, Davidson, and several other counties in 
this section, where large numbers of out-of-state sportsmen have hunting clubs and pre- 
serves. Annual field trials have become an important event in the Piedmont. 

The industrial centers, engaged in the manufacture of furniture, tobacco, and tex- 
tiles, are visited annually by large delegations from this and other countries. 

Public Recreation in North Carolina 
The public recreational program in North Carolina has advanced wonderfully 
during the past two decades. This period has witnessed the establishment of the Great 
Smoky Mountains National Park, six State Parks, and the addition of recreational 
facilities in National Forests, State and National Game Refuges, and in certain sub- 
marginal land areas. 

Great Smoky Mountains National Park 
Congress approved the establishment of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park 
on May 22, 1926, and set as the minimum area to be acquired, 427,000 acres. The 1936 
report of land acquired is as follows: 

Land acquired in Swain County 169,126 acres 

Land acquired in Haywood County 60,343 acres 

Total acquired acres in North Carolina 229,469 aci'es 

Total acquired acres in Tennessee . . . 174,230 acres 

Expected acres in Tennessee 210,530 acres 

Total acres in Park 403,699 acres 

Total expected acres in Park 439,999 acres 






XI 

X 
w 

H 
< 
►J 







■■■ ;■ 



i 



; 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 211 

From the foregoing figures, it is seen that the full acreage for North Carolina has 

'already been acquired. Approximately 36,300 acres must be acquired in Tennessee 

before full development of the Park can be undertaken. It is not planned to dedicate the 

Park until the full acreage required for its establishment has been secured, according to 

the National Park Service. 

The estimated number of visitors to the Park in 1936 was over 600,000 persons. In 
1935, the Great Smoky Mountains National Park led all other parks in the nation in 
the number of visitors. 

The National Parkway, now under construction, will be a fitting approach to the 
climax of scenic grandeur in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Extending 
some 250 miles through North Carolina, this Parkway will have an elevation ranging 
from 2,000 feet to a maximum of 6,000 feet. Passing through some of the most scenic 
areas of the mountains, this great road will be strictly recreational in purpose, with all 
commercial traffic prohibited. The first link of this major highway will connect the Great 
Smokies with the Shenandoah National Park in Virginia. 

Although development was not complete in 1936, the Great Smoky Mountains Park 
contains several camping grounds, some excellent hiking and horseback trails, picnic 
grounds, and well-stocked fishing waters which are open to the public on designated 
days. The development of several recreation areas within the Park is now under way. 

State Parks 

State Parks in North Carolina are viewed as supplemental attractions to the Great 
Smoky Mountains National Park and a proposed new National Park to extend from 
Cape Hatteras northward some 50 miles or more. 

Development of these parks has gone forward rapidly, the Fort Macon unit on 
Bogue Banks opposite Morehead City-Beaufort having been dedicated in May of 1936. 

Mount Mitchell State Park 

This park is located atop the highest mountain peak in eastern America, lying at an 
altitude of 6,684 feet above sea-level. Some 1,224 acres in size, development features of 
this area include reforestation, general beautification, and the provision of additional 
recreational facilities, such as trails, paths, cottages, and other features. Near the top 
of the mountain is a concession which provides sleeping accommodations, refreshments, 
and other needs of the visitor. 

The average number of visitors to this park, even before completion of development, 
is 25,000 annually. 

At present, the only approaches by motor car are over toll roads. However, plans 
being considered by the State Highway and Public Works Commission contemplate a 
road into the park free from any toll charges. 

Rendezvous Mountain State Park 

Rendezvous Mountain State Park, in Wilkes County, containing some 142 acres, was 
deeded to' the State by Judge T. B. Finley of North Wilkesboro, in 1926. Historical 
events having an important bearing on the independence of the American colonies 
centered around this site. 



212 North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 

The area is accessible by motor road. The Daughters of the American Revolution 
have erected a bronze tablet commemorating the deeds of the patriots who assembled 
here prior to the Battle of Kings Mountain. 

Hanging Rock State Park 

This park, near Danbury, in Stokes County, lies in the most easterly extension of 
the mountain region in North Carolina. The area, to comprise some 7,000 acres, was 
donated to the State by interested citizens. 

The scenic attractions of this park are especially interesting, the terrain and flora 
showing a mixture of Mountain and Piedmont Plateau characteristics. The waterfalls 
and clear streams are distinctly mountain in character and beauty. 

Recreational facilities of a widely varied nature are being provided. Boating and 
other water sports, cabins, picnic areas, camping sites, foot and bridle paths, and excel- 
lent trout fishing will be available for the visitor. 

This park, when completed, will accommodate large numbers of people from the 
north central and middle Piedmont industrial areas. 

Morrow Mountain State Park 

This area is somewhat similar to Hanging Rock in topography and vegetation. 
Located in the beautiful Uharie Mountains in Stanly County, this 3,000-acre tract was 
donated to the State by J. M. Morrow, other individuals, and Stanly County. 

Full development of every practicable form of outdoor recreation is under way. 
Complete water and sanitary systems are being provided. 

The radius served by Morrow Mountain State Park will extend into the middle and 
south central piedmont. 

Fort Macon State Park 

The major attractions of this 412-acre State Park is Fort Macon, a military fort 
considered unique in its style of architecture. Established in 1836 and restored several 
years ago, the Fort Macon State Park was dedicated by Governor J. C. B. Ehringhaus 
and State and National Park officials, in May, 1936. 

Located near one of the chief resort sections of the Coastal region and adjacent to 
some of the finest salt water sport fishing on the North Carolina coast, Fort Macon State 
Park is already entertaining thousands of visitors annually. 

Cape Hatteras State Park 

Known to seamen the world over, this famous Cape, located on the "banks" off the 
coast of North Carolina, is without doubt one of the most interesting portions of shore 
along the Atlantic Coast. Lying some 30 miles off the mainland, the very seclusion of 
Cape Hatteras State Park appeals to the imagination of many tourists. 

Developments now under way consist of provisions for boating, picnicking accom- 
modations, erection of cottages, and other improvements. 

Cape Hatteras Lighthouse, the loftiest beacon in the United States, lately abandoned, 
is within the park. 

The shore of this park is one of the world's finest places for surfcasting for channel 
bass. From Hatteras Inlet, boats are chartered for trips to the Gulf stream. Dolphin, 
amberjack, tarpon, and other game fish are taken off this Cape. 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 213 

Crabtree Creek State Recreation Area 

This area represents a new type of recreational development in North Carolina. 
Within a few minutes drive of Raleigh, this 6,000-acre tract has been purchased by the 
Resettlement Administration. 

Plans for development of the area call for extensive facilities for all types of recrea- 
tion. It is expected that the administration of this area will be turned over to the State 
Department of Conservation and Development upon completion of development. 

National Forests 
Full application of the multiple-use of National Forest lands has resulted in the 
development of extensive recreational facilities within these forests. 

Pisgah National Forest 

There are ten camp grounds and scenic areas within the Pisgah National Forest. 
Facilities available at the camp grounds include picnic shelters, water systems, latrines, 
fire grates and chopping blocks, garbage pits, tables, racks, benches, and registry boards. 
Several of these areas have swimming pools and diving boards. Picnic grounds have 
fire grates, water, latrines, benches and tables. 

Summer home sites have been established in the Stony Fork sector of the Pisgah 
National Forest, Buncombe County. There are 15 lots of from one to two acres which 
rent for an annual fee of from $25 to $50. These permittees are granted an annual lease, 
renewable each year, as long as the Forest Service regulations are not violated. 

The outstanding scenic areas of this forest are the Craggy Gardens — rhododendron 
gardens at an elevation of over a mile and approximately 500 acres in extent, accessible 
by a scenic Forest Service road; Linville Gorge, a primitive area free from man-made 
improvements and one of the wildest and most rugged areas in eastern United States ; 
Middle Ridge, an area of virgin spruce maintained as a natural tract free from all 
improvements. 

The outstanding scenic drives are Craggy Gardens Road, Pisgah Motor Road, 
Yonahlossee Trail, and North Carolina Route 104 through Burke, Yancey, and McDowell 
counties. 

The outstanding points of scenic interest are Craggy Dome, Mount Mitchell, Mount 
Pisgah, Table Rock Mountain, Devil's Courthouse, Looking-Glass Rock, Shining Rock, 
Cedar Rock Mountain, Rich Mountain, and Grandfather Mountain. 

The recreational use of the Pisgah National Forest in 1935 was as follows: 

Type of Use Number 

Hikers 8,000 

Campers 7,500 

Picnickers 67,000 

Tourists 100,000 

Hunters 1,500 

Fishermen 2,500 

Total Number 186,500 

Nantahala National Forest 

This forest contains eight fully developed camp and picnic grounds, equipped with 
fire-places, tables, shelters, garbage pits, benches, incinerators, latrines, hydrants, water, 
registry boxes, etc. 






214 North Carolina : Today and Tomorrow 

One of the most recent developments in the Nantahala Forest, the establishment of 
the Joyce Kilmer Memorial Forest, created nation-wide interest. Fiften miles south- 
west of Robbinsville in Graham County, this forest contains 3,000 acres of virgin tim- 
ber. Ample facilities for parking cars and handling visitors have been made available. 

Outstanding scenic areas in the Nantahala National Forest include nearly all the 
mountain tops — Wayah Bald, Satulah Mountain, Yellow Mountain, Cowell Bald, Stand- 
ing Indian, Tellico Bald, and Big Stomp Knob. 

Lakes Sequoyah, Emory, and Santeetlah attract many visitors. The Nantahala 
Gorge is considered one of the most striking scenic areas in western North Carolina. 
Numerous beautiful streams with many waterfalls enhance the charm of this forest 
area. The Appalachian Trail and numerous other trails and Forest Service roads make 
all points of interest accessible to the visitor. 

Four Home-site Units have been set up in the Nantahala Forest, Skittle Creek Sum- 
mer Unit near Highlands in Macon County (now under development), and Highlands 
Home-site Units Number One, Two, and Three (proposed). 

The Skittle Creek Unit contains 30 acres of land open for lease to anyone desiring 
to construct a summer home. The homes built must meet the specifications required by 
the Forest Service and be approved by the Forest Officer in charge. Leases will be granted 
and annual charges of from $15 to $25 per year will be made. These proposed home- 
site units are not open for lease at the present time. 

Recreational Work of the Resettlement Administration 
The Resettlement Administration has two Land Use Projects and two National 
Park projects in which recreational facilities are being developed. 

In addition to reforestation and re-stocking with wildlife on the Hoffman and Eliza- 
bethtown areas, extensive development of other recreational facilities is in progress. 
Near Hoffman, a camp capable of accommodating 200 4-H Club boys and girls is being 
set up. A number of cabins, bath, houses, and recreational buildings are being con- 
structed around Jones and Salters lakes in the Bladen County area. 

In co-operation with the National Park Service, the Resettlement Administration is 
developing recreational projects upon the 6,000-acre Crabtree Creek area near Raleigh 
in Wake County, and upon approximately 7,000 acres of land along the great National 
Parkway in Alleghany, Surry, and Wilkes counties. 

Recreation on Other Public Lands 

As in the case of the National Forests, the lands containing State and Federal 
Refuges and fish hatcheries have considerable value as recreational areas. Opportunities 
for hiking, mountain climbing, camping, picnicking, and study of animal and aquatic 
life, are afforded. 

The principal areas of this type are all the State and Federal Fish Hatcheries, 
Pisgah National Forest Refuge, the Western North Carolina State Game Refuges, the 
various county game refuges, and the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries Biological Station at 
Beaufort. 

Plans are now under way to establish picnic areas upon lands occupied by ■ forest 
fire lookout, towers, .wherever feasible,,. in counties co-operating with the State in- forest 
fire control. 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 215 

Municipal and County Recreational Facilities 

The facilities under this classificatio n consist of recreation buildings, camps, 
amusement parks, parks and playfields, outdoor swimming pools, athletic fields, and 
golf courses. 

A survey of recreational conditions in cities and towns throughout the State shows 
that the Piedmont region is far ahead of others in the number and excellence of munici- 
pal recreation facilities. An industrial region with many towns and cities, it is natural 
that the Piedmont area with its larger population should lead the less densely settled 
and predominantly agricultural sections. 

As the Emergency Conservation Work Program has functioned in the field of State 
and Federal developments, the CWA, ERA, and WPA, have set up and completed 
municipal and county recreation projects in virtually every county in the State. Parks, 
playfields, swimming pools, recreation buildings, community houses, stadia, ball parks, 
lakes, and numerous other facilities have gone forward under the comprehensive pro- 
grams of these Federal relief organizations. 

Today, the Works Progress Administration has full-time recreation supervisors 
operating in 45 counties in this State. Co-operating with county and city officials, these 
supervisors are setting up definite recreation programs, and securing facilities, wher- 
ever possible, to establish units accessible to all citizens of the county. 

CWA and ERA Recreation Activities 

The recreational projects of the Civil Works Administration and the Emergency 
Relief Administration are classified as follows : improvement of grounds, such as grad- 
ing, installation of drainage facilities, walks, bridle paths, and landscaping; construction 
of new recreational facilities — parks and playgrounds, golf courses, summer camps, 
bathing beaches, swimming pools, skating rinks, gymnasiums, etc.; and rural community 
centers and fair grounds. Projects for improvement of grounds and construction of new 
recreational facilities varied from $2,000 to $100,000 in cost. All projects were sponsored 
by county and State officials. 

The total expenditures of the CWA for recreational projects in North Carolina 
amounted to $830,104.42. 

Recreational projects completed by the North Carolina Emergency Relief Adminis- 
tration numbered 1,993. The Administration approved expenditures amounting to 
$2,676,488.74 for constructing new recreational facilities and repairing those already in 
existence. Local governments — county and municipal — approved expenditures amount- 
ing to $264,715.49. 

Works Progress Administration Activities 
A survey of the recreational projects of the Works Progress Administration reveals 
that this Administration, up to the fall of 1936, had set up 112 projects in 58 counties 
and 88 cities in North Carolina. The types of construction and improvements are the 
same as those undertaken by the CWA and ERA. The total expenditures for recrea- 
tional projects completed and under construction amounted to $1,719,724.13. 

Combining the expenditures of these three relief organizations, it is found that the 
total sum spent for recreational projects, principally county and municipal, amounted 
to $5,226,317.29 in 1936. 



216 North Carolina : Today and Tomorrow 

Private Estates and Gardens 

North Carolina contains many private estates and gardens which are open to the 
public. The magnificent Vanderbilt estate near Asheville, the Orton plantation, and the 
Airlee Estate, both near Wilmington, are considered as having the most beautiful for- 
mal gardens in the State. Vanderbilt Mansion, built on the order of a French chateau, 
is considered one of the finest country houses in America. Orton Mansion ranks as one 
of the finest examples of pure Colonial architecture in the country. 

Other noteworthy estates and garden are found in all sections of North Carolina, 
and are visited annually by thousands of people from this and other states. 

Mineral Springs 

Mineral springs are numerous in the State, and are patronized by health seekers 
from far and wide. The principal types of water are sulphur, lithia, alum, and iron. 
Though not as popular now as a decade ago, many of these watering places continue 
to do excellent business and have complete facilities for accommodating large num- 
bers of tourists. 

Points of Historical Interest 

North Carolina is particularly rich in historical points of interest. Historical markers 
are now being erected through the cooperation of the State Historical Commission, the 
Highway and Public Works Commission, and the Department of Conservation and 
Development. 

From the standpoint of public recreational facilities and the development of excel- 
lent resort sections, North Carolina ranks high in the nation. 

In the development of municipal facilities for recreational purposes, the State lags. 
This is especially true in the remote western and eastern counties, where practically no 
facilities are found other than those connected with the public schools. In this respect, 
it is well to remember that the rural areas of North Carolina, while making great strides 
in their organization work, such as the Grange, 4-H Clubs, and Future Farmers of 
America, have to depend almost entirely upon the public schools as meeting places. The 
establishment of rural agricultural centers throughout the State needs the full attention 
and co-operation of all local, county, and State agencies. 

The recreational program in effect in many of the industrial centers of the Piedmont 
merits study and emulation by other sections of the 'State. To name only a few of the 
organizations that have reached a high degree of development in this area, there are the 
Hi-Y Clubs, the Junior American Legion Baseball teams, the Y. M. C. A. and Y. W. C. A., 
Boy and Girl Scout organizations, and many others. 

Present public, county, and municipal facilities are rapidly being supplemented by 
extensive recreational projects of the various Federal relief organizations. The next step 
for this State to take is unquestionably a comprehensive program of advertising to reach 
into all sections of the country. A very satisfactory beginning in this direction has been 
made by the North Carolina Department of Conservation and Development, and it is 
expected that the program will go forward, expanding from year to year as further 
recreational opportunities are developed in North Carolina. 



Chapter XIII 

INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT OF NORTH CAROLINA 
THE COURSE OF INDUSTRIAL EXPANSION 

Throughout her history North Carolina has possessed abundant resources for the 
establishment of industry. Most important among these are a mild climate, an abundance 
of water power easily converted into mechanical or electric power, an almost unlimited 
supply of native-born intelligent labor, an adequate transportation system, and central 
location with respect to the nation's largest centers of population. 

During the Colonial period these advantages were almost completely nullified by 
English Government which was determined to keep North Carolina, together with the 
other colonies, a market for British goods. Because of this policy, together with a lack 
of technical equipment, knowledge and skills natural in a newly developed country, the 
few manufacturies that appeared were local in character and supplied very limited de- 
mand. The one important industry in North Carolina during this period was the pro- 
duction and processing of naval stores. Because she led the American Colonies in the 
production of tar, pitch, and turpentine, North Carolina was considered by some states- 
men of the period to be the most valuable of England's New World possessions. 

With the removal of England's restrictive policies through the War of Independence, 
and the growth of wealth and technical resources, North Carolina as well as the New 
England States might have been a center of the industrial revolution of the early eigh- 
teen hundreds, had it not been for the invention of the cotton gin and power spinning 
and weaving. Paradoxically enough, this very group of inventions which created indus- 
trialism in England and New England virtually prevented industrial development in 
North Carolina and the South for almost three-quarters of a century, and made devotion 
to a strictly agricultural economy inevitable. In an age of water transportation, the 
enormous demand for raw cotton in Great Britain and New England meant a return flow 
of manufactured goods to cotton growing areas and the ever increasing use of slave labor 
in the immensely profitable plantation system of cotton production. In North Carolina, 
as in Virginia, the process was further strengthened by the demand for the other great 
staple, tobacco. 

Thus, the conservative agriculturists of the Tidewater and Coastal Plain areas con- 
tinued to dominate the State economically and politically until the War between the 
States. Prior to 1860, only a scattering of industrial pioneers, chiefly in the Piedmont 
region, tried to arouse popular interest in industrial development. Handicapped by 
distance from water transport, the lack of north-south railway facilities, and compet- 
ing with water-borne manufactured articles from the North, they fought tenaciously 
for survival. Their enterprises, usually small, engaged mainly in the production of semi- 
finished goods. The small water-powered cotton mills produced only yarns which were 
woven into cloth on hand looms. A few iron foundries located in mountain coves through- 
out the upper Piedmont supplied only local markets, although some pig iron was shipped 
to Baltimore and other centers for finishing. Much the same thing was true of tobacco, 
food products, and forest products. The bulk of the demand for manufactured goods was 
met by importation from abroad, from northern industrial centers, or from local pro- 
duction in homes or in the shops of small craftsmen. Practically all of the manufac- 
turing establishments in North Carolina were destroyed during the Civil War. 



218 North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 

Among the factors which help to explain the industrial dominance of the Pied- 
mont are : a higher ratio of free white labor to ex-slaves in the early period ; a greater 
degree of contact with northern capital and technology; the declining importance of 
water transport because of improved north-south rail facilities; proximity to raw mate- 
rials ; central location as to market centers in the north, south, and middle west. 

North Carolina's industrial development during the seventy years since the Civil 
War falls into three stages. From 1865 to 1885, even the Piedmont was too impoverished 
to undertake manufacturing on an extensive scale. From 1885 to the turn of the century, 
a moderate expansion of industry based on mechanical water power took place. From 
1900 until now, North Carolina has experienced an industrial expansion almost without 
parallel in modern history. 

The four factors most important in this tremendous growth are hydro-electric de- 
velopment, and adequate labor supply, sufficient raw materials, and easy access to 
markets. 

Perhaps the most important factor of the four is cheap and abundant electric power. 
The State has a developed horsepower of 980,000, and, in addition, a potential 916,000 
horsepower available 90 per cent of the time. 

Cheap power is matched by an equally important industrial factor — an adequate 
supply of intelligent labor. 

A third factor of basic importance is the State's ample natural resources and sup- 
plies of raw material. Cotton and tobacco are the leading agricultural products, while 
textile and cigarette manufacturing are the two largest industries in the State. The 
State's forest resources are the primary reason for the prominence of saw mills, planer 
mills, veneer and plywood producers, furniture factories, and other wood-working estab- 
lishments, among the State's industries. Although North Carolina industry cannot sup- 
ply all its raw material needs from within the State, it is favorably located, on the whole, 
with respect to external sources. 

As might be expected, North Carolina's proximity to imported raw materials is 
matched by her nearness to markets. If a 500-mile circle is drawn with the heart of 
the Piedmont as its center, it includes well over half the population of the United States 
and the great majority of the country's concentrated urban markets. 

Table LIV 
DIVISIONS OF INDUSTRY IN NORTH CAROLINA 



1880 1933 
Industry Employees Value of Products Employees Value of Products 

Forest Products 4,249 $4,021,395 24,005 $ 46,709,502 

Textiles 3,330 2,718,009 134,942 314,467,517 

Tobacco 3,417 2,113,464 14,899 378,874,920 

Food Products 1,388 5,436,920 3,351 25,571,690 

Chemical Industry 125 300,000 2,965 23,007,943 



According to the last accurate figures available, the ten ranking industries in North 
Carolina are, in order: (1) tobacco; (2) textiles (including awnings, tents, sails, and 
canvas covers; men's work clothing, including shirts; cordage and twine; cotton goods; 
cotton small wares ; dyeing and finishing textiles ; knit goods ; shirts, except work shirts, 






480 



400 



300 



200 



100 



VALUE OF 
PRODUCTS 




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1900 



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1920 



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NUMBER OF 
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FOOD PRODUCTS 


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1900 



1910 1920 

YEAR 



1930 



NORTH CAROLINA INDUSTRIES 



Figure 10 



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200 



50 



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ALL INDUSTRIES IN NORTH CAROLINA 

Figure 11 






North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 221 

and nightwear; silk and rayon goods; woolen goods); (3) forest products industries 
(baskets, boxes; carriages; coffins; cooperage; excelsior; furniture; lumber; planing 
mills; turpentine; wood turned and shaped) ; (4) food products industries (beverages; 
bread; feeds; flour; ice cream; ice manufacture; meat packing; butter; canning and 
pickling of fruits and vegetables) ; (5) chemical industries (fertilizers ; patent and pro- 
prietary medicines; tanning materials; oil, cake and meal cottonseed; natural dyestuffs, 
mordants and assistants) ; (6) paper and paper products; (7) leather, tanned, curried and 
finished; (8) railway repair shops, steam and electric; (9) stone, clay and glass indus- 
tries (asbestos products other than steam packing; clay products other than pottery; 
concrete products; slate and other stone products; marble and granite) ; and (10) ma- 
chinery, not including transportation equipment. The relative position of the first five 
named, from 1900 to 1930, is shown by Figure 10. 

On Figure 10, it will be noticed that the textile industries consistently employed 
almost twice as many workers as its nearest competitor, the forest products industries. 
Comparison with the State totals for all industries for 1900-1933 reveals that, with the 
exception of the boom year 1930, the textile industries employed approximately 50 per 
cent of the total number of persons employed during the entire period considered. Ac- 
cording to the figures of the North Carolina Department of Labor, the textile industries 
employ at present 158,504 persons, or 23,562 more than they employed in 1933. The 
forest products industries consistently held second place in the number employed, as 
shown on Figure 10. While the furniture division of this industry steadily increased the 
volume of the other division of this industry as a rule decreased, with a corresponding 
decline in the number employed. The State Department of Labor figures give the forest 
products industry 28,356 employees, or 4,351 more employees in 1936 than in 1933. The 
importance of the tobacco industry is in no way indicated by the number of people it 
employs. It continuously held third place in industries ranked by the number of wage 
earners. The chemical industries and the food products industries interchanged their 
positions in this ranking, due more to fluctuation in divisions of the food industry than 
to any other factor. Several divisions of the food industry are highly seasonal, so that 
the number employed is very high relative to the man-months of employment and the 
value of products. 

Figure 10 shows that the textile development was more rapid than that of tobacco 
until 1928. Between 1930 and 1933, there was a severe decline in the value of products 
in the textile industry. The tobacco industry, sometimes referred to as the non-depression 
industry, fell off much less than the textile industry. 

Figure 11 presents a graph of employment for the combined industries of the 
State from 1900 to 1933, and wages for the same period. Figure 11 also shows the rela- 
tion between the value of products and the cost of material for the combined industries 
of the State. 

The tobacco industry is a major factor in the industrial leadership of Durham and 
Rockingham counties, while textiles account for the high ranking of Gaston and Meck- 
lenburg. Forsyth County maintains its industrial prominence by both textile and tobacco 
manufacturing, while furniture and textiles combined give Guilford County its rank- 
ing. The concentration of industry in the Piedmont is illustrated by the fact that twelve 
of the fifteen leading counties, in point of value of products, are in that area. The 
exceptions, Burke, Buncombe, and Caldwell counties, are all in the Mountain region. 



222 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 



Since the tobacco, textile, forest, food, and chemical industries comprise 92 per cent 
of the State's industrial volume and employ 89 per cent of the workers, each is discussed 
separately and in some detail in the following pages. 

THE TOBACCO INDUSTRY 

The tobacco industry antedates the existence of the corporate State of North Caro- 
lina. The Indians who welcomed the various expeditions of Sir Walter Raleigh smoked, 
in the language of the chroniclers "a noxious weed," tobacco. The manufacture of tobacco 
has always been closely associated with the economic development of the State. Through- 
out the Colonial period, North Carolina grown tobacco appeared on the markets of 
Europe, labeled "Virginia Brights." Commercial manufacture on a large scale began 
to develop between 1860 and 1880 in Durham, Reidsville, and Winston-Salem. The early 
manufacturers were principally concerned with the production of cigars, snuff, and chew- 
ing tobacco. There were innumerable small establishments in the early tobacco and indus- 
try, but far-sighted industrialists saw the advantages of combination, and by 1890 the 
consolidation of the tobacco industry was under way. The movement toward consolidation 
continued until around 1910, when a U. S. Supreme Court decision resulted in the disso- 
lution of the American Tobacco Company, Three great companies remained, and all of 
these were located in North Carolina. 

Two-fifths of the entire tobacco crop in the United States in 1934 was produced 
in North Carolina. Over 40 per cent of all the farms raised tobacco, with an average of 
3.9 acres per farm. Farmers market their crop from early fall to late winter, according 
to the type of tobacco and the belt in which it is grown. After being processed, it is 
shipped by truck and train to the manufacturing centers. Certain types of tobacco are 
imported in various quantities to blend with the native product. Fifty-five per cent of 
the cigarettes manufactured in the United States are made in North Carolina, and the 
amount of smoking tobacco is almost as large. In addition to growing more tobacco than 
any other state, North Carolina tobacco establishments manufacture more than half of 
all the tobacco prducts of the United States. Today the State of North Carolina is the 
tobacco center of the world. 

The marked growth of the tobacco industry since 1900 is shown in the following 
table. 

Table LV 

GROWTH OF THE TOBACCO INDUSTRY IN NORTH CAROLINA * 



Year 


Number 
Establishments 


Number 

Wage 

Earners 


Wage 


Cost Material, 

Fuel, 

Containers 


Value 

of 

Products 


Value Added 

by 
Manufacture 


1900 


80 


6,403 


$ 869,107 


$ 4,230,049 


$ 13,620,816 


$ 9,390,767 


1910 


43 


8,203 


Not Reporting 


13,816,000 


35,987,000 


22,171,000 


1920 


29 


14,256 


13,100,000 


125,770,000 


259,824,000 


134,054,000 


1930 


8 


13,778 


11,783,472 


139,613,094 


480,038,850 


340,425,756 


1933 


4 


14,899 


8,933,962 


290,277,775 


378,874,920 


88,597,145 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 223 

This table shows that the value of products of the tobacco industry has increased 
twenty-seven fold in thirty-three years. The number of employees during the same 
period of time has only a little more than doubled. Since 1900, workers in the tobacco 
industry in North Carlina have been able to increase the unit of production value be- 
cause of the great scientific improvements made in machinery. Cigarettes now constitute 
the principal element of production in tobacco factories, while even as late as 1900 they 
were only a fractional part of the total production. Hand-rolling was then the only 
satisfactory method of production, and this was expensive. There was only a small demand 
for cigarettes prior to the Centennial Exposition at Philadelphia in 1876. Tobacco manu- 
facturers, especially in North Carlina, foreseeing an enormous potential increase in 
demand if costs could be lowered, experimented continuously with cigarette-making 
machinery. Although the immediate results of the introduction of successful machines 
around 1880 was a glutted market, large expenditures for advertising and premiums 
rapidly increased demand. Table LV shows how the swing to cigarette production and 
the very rapid improvement of cigarette machinery after 1900 affected the relationship 
between the number of employees, wages, and value of products. Because the modern 
cigarette machines produce more than 1,600 cigarettes per minute, the twenty-seven fold 
increase of value of products since 1900 has not required proportional increases in men or 
wages. 

The increase in the manufacturing of tobacco has been closely paralleled by the 
increase in the agricultural production of tobacco. In 1900, North Carolina farms pro- 
duced 127,503,400 pounds of tobacco, while in 1934 the production was 398,549,137 
pounds. The increase in production was caused by the increased demand for tobacco by 
the factories. 

Although North Carolina is the leading tobacco manufacturing State by far, she 
has fewer factories than most of the other important tobacco manufacturing states. 
This is due to the fact that North Carolina chiefly manufactures cigarettes and smok- 
ing tobacco, while in other states the industry produces a much higher proportion of 
snuff, cigars, chewing tobacco, etc. The highly mechanized process of cigarette and 
smoking tobacco manufacture, coupled with the necessity for large-scale advertising 
and marketing, fosters the growth of a relatively few large establishments. It is likely, 
therefore, that the North Carolina cities, Durham, Winston-Salem, and Reidsville, will 
remain the most important production centers. 

The four establishments listed in North Carolina in the Census of Manufactures 
for 1933 manufacture all tobacco products except large cigars and snuff. Tobacco com- 
panies frequently own other establishments producing materials used in the manufac- 
ture of tobacco. One North Carolina company owns a paper mill in France which supplies 
all of its cigarette paper. It also owns a mill which makes the tin products which it 
requires, and a textile mill making tobacco bags, and paper labels, with pure silk hosiery 
as an auxiliary product. Other companies have interests in companies producing paper 
boxes in which their products are packed for shipment. 

Due to the fact that the large manufacturing establishments are so concentrated 
that not all the tobacco growers can market their tobacco where the factories are located, 
the growing regions are divided into 4 belts in which there are 44 tobacco markets and 172 
warehouses. The grower hauls the leaf to one of the markets and delivers it at the 



224 North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 

warehouse, where it is weighed and tagged. The tobacco manufacturers maintain pro- 
cessing plants where the leaf is stored to age and where it passes through several pro- 
cessing stages. The manufacturers and dealers bid on a competitive basis upon each pile 
of tobacco, and the grower is paid for his product by the warehouse. Type, grade, and 
demand, are the controlling factors in the price received. 

The present tendency of the tobacco industry is to move closer to the raw material. 
Because of their present favorable location, North Carolina tobacco industries will be 
very little affected. Machine production of cigars will eventually place their manufac- 
ture in the hands of larger corporations. The costs of the new machinery are almost pro- 
hibitive to the small manufacturer, yet the efficiency of these machines means the end of 
hand production except in the highest grades. 

The importance of the tobacco industry to North Carolina can not be over empha- 
sized. It is indigenous to North Carolina, and along with the textile and furniture indus- 
tries, is responsible for the meteoric rise of the State from one of the unimportant 
manufacturing states to one of the five highest ranking states. 

In 1933, within the State the tobacco industry ranked third in the number employed 
and first in the value of products. The value of manufactured tobacco was approximately 
42 per cent of that of all the products manufactured, while the cost of materials, con- 
tainers, fuel and purchased electric energy was approximately 50 per cent of the total 
cost for all industries. The relatively high cost of containers, materials, etc., in the 
tobacco industry explains why it ranks only third in "value added by manufacture," 
in contrast to its rank of first in "value of products." 

Viewing the industry from a national angle, it represents quite a factor in the in- 
ternal revenue receipts of the United States government. During the last fiscal year, 
the government collected in North Carolina $232,000,000. Also more than $6,000,000 
per annum, in custom charges, is paid by the tobacco industry on goods and commodities 
shipped into North Carolina from foreign countries. 

THE TEXTILE INDUSTRY 

North Carolina leads the nation in textile production. Twenty-three per cent of all 
the active spindles in the United States in August, 1936, were in operation in North Caro- 
lina. This same number constituted thirty-one per cent of the spindles in the South. 
The textile industries , in the State employed in 1933, 67 per cent of all the industrial 
employees in North Carolina, and the products of textile establishments were valued 
at 27 per cent of the total of products manufactured. 

Favorable economic factors in the State are the basis of the textile industry. The 
tremendous boom given the production of cotton by the invention of the cotton gin in 
the latter part of the eighteenth century presented opportunities for the establishment 
of cotton mills, which were quickly seized upon by North Carolinians in the Piedmont 
area. Several small mills driven by water power were established by 1820, and from time 
to time others appeared. However, the fact that the dominant agriculturalists refused 
to encourage manufactures, coupled with frequent labor difficulties caused by white 
artisans competing with negro slave labor, and other negative factors, prevented the 
textile industry from assuming an important position in antebellum North Carolina. 
The post Civil War textile development began around 1870. Today the textile industry 
offers an unparalleled record of growth from 33 establishments employing 1,776 people 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 



225 



in 1870, to 546 establishments employing 134,942 people in 1933. A factor prominent 
in this record of growth has been the rapid development of hydro-electric power in the 
Piedmont and Mountain areas. The availability of cheap power accelerated growth, be- 
cause power costs are usually from four to six per cent of production costs in textile 
manufacturing. 

The natural resources upon which the textile products industry rests, have undoubt- 
edly been favorable to its growth. North Carolina is one of the leading cotton growing 
states in the nation, ranking seventh in the number of bales produced in 1934. In yield 
of cotton per acre, North Carolina ranks first. Much of the cotton grown is of the short- 
staple variety, for use in the local textile establishments. This necessitates the importa- 
tion from the deep South of approximately one-half of the raw cotton manufactured. The 
even climate offers every advantage for all-year production of textiles at low overhead 
cost, while cheaper housing, clothing and food tends to give southern textile workers 
advantages not possessed by those in other regions. 

The most important products of North Carolina textile mills today are denim, 
damask, towels, underwear, hosiery, gray goods, plush, yarns, colored goods, silk, rayon, 
and blankets. With few exceptions out-of-state commission merchants and financial 
houses market these goods. The State can boast that: Kannapolis has the largest towel 
mills and Durham the largest hosiery mills in the world; Greensboro has the largest 
denim mills and Roanoke Rapids has the largest damask mills in the United States ; and 
that Winston-Salem has the largest men's underwear factories in the United States. North 
Carolina had more spindles in place in August, 1936, than any other state in the Union. 

Important divisions of the textile products industry in North Carolina are: cotton 
goods, knit goods, woolen and worsteds, silk and rayon. In analyzing the present devel- 
opment of the textile products industry, it is well to study each of these divisions with 
reference to the whole industry. The table given below charts the development of the 
textile products industry in the past 33 years. 

Table LVI 
THE TEXTILE INDUSTRY IN NORTH CAROLINA, 1900-1933 



Year 


Number 

of 
Plants 


Employees 


Wages 


Cost Material, 
Fuel, 
Etc. 


Value 
Products 


Value 

Added by 

Manufacture 


1900 


177 


30,273 


$ 5,127,087 


$ 17,386,624 


$ 28,372,798 


$ 10,986,174 


1910 


375 


53,688 


Not Reported 


51,263,000 


78,291,000 


27,028,000 


1920 


447 


78,319 


55,583,000 


206,558,000 


351,643,000 


145,085,000 


1929 


594 


125,226 


70,747,164 


277,051,758 


459,190,402 


182,1 38,644 


1933 


546 


134,942 


73,730,775 


172,931,902 


314,467,517 


141,535,615 



While the number of establishments operating in North Carolina decreased by 48 
in the period 1929-1933, the number of employees increased by 9,716 in the same period. 
Indications are that the peak value of products of 1929 will be equaled in 1936. The ratio 



226 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 



between the value of products and the cost of materials altered sharply in 1933, due to a 
marked drop in the cost of raw materials. 

The production of various divisions of the textile industry in North Carolina in 1933 
are shown in Table LVII following. 

Table LVII 
DIVISIONS OF THE TEXTILE INDUSTRY IN NORTH CAROLINA, 1933 



Division 


Number 
Plants 


Number 
Employees 


Wages 


Costs 


Value of 
Products 


Value 

Added by 

Manufacture 


Awnings, tents, sails, canvas 

covers 


5 


23 


$ 18,614 


$ 68,405 


$ 128,128 


$ 59,723 


Men's work clothing (including 
work shirts) 


12 


2,725 


1,125,403 


3,971,258 


5,666,637 


1,695,379 




Cordage and twine 


11 


1,615 


706,374 


2,340,900 


4,147,194 


1,806,294 




Cotton goods 


289 


87,709 


45,295,229 


107,475,979 


189,750,739 


82,274,760 




Cotton small wares 


8 


252 


194,415 


303,678 


808,245 


504,558 


Dyeing and finishing textiles 


24 


2,899 


1,788,138 


6,708,748 


12,297,341 


5,588,593 


Knit goods and nightwear, men's 


156 


28,596 


17,607,024 


30,775,784 


64,091,589 


33,315,805 


Shirts (except work shirts) 


5 


536 


157,273 


719,230 


1,047,233 


328,003 


Silk and rayon goods 


29 


9,284 


6,023,945 


18,058,336 


31,289,345 


13,231,009 


Woolen goods 


7 


1,303 


814,360 


2,509,575 


5,241,066 


2,731,491 




Total 


546 


134,942 


$ 73,730,775 


$ 172,931,902 


$ 314,467,517 


$ 141,535,615 



Cotton Goods 

The cotton goods industry occupies first place among the individual industries of the 
State, and is the most important division of the textile industry. This division of the 
textile products industry in North Carolina is centered in the Charlotte-Gastonia area. 
Fifty-three per cent of all the establishments employ 65 per cent of the workers and 
produce 60 per cent of the value of the products. 

The cotton goods industry in 1933 used 17,451 cards ; 1,347 braiders ; 82,299 looms ; 
and 6,898,645 spindles. The five leading counties ranked by type of machinery, are 
given below. 

Table LVIII 
FIVE LEADING COUNTIES RANKED BY TYPE OF MACHINERY, 1933 



Number of Cards 


Number of Looms 


Number of Spindles 


Number Braiders 


North Carolina . . .17,451 

Gaston 2,481 

Guilford 1,419 

Cabarrus 1,196 

Stanly 827 

Rowan 749 


North Carolina 85,299 

Cabarrus 10,223 

Guilford 8,918 


North Carolina 6,898,645 

Gaston 1,461,994 

Cabarrus 450,644 

Mecklenburg 409,662 

Guilford 317,474 

Richmond 267,752 


North Carolina . .1,347 

Edgecombe 600 

Burke 300 

Guilford 250 

Catawba 100 

Montgomery .... 75 


Mecklenburg 8,555 

Richmond 7,295 

Halifax 4,461 





Note: According to Bureau of the Census release in August, 1936 there were only 6,037,876 spindles in North 
Carolina in place. 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 



227 



In the cotton industry in North Carolina, Gaston, Mecklenburg, and Guilford coun- 
ties are the most important. Gaston County has more spindles than any other county in 
the Union. The importance of the cotton industry in these counties explains in part 
their 1933 rank in value of products as third, fourth, and second, respectively. 

Many North Carolina cotton goods establishments manufacture only semi-finished 
material, but the present trend is toward the manufacture of a finished product. Carded 
and combed cotton yarns of various grades, gray goods, knitting yarns of various thick- 
ness, twines, etc., continue to be the principal products of our cotton mills. Statistically, 
the manufacture of these materials has remained constant, while practically all other 
divisions have increased. This fact tends to support the statement that the trend in North 
Carolina is away from the manufacture of semi-finished materials. Further evidence that 
production is progressing to a more finished stage is found in the tremendous increase in 
looms in the State for 1925-1935. 

Knit Goods 

Second in importance to the cotton goods division of the textile products industry is 
the manufacture of knit goods. The manufacture of hosiery and knit goods is closely 
allied to the cotton goods industry, the products of the industry being made almost en- 
tirely of cotton. This industry is rapidly growing in importance, and North Carolina 
offers every resource needed for its further development. New establishments in this 
industry are constantly appearing, and the established plants continue to enlarge and 
to add employees to their working forces. Since 1925, North Carolina has led all the 
Southern states in the production of knit goods. The fact that this superiority has 
been maintained is evidence that the manufacturers of knit goods in North Carolina 
have been quick to adapt their equipment to the needs of the industry and are intent 
on strengthening their position in this industry in the nation. 

In 1922, North Carolina produced thirty-two million dozen pairs of hose, three mil- 
lion dozen pairs more than its nearest competitor. While most of these hose were all 
cotton, present trends indicate that a large portion of the hose produced in 1936 will be 
pure silk and silk-rayon. Gains made in North Carolina in this field in the past five years 
surpass the gains in any other state. Today manufacturers of silk hosiery in North 
Carolina claim for their product equality with hose of that type produced anywhere in 
the United States. Large portions of silk yarn used in the manufacture of this type of 
hosiery come from Pennsylvania and New Jersey. The rayon used is obtained locally 
and in nearby states, the South possessing undisputed lead in the field of rayon products. 

Other knit goods products are knitted outer garments, knitted underwear, gloves, 
golf socks, knitted cloth, and many other similar articles. 

Table LIX 
FIVE LEADING COUNTIES RANKED BY TYPE OF MACHINERY 



Knitting Machines 


Loopers 


Ribbers 


North Carolina . . . .31,573 
Guilford . 6,030 


North Carolina . . . 5,637 

Guilford 1,209 

Alamance 657 

Durham 526 

Randolph 500 

Catawba 447 


North Carolina 3,108 

Catawba 445 


Alamance 3,384 

Durham . . 3,157 


Durham . 392 


Halifax ... 261 


Catawba 2,960 


Alamance 250 

Surry 227 


Forsyth 2,845 



228 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 



Due to the lack of figures showing the value of products in this industry by counties, 
we have shown only the potential production capacity of the leading counties. 

Silk and Rayon 

In 1933, the production of silks and rayons was the third important division of the 
textile products industries. As shown in Table LVII there were 29 establishments engaged 
in the production of silk and rayon goods. These establishments employed 9,284 peo- 
ple, who produced products valued at $31,289,345. The number of establishments in the 
silk and rayon industry in North Carolina increases yearly. In the manufacture of rayon 
and silk, North Carolina ranks third in the nation and first among the Southern states. 
The leading counties in this industry in North Carolina, ranked by the potential 
production capacity, are shown in the following table. 

Table LX 

LOOMS AND SPINDLES IN THE SILK AND RAYON INDUSTRY 

IN NORTH CAROLINA 



Looms 


Spindles 


North Carolina 9,483 

Alamance County 3,269 

Forsyth County 1,130 

Cleveland County 768 

Rockingham County 751 

Rutherford County 692 


North Carolina 108,862 

Alamance County 45,330 

Randolph County 30,000 


Cumberland County 12,700 

Moore County 11,800 

Guilford County 7,000 



Approximately 15,000,000 pounds of viscose rayon were produced in North Carolina 
in 1933. 

Other divisions of the textile industry in North Carolina are woolen goods, dyeing 
and finishing textiles, work clothing, cotton small wares, cordage and twine, and awn- 
ings, tents, sails and canvas covers. Table LVII contains statistics on these divisions. 
The manufacture of woolens and worsteds in North Carolina is confined principally to 
the manufacture of blankets, although recently several establishments have begun the 
manufacture of fabrics used in the manufacture of men's suits and overcoats. The dye- 
ing and finishing industry is considerably more important than the statistics indicate, 
since many of the larger establishments have dyeing and finishing plants connected 
with the manufacturing establishments. 

The textile industry in North Carolina is not evenly balanced. There is a less ready 
market for the great quantity of coarse yarns produced in North Carolina than there is 
for the finer yarns and finer grades of goods. The trend in recent years has been 
toward an increased number of fine yarn mills and an extension of dyeing and finishing 
plants. 

The future is bright for North Carolina textile manufacturers, yet there is room 
for more diversification in finished manufactured products. The number of finished gar- 
ments manufactured in the State is small. Only in the case of overalls, underwear and 
hosiery, does the State attain any rank of importance in production of wearing apparel. 
Potentially, there is a large field for the manufacture of all types of cotton dresses and 
men's light-weight suits. We have already a tremendous demand for clothing of this 



North Carolina : Today and Tomorrow 



229 



type. The raw material, the labor, the market, and the equipment are available for pro- 
duction of clothing, and if present indications are to be relied upon, the number of 
these articles manufactured will be increased. 

THE FOREST PRODUCTS INDUSTRY 
The forest products industries rank third among the industries of North Carolina. 
They include: baskets and rattan and willow ware (not including furniture) ; boxes, 
wooden (except cigar boxes) ; brooms, carriages, wagons, sleighs and sleds ; caskets, 
coffins, burial and other morticians' goods; cooperage; excelsior; furniture (including 
store and office fixtures) ; lumber and other timber products not elsewhere classified ; 
planing mill products (including general millwork) made in planing mills not connected 
with saw mills; turpentine and rosin; wood turned and shaped, and other wooden goods 
not elsewhere classified. 

Table LXI 
DIVISIONS OF THE FOREST PRODUCTS INDUSTRY, 1933 



Division 


Number 
Plants 


Wage 
Earners 


Wages 


Value of 
Products 


Value added by 
Manufacture 


Baskets, rattan and Willow Ware 


11 


715 


$ 228,157 


$ 854,440 


$ 503,386 




Boxes 


13 


610 


252,408 


1,117,752 


402,250 


Brooms 


5 


41 


20,436 


139,116 


54,527 


Carriages, Wagons, Sleighs 


3 


119 


64,900 


344,434 


151,188 


Caskets, Coffins 


8 


190 


134,127 


806,223 


476,500 




Cooperage 


17 


163 


59,748 


346,211 


112,290 


Excelsior 


3 


38 


20,646 


104,869 


78,826 


Furniture 


101 


11,809 


6,789,753 


26,624,910 


13,376,327 




Lumber 


225 


8,248 


3,039,877 


10,935,531 


6,660,990 




Planing Mills 


91 


1,724 


862,461 


4,823,403 


1,889,086 




Turpentine and Rosin 


3 


91 


19,566 


74,433 


44,897 




Wood turned and shaped 


14 


257 


117,293 


538,180 


297,310 




Total 


494 


24,005 


$ 11,609,372 


$ 46,709,502 


$ 24,065,777 





Between 1880 and 1890 the first machine-made furniture was produced in North 
Carolina. This was also the first in the South, and the factory producing it was located 
at High Point in Guilford County. From the small establishment at High Point, the 
furniture industry has developed to a position of importance in the economic life of 
the State. The rapid development of the furniture industry was accelerated by hydro- 
electric development which provided plentiful quantities of cheap power. In the beginning 
of the industry in North Carolina and the South generally hardwood lumber could be 
obtained at the very doors of the factories. However, the furniture industry grew faster 
than the forest supply of hardwood, and today the scarcity of the hardwoods presents 
a difficult problem. Transportation of raw materials 500 to 800 miles is not uncommon 




230 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 



in some southern factories, and from the economic standpoint this is cheaper and more 
convenient than bringing large numbers of skilled workers to the center of the supply 
of raw material. Today the materials used in the furniture industry in North Carolina 
are drawn from all parts of the world. 

The furniture industry is by far the most important of the forest products industries. 
As shown in Table LXI, the value of products of this industry is more than half of the 
total for the group of forest products industries. 

Formerly the production of lumber and semi-finished products was more important 
than the manufacture of furniture and other finished forest products. The depletion of 
our forests curtailed those industries, and today the manufacture of finished forest 
products overshadows the entire industry. The industries manufacturing only semi- 
finished products have been discussed in the chapter on Forest Resources. In connection 
with development of the furniture industry, several important industries have been 
added to the list of forest products industries. Two of these, the veneer and ply-wood 
industry and the wood turned and shaped industry, owe their importance wholly to 
the furniture industry. The industries manufacturing caskets, coffins, burial cases and 
other morticians' goods have developed with the furniture industry. The principal de- 
mand for veneers and plywoods and a large part of the demand for planing mill products 
may be traced directly to the furniture and coffin industries. 

The growth of the forest products industry in the past 33 years is shown in the 
following table. 

Table LXII 
GROWTH OF FOREST PRODUCTS INDUSTRY, 1900-1933 



Year 


Number 

of 
Plants 


Wage 
Earners 


Wages 


Cost of 
Material, 
Fuel, etc! 


Value 

of 

Product 


Value 

added by 

Manufacture 


1900 


1,915 


15,449 


$ 3,298,407 


$ 10,269,772 


$ 19,302,006 


$ 9,032,234 


1910..., 


2,887 


41,528 


Unreported 


19,466,000 


45,719,000 


26,253,000 


1920 


3,079 


34,018 


28,322,000 


40,045,000 


100,937,000 


60,892,000 


1930 


1,606 


38,387 


29,839,940 


60,436,769 


124,587,094 


64,150,325 


1933 


494 


24,005 


11,609,372 


22,643,725 


46,709,502 


24,065,777 



From the first establishment in 1880, the growth of the industry was continuous 
and the type of product constantly improved. From 1914 to 1919 the furniture industry 
experienced its most rapid development, increasing its output from a valuation of slightly 
over nine million dollars to more than twenty-eight million, or more than two hundred 
per cent in five years. The year 1921 showed a falling-off in output, but in 1923 a new 
peak was set by the output of over forty million dollars. From 1923, new high totals 
were established each year until 1931. The latter year showed a diminished output, not 
only because of a decrease in volume, but also because of a sharp decline in price, both 
brought about by the depression. 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 231 

In the last census year, 1933, there were 101 furniture factories in North Carolina, 
employing 11,809 workers, who received $6,789,753 in wages. The value of the total pro- 
duction was $26,624,910. According to the 1935 figures of the North Carolina Depart- 
ment of Labor, the number of employees in the furniture division of the forest products 
industries had increased from 11,809 in 1933, to 15,941. The number of employees in 
the furniture industry in North Carolina totalled only 6 per cent of the number of em- 
ployees in the furniture industry in the United States, but they produced 12 per cent 
of the total value of furniture produced in the United States. 

Until early in 1920, North Carolina-made furniture was sold principally on markets 
in New York, Chicago, and Grand Rapids. At High Point, the furniture manufacturing 
center of North Carolina, manufacturers undertook to establish a market. A furniture 
exposition building was completed in June, 1921, at a cost of $1,200,000. It contains 208,000 
square feet of floor space, and for several years was the largest furniture exposition 
building in the world. Southern furniture manufacturers keep samples of their products 
on exhibition in this building, so that dealers may visit it and make purchases. Semi- 
annually, shows are held, drawing buyers from all over the United States. By their col- 
lective action, the furniture makers have enlarged their market and thereby benefitted 
not only themselves but the State at large. The High Point market is today recognized 
as one of the leading furniture markets of the world. 

A tremendous shrinkage took place in the furniture industry from 1929 to 1933. 
The available indices indicate that the period of contraction is over, and that a new peak 
is in sight in North Carolina and the nation. Along with the boom now present in the 
construction industry and the enormous number of new homes being constructed, the 
furniture industry is enjoying its best year since 1929. 

North Carolina is one of the leading furniture manufacturing states in the union. 
In 1933, North Carolina ranked second in the production of wooden furniture, according 
to the value of products. The furniture industry of North Carolina manufacturers over 
twelve per cent of the total wooden furniture produced in the United States, over 
twenty-three per cent of the bedroom, over twenty-one per cent of the dining room furni- 
ture, and over six per cent of the kitchen furniture. In 1933, North Carolina manufac- 
tured almost half of the furniture manufactured in the ten Southern states. The value 
of products for the average North Carolina establishment is considerably higher than 
that for the average Southern establishment. The North Carolina furniture industry in 
1933 employed over forty-nine per cent of the workers, while the worker's average wage 
was considerable higher than the average wage paid the Southern furniture workers as 
a whole. 

The veneer and ply-wood industry owes its importance to the furniture industry. 
Panels in most wooden furniture are made of veneer stock and often the heavier and 
more solid tops of office desks, dressers, and other large pieces have a veneered top sur- 
face. The panels in most doors are of veneers. In 1930, a total of 96,417,000 board feet 
of timber, log scale, was used in the manufacture of veneers in North Carolina. The State 
ranked second in the number of board feet used by veneer manufacturers. 

The future is bright for North Carolina furniture manufacturers. The trend of the 
market indicates that the demand for good, medium-priced furniture will become heavy 
in the near future. The valuation of building projects for the first seven months in 1936 



232 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 



is more than three-quarters of the total valuation for 1935, and indications are that build- 
ing will continue to increase. For the next ten years, it will be necessary to build in the 
United States an annual average of 400,000 homes, to catch up with our actual needs. This 
promises well for the furniture industry. 

THE FOOD PRODUCTS INDUSTRY 

The food products industries ranked fourth in the leading industries of the State. 
This division of industry in North Carolina includes : beverages (non-alcoholic) ; butter ; 
fruits and vegetables (canned, pickled and preserved) ; feed (prepared for fowls and ani- 
mals) ; bread and other bakery products; ice cream; ice manufactured; and meat pack- 
ing (wholesale). These industries furnish employment to many people and utilize large 
quantities of raw material produced in this State. The following table illustrates the 
development of the food products industry since 1900. 

Table LXIII 
GROWTH OF FOOD PRODUCTS INDUSTRY, 1900-1933 



Year 


Number 
Plants 


Wage 
Earners 


Wages 


Value of 
Products 


Value added by 
Manufacture 


1900 


1,773 


1,019 


$ 213,627 


$ 8,867,462 


$ 1,648,558 




1910 


366 


1,082 


Unreported 


10,044,000 


1,990,000 




1920 


718 


2,905 


24,630,000 


38,739,000 


9,515,000 




1930 


693 


5,004 


4,711,460 


48,585,511 


19,425,045 




1933 


397 


3,351 


2,817,076 


25,571,690 


11,691,410 





Among the states, North Carolina ranks third in the annual value of leading crops. 
Yet North Carolina sends out of the State annually for food for her people and livestock 
to the value of 150 to 250 million dollars. Among the commodities imported are corn, 
wheat, rye, oats, barley, hay, Irish and sweet potatoes, beef and veal, mutton, pork and 
lard, milk in the form of butter, cheese and condensed milk, poultry, eggs, and many 
different kinds of canned and pickled goods, including fruits, vegetables, sea-foods, pickles, 
preserves and jellies. 

Varying quantities of each of these are produced in North Carolina and shipped 
out of the State. But the difference in the value of food produced and the value of food 
required to feed the people of the State amounts to a sum well over one hundred million 
dollars. During the summer months truck growers, gardeners and farmers in general sup- 
ply a considerable portion of the fresh foods consumed by the people, but the non-farm 
portion of the population must depend upon sources outside of the State for its winter 
food supply. Many farmers, especially in the cash crop belt, often buy grain and hay for 
their livestock and food for their families — some of them even during the summer 
months. Sometimes when the price of cash crops is depressed, as during 1930-32, the diet 
of many people is so restricted as to cause a noticeable increase in pellagra, anemia, 
rickets, and other dietary deficiency diseases. This condition is due to an unbalanced 
agriculture, in which the growing of money crops over-balances the growing of food and 
feed, and of livestock and livestock products. 



North Carolina : Today and Tomorrow 233 

In 1929, Governor 0. Max Gardner, through appropriate State agencies and depart- 
ments, started a campaign to bring these facts to the attention of the farmers and to in- 
duce them to grow their own food requirements first and make the cash crops secondary. 
In connection with this effort, attention was also called to the need and opportunity for 
food processing plants in the State. As a result, in recent years farmers have devoted 
less acreage to cash crops, and more to food crops. A number of small food processing 
plants have been established in the past five years. Of course, there have been some plants 
of this nature in the State for a number of years, but their output has been insignificant 
compared to the need. 

Dairy products manufactured in North Carolina are butter, cheese, and ice cream. 

The manufacture of butter on a commercial scale is a comparatively new industry 
in North Carolina. The first creamery of which there is any record was built in the fall 
of 1909, and during 1910 creameries were established in Cleveland and Catawba counties. 
From 1910 to 1929, several establishments appeared. Since 1929, more butter-making 
establishments have been organized than in any similar period during the State's history. 

Early in 1932, a cheese plant was established at West Jefferson, N. C, there being 
at this time nine establishments in the State making cheese. In 1933 there were 32 ice 
cream plants in North Carolina, located in the cities. 

Commercial canning has never been an important industry in North Carolina. For 
twenty-five years there have been a few plants in the State, the most of these small as 
compared with the nation's great canneries. In 1929, the greatest quantity output of the 
canneries was reached. Canning in North Carolina has grown as an industry, due to the 
increased attention shown food products during the depression. In 1934 the industries 
canning and preserving sea food, manufactured products valued at $1,193,315. This 
figure represents an increase of one million dollars over the census of 1929 figure. The 
plants canning and preserving fruits and vegetables, pickles, jellies, preserves, and sauces 
showed an increase in the value of products amounting to two hundred thousand dollars 
during the same period. The leading vegetables and fruits canned by these establishments 
are beans, tomatoes, blackberries, apples, peaches, sauerkraut, cucumbers, jellies and 
preserves. 

Most of these canning plants are small and market their products principally within 
the State. With such splendid resources as this State possesses, the canning and pre- 
serving of sea food, fruits and vegetables should become a great industry. 

Grain mills are scattered throughout the State, although many establishments are 
too small to be reported by the census. There were 69 flour and grain mills reported in 
1933. The value of products manufactured was almost eight million dollars. Perhaps the 
best known flour mills are located in Burlington, Charlotte, Durham, Greensboro, High 
Point, Lexington, Shelby, Statesville, and Winston-Salem. There is room for much 
expansion in this industry. 

There were 62 bakeries in North Carolina in 1933. These establishments employed 
around 1,300 people, and produced products valued at five and one-half million dollars. 

Other important food products industries include the manufacture of beverages, 
animal food, ice, and wholesale meat packing establishments. 



234 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 



The efforts and warnings of economists and agricultural leaders are rapidly bear- 
ing fruit. Practically all divisions of the food products industries enjoyed their best year 
in 1935, while activities in 1936 more than equalled the activities for the same months 
in 1935. Expansion is under way in many of the older establishments. 

Taking into consideration the favorable conditions to be found in North Carolina, 
it may very reasonably be expected that the food products industry is destined to greater 
and greater importance. Canning, extraction of juice, refrigeration of ripe fruits and 
other processing of foodstuffs can find here every favorable condition for their 
development. 

Table LXIV 
DIVISIONS OF THE FOOD PRODUCTS INDUSTRY, 1933 



Division 


Number 
Plants 


Wage 
Earners 


Wages 


Value of 
Products 


Value added by 
Manufacture 


Beverages . 


107 


615 


$ 568,981 


$ 5,602,632 


$ 3,365,994 




Bread 


62 


1,287 


■ 11,152,761 


5,573,401 


2,870,196 




Butter 




25 


18,999 


464,911 


95,253 






Canning and Preserving Fruits and 

Vegetables 


4 


104 


36,619 


656,581 


292,332 


Animal Foods 


4 


42 


31,498 


619,284 


160,048 




Flour and other Grain 


69 


443 


316,871 


7,594,757 


1,772,929 




Ice Cream 


32 


204 


215,312 


1,967,405 


1,048,730 




Ice Manufacture 


107 


579 


435,275 


2,626,933 


1,984,857 





THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY 

The value of the chemical industries to North Carolina has frequently been over- 
looked, yet it has been for thirty-five years one of the five leading industries in the 
State. 

The chemical industry in the South is in a large measure dependent on natural 
resources such as cotton and forest products. The growth of this industry in the State 
is shown in the following table. 

Table LXV 
GROWTH OF THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY, 1900-1933 



Year 


Number 
Plants 


Wage 
Earners 


Wages 


Value of 
Products 


Value added by 
Manufacture 


1900 


39 


991 


$ 242,387 


$ 4,174,496 


$ 696,233 


1910 


127 


2,309 


Unreported 


15,663,000 


4,051,000 


1920 


156 


4,932 


4,040,000 


80,950,000 


20,949,000 


1930 


159 


3,979 


2,960,520 


44,931,673 


12,171,761 


1933 


140 


2,965 


1,401,439 


23,007,943 


9,978,035 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 



2: 55 



Easily the most important phase of the chemical industry today is the manufacture 
of fertilizer. This industry was built in response to the demand of the southeastern 
market. Five of the Southern states (North Carolina, South Carolina, Alabama, Georgia, 
and Florida) use more than fifty per cent of all the fertilizer consumed in the United 
States, and, since fertilizer is a bulk product, heavy for its value, most of the important 
mixing plants are located in this area, close to the area devoted to the cultivation of staple 
crops. 

In 1934, the North Carolina fertilizer industry used from the commercial fisheries 
of the State around eight thousand tons of fish scrap and over four hundred thousand 
gallons of acidulated fish oil, worth almost seven hundred thousand dollars. Other states 
supplied almost an equal amount of fish scrap. Other products used were phosphates, 
cottonseed meal, lime and sulphate of ammonia, tankage, bone meal and blood, sulphur, 
nitrate of soda, cyanide, castor pomace, and pyrites. 

The industries devoted to manufacturing cottonseed oil and meal form the second 
important division of the chemical industry. There are at the present time approxim- 
ately 44 cotton oil establishments in North Carolina, with the largest plants located 
in Charlotte, Raleigh, and Goldsboro. There were two hundred and seventy-nine thou- 
sand tons of cotton seed produced in North Carolina in 1934. A good portion of this 
seed was processed locally and from it cottonseed oil and meal were manufactured. Thou- 
sands of tons of cottonseed meal are used annually in North Carolina as fertilizers and 
animal feed. 

The manufacture of patent and proprietary medicines has enjoyed considerable ex- 
pansion during the past two decades. This industry is the third ranking division of the 
chemical industry with leading production centers at Raleigh, Durham, and Greensboro. 

The other important chemical industries in North Carolina are the manufacture of 
tanning materials, illuminating and heating gas, and rayon. 

Important establishments in the chemical industries of the State appear periodically. 
The Ethyl-Dow plant at Wilmington, which extracts bromine from the sea water, is one 
of the latest industries to be established. This plant now provides more than half of the 
"ethyl fluid" universally used in gasoline mixtures to improve gasoline motor operation. 

The divisions of the chemical industry in North Carolina and their relation to 
the industry as a whole, are shown in the following table. 

Table LXVI 
DIVISIONS OF THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY, 1933 



*Division 


Number 
Plants 


Wage 
Earners 


Wages 


Value of 
Products 


Value added by 
Manufacture 


Fertilizers 


57 


1,354 


$ 534,374 


$ 9,197,123 


$ 2,438,140 


Gas, illuminating and heating 


25 


246 


287,356 


2,472,617 


1,839,742 


Oil cake and cotton seed 


41 


974 


322,926 


6,162,876 


1,838.262 




Patent and Proprietary Medicine 


12 


22<> 


161,920 


4,403,824 


3,532,981 




Tanning Materials, etc 


5 


162 


94,863 


771,503 


328,910 




Total 


140 


2,965 


$ 1,401,439 


$ 23,007,934 


$ 9,978,035 





236 North Carolina : Today and Tomorrow 

Since North Carolina is the leading state in the production of soy beans, there is 
an excellent opportunity for the development of industries for processing this crop. 
The State is also fortunate in having the type of climate and soil that is conducive to 
the growth of peanuts, the processing of which further adds to her numerous industrial 
activities. 

Few states have so varied or so plentiful a supply of raw materials needed by a grow- 
ing chemical industry. Thousands of acres of forests furnish us with products for lum- 
ber, naval stores, charcoal, acetone, industrial alcohol, and paper pulp. Three paper mills 
in the State manufacture 100 tons of paper pulp daily, rags and waste paper being used 
in conjunction with the coarser wood products for the finer grades. Other raw materials 
are livestock; milk products; hides; tan bark; tanned leather; crude oil for refining; 
workable quantities of gold, iron, tin and copper ; huge quantities of mica ; feldspar and 
kaolin for china, porcelain, pottery and enamel ware; talc for cosmetics; rubber filler, 
asphalt binder, roofing ; limestone and silica for glass ; fish scrap and gas plant products ; 
and the raw material for the enormous amount of glue used in the annual production of 
$30,000,000 worth of furniture. 

At present, about one-sixth of the manufactured products of the State are chemical 
products, and practically all other industries either use chemicals pr employ chemical 
engineering principles. The chemical output for 1933 demonstrates two facts: namely, 
that the manufacturing of pure chemicals in North Carolina has progressed beyond the 
experimental stage, and that the conversion of locally supplied raw materials into finished 
products is highly profitable. The value of products of chemical industries and of allied in- 
dustries with a non-chemical industry finished product was in 1933 : leather, $6,562,000 ; 
ice, $2,627,000; clay products, $988,000; cottonseed products, $6,163,000; fertilizers, 
$9,197,123; gas, $2,473,000; turpentine and rosin, $75,000; tanning materials, $772,000; 
rayon and silk, $32,000,000. The manufacturing, agricultural and domestic needs of the 
State at present require large quantities of chemicals, and North Carolina has every 
factor necessary for the development of the chemical industries: a pure water supply, 
a ready and active local market, supplies of skilled and common labor, an ample supply 
of power, a favorable climate, a sufficient transportation system, and a virtually 
unlimited supply of raw materials. 

The other important industries in North Carolina are: stone, clay, and glass; 
paper and paper products; railway repair shops, steam and electric; machinery, not in- 
cluding transportation equipment; leather tanned, curried and finished. The remaining 
group, because of the lack of sufficient data, are presented in tabular form. One of the 
most important of these industries is the stone, clay and glass industry. This industry 
includes the processing of semi-finished material from mines and quarries, the manufac- 
ture of brick and tile, and the finishing of mirrors for the furniture industry. There are 
more than three hundred minerals in North Caolina, and the extraction and processing 
of these minerals affords employment to the majority of those employed by the stone, 
clay and glass industry. Kaolin, clay, mica, feldspar, granite, building stone and paving 
stone, are mined in considerable quantities in the Piedmont and Mountain regions. Heavy 
clay products such as brick, tile, pottery, wall coping and sewer pipe are manufactured 
in practically all portions of the State. The accompanying table shows that in 1933 the 
manufacture of mirrors and other glass products was the most important of the stone, 



North Carolina : Today and Tomorrow 



237 



clay, and glass industry. The important plants devoted to the manufacture of mirrors 
and other glass products are located in Statesville, Hickory, High Point, and Winston- 
Salem. 

The mirror industry tends to follow the furniture industry and if present indices 
are an accurate barometer the furniture industry is going to reach a new height according 
to the value of products in 1936 and 1937. This augurs well for the mirror and other 
glass products industries. 

Table LXVII 
DIVISIONS OF THE STONE, CLAY, GLASS INDUSTRY, 1933 



Division 


Number 
Plants 


Wage 
Earners 


Wages 


Value of 
Products 


Value added by 
Manufacture 


Asbestos Products other than steam 

packing, pipe boiler covering 


5 


334 


$ 212,858 


$ 995,294 


$ 435,061 




Clay Products other than pottery 


27 


526 


234,334 


987,925 


647,471 


Concrete Products 


5 


41 


13,017 


67,111 


34,258 




Marble, Granite, Slate and other Stone 
Products 


22 


370 


294,167 


888,497 


628,121 




Mirrors and other glass products 


7 


178 


118,830 


1,095,254 


370,217 




Total 


66 


1,449 


$ 873,206 


$ 4,034,081 


$ 2,115,128 



North Carolina does not have any great publishing center but it does have, in prac- 
tically every city of considerable size, at least one print shop where a daily or weekly 
newspaper is issued. There were in 1933 ninety-seven such establishments. The number 
of newspapers and periodicals issued does not conform to the number of establishments. 
In many of the larger towns the same establishment prints two or more newspapers and 
one or more periodicals. 

The divisions of the paper and paper products industry are shown in the following 
table. 

Table LXVIII 
DIVISIONS OF PAPER AND PAPER PRODUCTS INDUSTRY 



Division 


Number 
Plants 


Wage 
Earners 


Wages 


Value of 
Products 


Value added by 
Manufacture 


Printing and publishing books, music, 

and jobs 


66 


665 


$ 671,882 


$ 2,528,244 


$ 1,602,441 




Newspaper and periodicals 


97 


901 


1,098,712 


6,106,424 


5,037,012 




Boxes and paper not elsewhere classified . . . 


12 


457 


279,223 


2,043,393 


1,017,250 


Photo enlarging not done in printing — est. . 


5 


24 


32,488 


97,072 


83,370 


Total 


180 


2,047 


$ 2,082,305 


$ 10,775,133 


$ 7,740,073 





One of the South's largest pulp mills is located at Canton, in Haywood County, North 
Carolina. 



238 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 



The accompanying tables give data on the divisions of the remaining important 
industries in North Carolina in 1933. 

Table LXIX 
DIVISIONS OF RAILWAY REPAIR SHOPS, STEAM AND ELECTRIC, INDUSTRY 



Division 


Number 
Plants 


Wage 
Earners 


Wages 


Value of 
Products 


Value added by 
Manufacture 


Railway repair shops, electric 


5 


56 


$ 49,675 


$ 83,218 


$ 54,232 


Railway repair shops, steam 


15 


2,987 


3,139,625 


6,123,796 


3,505,494 




Total 


20 


3,043 


$ 3,189,301 


$ 6,207,014 


$ 3,559,726 



Table LXX 
DIVISIONS OF MACHINERY INDUSTRY, NOT INCLUDING TRANSPORTATION 

EQUIPMENT 



Division 


Number 
Plants 


Wage 
Earners 


Wages 


Value of 
Products 


Value added by 
Manufacture 


Agricultural implements 


5 


105 


$ 74,098 


$ 305,068 


$ 218,890 


Foundry and Machine Shop products 


46 


501 


404,908 


1,255,394 


815,808 


Textile Machines and parts 


21 


266 


223,104 


949,838 


610,240 




Total 


72 


872 


$ 702,110 


$ 2,510,300 


$ 1,644,938 





Table LXXI 
LEATHER, TANNED, CURRIED AND FINISHED, INDUSTRY 



Division 


Number 
Plants 


Wage 
Earners 


Wages 


Value of 
Products 


Value added by 
Manufacture 


Leather tanned, curried and finished 


8 


912 


$ 588,225 


$ 6,561,858 


$ 2,530,191 



Table LXXII 
OTHER INDUSTRIES 



Industry 


Number 
Plants 


Wage 
Earners 


Wages 


Value of 
Products 


Value added by 
Manufacture 


Mattresses and Bed Springs 


15 


204 


$ 125,069 


$ 758,845 


$ 342,883 


Transportation Equipment 


4 


159 


105,065 


331,847 


150,163 




Sheet Metal Work 


5 


19 


16,613 


143,758 


53,182 




Structural and Ornamental metal work 
made in plants not operated in con- 
nection with rolling mills 


9 


103 


61,326 


603,935 


266,287 




Other 


115 


11,029 


7,187,112 


56,591,920 


24,481,438 




Total 


148 


11,514 


$ 7,495,185 


$ 58,430,305 


$ 25,293,953 






: Po 3 »eii 0r i Cre * 




OWNERSHIP 



<o. XXIII. 

ER XV. 



238 



North Carolina : Today and Tomorrow 



The accompanying tables give data on the divisions of the remaining important 
industries in North Carolina in 1933. 

Table LXIX 
DIVISIONS OF RAILWAY REPAIR SHOPS, STEAM AND ELECTRIC, INDUSTRY 



Division 


Number 
Plants 


Wage 
Earners 


Wages 


Value of 
Products 


Value added by 
Manufacture 


Railway repair shops, electric 


5 


56 


$ 


49,675 


$ 


83,218 


$ 54,232 


Railway repair shops, steam 


15 


2,987 


3,139,625 


6,123,796 


3,505,494 


Total 


20 


3,043 


$ 


3,189,301 


$ 


6,207,014 


$ 3,559,726 



Table LXX 
DIVISIONS OF MACHINERY INDUSTRY, NOT INCLUDING TRANSPORTATION 

EQUIPMENT 



Division 


Number 
Plants 


Wage 
Earners 


Wages 


Value of 
Products 


Value added by 
Manufacture 


Agricultural implements 


5 


105 


$ 74,098 


$ 305,068 


$ 218,890 




Foundry and Machine Shop products 


46 


501 


404,908 


1,255,394 


815,808 


Textile Machines and parts 


21 


266 


223,104 


949,838 


610,240 




Total 


72 


872 


$ 702,110 


$ 2,510,300 


$ 1,644,938 





Table LXXI 
LEATHER, TANNED, CURRIED AND FINISHED, INDUSTRY 



Division 


Number 
Plants 


Wage 
Earners 


Wages 


Value of 
Products 


Value added by 
Manufacture 


Leather tanned, curried and finished 


8 


912 


$ 588,225 


$ 6,561,858 


$ 2,530,191 



Table LXXII 
OTHER INDUSTRIES 



Industry 


Number 
Plants 


Wage 
Earners 


Wages 


Value of 
Products 


Value added by 
Manufacture 


Mattresses and Bed Springs 


15 


204 


$ 125,069 


$ 758,845 


$ 342,883 


Transportation Equipment 


4 


159 


105,065 


331,847 


150,163 




Sheet Metal Work 


5 


19 


16,613 


143,758 


53,182 




Structural and Ornamental metal work 
made in plants not operated in con- 
nection with rolling mills 


9 


103 


61,326 


603,935 


266,287 




Other 


115 


11,029 


7,187,112 


56,591,920 


24,481,438 




Total 


148 


11,514 


$ 7,495,185 


$ 58,430,305 


$ 25,293,953 









PLATE No XXIII 
CHAPTER XV 



Chapter XIV 

POWER RESOURCES 
POWER RESOURCES OF NORTH CAROLINA 

North Carolina may be considered as the center of a Southeastern Power Province, 
which contains sufficient resources in fuel power and water power to supply its own 
needs without dependence upon outside sources. The industrial development which has 
taken place in the last two decades has been largely based upon three factors : trans- 
portation facilities, both by rail and highways; labor resources; and power, which is 
cheap, plentiful, and widely distributed. 

In North Carolina, the combination of relatively high rainfall and resulting high 
stream flow, with favorable topography and foundation conditions for economic dam 
construction in the Piedmont Plateau, has resulted in large and economical developments. 
The relatively steep gradients of the rivers and streams of the Piedmont region has made 
possible an almost complete development of the hydro-electric capacity of these streams, 
while on many smaller streams, smaller water power developments have been made. 
These, whether through mechanical or electrical transformation, have been used for 
many and varied purposes. 

From a beginning in 1898 of one small hydro-electric plant on the Yadkin River 
at Idols, the development has gone forward with great rapidity. The first of the new 
developments was at the Old Catawba plant near Charlotte, where a fall of 25 feet was 
first utilized to produce a capacity of 8,000 horsepower. 

From this early and small beginning, there has developed an electrical generating 
and distributing system that reaches every corner of the State. 

As reported to the U. S. Geological Survey for December, 1935, only nine states in 
the Union exceeded North Carolina in total capacity in kilowatts, and only three, 
namely, California, New York, and Washington, had larger hydro-electric capacity. 

At this time there were reported 83 electrical generating plants, operated by 31 
companies, with a total capacity of 983,907 kilowatts. This total was distributed 
according to the type of prime mover, as follows : 

Type Plants Capacity 

Water 49 643,487 Kw. 

Steam 22 326,300 Kw. 

Internal Combustion 6 3,919 Kw. 

Combinations 6 10,201 Kw. 

Total 83 983,907 Kw. 

This list refers only to plants generating electricity for public use. 

These plants generated during the year 1935 a total of 2,319,844,000 kilowatt hours 
of electrical energy. The monthly production varied from a low value in June of 
169,398,000 kilowatt hours, to a maximum of 222,378,000 kilowatt hours in December. 
Of this total energy production, 2,150,773 kilowatt hours, or 92.7 per cent, were 
produced by water power. 

For the period of twelve months ending October 1, 1936, the production for pub- 
lic use was reported as 2,718,908,000 kilowatt hours, an increase of 17.2 per cent over 
the January-December total for the year ending December 31, 1935. 



240 North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 

The U. S. Geological Survey reports for January 1, 1934, a total of 124 water wheels 
at water power plants of 100 horsepower or more. Comparison of the reported total 
capacity with that reported for plants for public use, indicate that there are upwards of 
eighty plants with a capacity of 87,000 horsepower operating for private power uses. 

Power Systems 

Reference to the accompanying map will show that the principal private utilities 
producing and distributing electric power in North Carolina are six in number, namely, 
the Duke Power Company, serving the Piedmont region; the Carolina Power and Light 
Company, which serves chiefly the central and southeastern sections of the State, but 
also operates in the territory about Asheville; the Tidewater Power Company, in the 
Wilmington area; the Virginia Electric and Power Company, serving principally the 
northeastern section of the State; the Northwest Carolina Utilities Company and the 
Nantahala Power and Light Company, serving areas in the Mountain section. To these 
may be added the Carolina Aluminum Company, which has a generating capacity 
second only to the Duke Power Company, and has connections with other 
systems permitting delivery of energy when needed. 

The Duke Power Company operates the following steam generating stations which 
are maintained as reserve and to supplement hydro-electric power in periods of high 
demand. 

Plant Capacity 

Eno 40,230 H. P. 

Buck 93,900 H. P. 

Mt. Holly 20,120 H. P. 

Riverbend 147,500 H. P. 



Total 301,750 H. P. 

This same Company operates twenty-six hydro-electric stations, chief among which 
are the five plants on the Catawba River : 

Plant Capacity 

Bridgewater 26,800 H. P. 

Rhodhiss 34,200 H. P. 

Oxford Shoals 48,200 H. P. 

Lookout Shoals 25,100 H. P. 

Mt. Island 80,500 H. P. 



Total 214,800 H. P. 

In addition to these the Company operates many smaller plants, the capacity of which 
is given in horsepower as follows: 

Turner 7,400 Lake Tahoma 320 

Tuxedo 6,700 Big Hungry No. 1 270 

Lake Lure 4,830 Carters Falls 240 

Idols 1,890 Allspaugh 240 

Spencer Mt 860 Catawba Falls No. 2 240 

Walnut Cove 730 Ararat No. 1 215 

Little River 670 Catawba Falls No. 1 160 

Ararat No. 3 670 Big Hungry No. 2 135 

Ararat No. 2 600 Gunpowder No. 2 130 

Gunpowder No. 1 540 Chatham 120 

Toms Creek 100 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 241 

These thirty plants have a combined total capacity of 543,710. Plans are being 
completed for increasing the capacity of the Riverbend steam plant by addition of new 
units, adding probably 40,000 horsepower to the capacity of this company. 

The Carolina Power and Light Company has two steam plants located at Cape 
Fear and Elk Mountain, with capacity of 40,200 and 17,500 horsepower, respectively. 
This Company operates ten hydro-electric plants with a total capacity of 276,250 horse- 
power. The largest hydro-electric installations are at Waterville on Pigeon River (144,- 
700 H. P.), Tillery on the Pee Dee River (83,200 H. P.), and Blewetts Falls on the 
Pee Dee (33,000 H. P.) The following minor stations are also operated: 

Buckhorn 3,900 H.P. Marshall 4,000 H.P. 

Lockville 1,350 H.P. Weaverville 3,350 H.P. 

Carbonton 1,350 H.P. Lower Plant 600 H.P. 

Eury 800 H.P. 

The Virginia Electric and Power Company now operates one hydro-electric station 
in North Carolina, at Roanoke Rapids, with a capacity of 7,300 horsepower. A steam 
plant at Roanoke Rapids with a capacity of 2,670 horsepower is available but not in 
present use. This Company has extensive connections with other generating stations of 
their own and of other companies. 

The Nantahala Power and Light Company maintains hydro-electric stations 
at Franklin (1,300 H.P.), and Andrews (1,500 H.P.), and serves other communities in 
that region. The Tidewater Power Company has steam plants at Wilmington (15,000 
H.P.), Morehead City (1,400 H.P.), and Beaufort (760 H.P.) The Northwest Carolina 
Utilities Company has hydro-electric plants at Burnsville, Blowing Rock, and Sharps 
Fall with a total capacity of 1,300 horsepower, and Diesel engine plants at Burnsville, 
Blowing Rock, and West Jefferson with a total capacity of 1,165 horsepower, a total for 
the Company of 2,465 horsepower. 

The Carolina Aluminum Company operates the following plants : 

Plant Capacity 

Falls (Pee Dee) 28,980 H.P. 

Narrows (Pee Dee) 108,000 H.P. 

High Rock (Pee Dee) 44,100 H.P. 

Cheoah 107,200 H.P. 

Santeetlah 67,000 H.P. 

Several cities of eastern North Carolina have developed successful and economic 
power plants as municipal enterprises. All of these plants have found it necessary to 
increase their capacities in recent years, and present an interesting example in the field 
of public operation and ownership of electrical utilities. The most important of this 
group are listed below, all but Farmville being steam plants. 

Plant Capacity 

Wilson 11,700 H.P. 

Rocky Mount 7,500 H.P. (2,250 H.P. stand-by) 

Kinston 6,700 H.P. 

Greenville 6,030 H.P. 

Washington 5.000 H.P. 

New Bern 3,500 H.P. 

Farmville 1,675 H.P. (Diesel) 



242 North Carolina : Today and Tomorrow 

The Carolina Power and Light Company, the Duke Power Company, the Tidewater 
Power Company, and the Virginia Electric and Power Company are so inter-con- 
nected and have such contracts for exchange of power that the entire system of all four 
companies may be considered as one system. Three of these also have connections with 
other systems in adjoining states, which may be called upon for power in case of 
emergency or shortage and to which surplus power may be delivered. 

Potential Power Development 

Reference to the foregoing chapter on Water Resources will show that there is a 
total of nearly 800,000 horsepower potentially available on the basins there enumerated. 
The Corps of Engineers, U. S. Army, have completed surveys and studies on all the 
streams of the State, and have estimated the power possibilities to be found thereon. Ac- 
cording to their estimates, corrected for sites since developed, there is 1,035,000 horse- 
power of undeveloped water power in the State. 

It should be noted here that the extraordinary advances made in recent years in 
the efficiency of steam-power production makes necessary a careful appraisal of the 
economies possible by a combination of hydro-electric and steam electric installations. 
Considering that the unit coal consumption average for all plants in 1933 had fallen 
to 46 per cent of the 1919 average, and that every year shows a steady increase in fuel 
efficiency, the possibilities of steam power development made co-ordinately with hydro- 
electric development as parts of an interconnected system are found to be increasingly 
indicated. 

Having regard also to the current multiple demands on stream flows for naviga- 
tion, for dilution of municipal and industrial wastes, the location of a proposed power 
plant must take into consideration many factors. The location relative to the center of 
power demand, its adaptability to the load characteristics of the market it is to serve, 
the accrued carrying charges on the investment while awaiting the development of this 
market, and the effect of its water use on the water supply for other demands, are some 
of the more important factors to be considered. 

Adequate consideration must be given also the relation of the power development, 
not only with the other resources of the State, but also for the larger region of which 
the State is only a part. Power distribution knows no state boundaries. 

Rates for Electrical Service 

The following schedules are offered to show prevailing rates for domestic service 
by three of the larger Public Utility Companies. 

To illustrate the comparison between the rates for various monthly consumption of 
electricity, the following table has been prepared : 

Table LXXIV 
Comparative Rates for Major Power Companies in North Carolina 



Electricity Used 


Car. P. & L. 


Co. 


Tidewater P. 


Co. 


Duke P. Co 


10 Kwh. 


$ 1.00 (M)* 


$ 1.00 


(M) 


* 


$ .80 (IV 


50 Kwh. 


3.00 




3.55 






2.50 


100 Kwh. 


5.00 




5.30 






3.75 


200 Kwh. 


7.50 




7.80 






6.25 


300 Kwh. 


9.50 




10.05 






8.75 


500 Kwh. 


12.50 




14.05 






13.75 


1,000 Kwh. 


20.00 




24.05 






26.25 



"Minimum monthly charge. 



North Carolina : Today and Tomorrow 243 

The following figures show prevailing rates for commercial and industrial service 
by the larger Public Utility Companies : 

DUKE POWER COMPANY 

80 cents for first 10 Kwh. or less used 

4.5 cents per Kwh. for next 90 Kw. hrs. used 

4 cents per Kwh. for next 400 Kw. hrs. used 

3 cents per Kwh. for next 500 Kw. hrs. used 
2.5 cents per Kwh. for next 1,000 Kw. hrs. used 

1.9 cents per Kwh. for next 2,000 and over Kw. hrs. used 
Monthly Minimum Charge: 80 cents 

CAROLINA POWER AND LIGHT COMPANY 

6.5 cents per Kwh. for first 150 Kw. hrs. used 

5 cents per Kwh. for next 750 Kw. hrs. used 

4 cents per Kwh. for next 1,500 Kw. hrs. used 

3 cents per Kwh. for all additional Kw. hrs. used 
Monthly Minimum Charge: $1.00 

TIDEWATER POWER COMPANY 

8 cents per Kwh. for first 50 Kw. hrs. use billing demand 
6.5 cents per Kwh. for next 50 kw. hrs. use billing demand 

4 cents per Kwh. for next 1,000 Kw. hrs. used 

2.5 cents per Kwh. for all additional Kw. hrs. used 

Minimum Charge: $2.00 per month per Kw. of billing demand but not less than $1.20 

VIRGINIA ELECTRIC AND POWER COMPANY 
6.5 cents per Kwh. for first 100 Kw. hrs. used 
5.5 cents per Kwh. for next 150 Kw. hrs. used 
4 cents per Kwh. for next 450 Kw. hrs. used 
3.25 cents per Kwh. for next 1,500 Kw. hrs. used 
2.75 cents per Kwh. for next 7,800 Kw. hrs. used 
1.5 cents per Kwh. for next 15,000 Kw. hrs. used 
1.125 cents per Kwh. for excess of 25,000 Kw. hrs. used 

RURAL ELECTRIFICATION 

In 1934, the North Carolina Rural Electrification Survey, under the direction of a 
Committee, appointed by Governor J. C. B. Ehringhaus, of which Dr. Clarence Poe of 
Raleigh was Chairman, made a survey of the entire State to determine the possible 
extension of rural electric service. The survey, made under the direction of D. S. 
Weaver and C. W. Burton, Assistant, was comprehensive, and the following figures are 
taken from the revised summary of that survey: 

Number of Lines Surveyed 1,011 

Length of Surveyed Lines, Miles 6,001.6 

Total Number Interested Prospects 32,058 

Connected Load (Estimated) 104,939 Kw. 

Cost of Construction (Estimated) $9,912,888 

Annual Revenue (Estimated) $1,058,572 

Annual Power Consumption (Estimated) 15,810,177 Kw. hrs. 

Average Ratio Cost to Annual Revenue 9.36 

The General Assembly of 1935 created the North Carolina Rural Electrification 
Authority, which was organized and began work under the direction of Mr. Dudley 
Bagley. The same Legislature passed acts authorizing the formation of Membership Elec- 
trification Corporations, and provided laws permitting co-operation with the Federal 
Rural Electrification Authority. With the co-operation and direction of the State 
Authority, the Public Utility Companies, Municipalities, and the Membership Corpora- 
tions have rapidly extended their construction of rural power lines in the State, as shown 
by the figures on the following page. 



244 North Carolina : Today and Tomorrow 

Total Miles of Line Built 1,879.71 

By Public Utility Companies 1,439.57 

By Municipalities 393.54 

By N. C. FERA 22.60 

By Lees-McRae College 4.00 

By Co-operatives 20.00 

Lines Under Construction 629.08 

By Public Utility Companies 452.58 

By Municipalities 8.50 

By Co-operatives 40.00 

By Tidewater Power Company 128.00 

Lines Authorized 2,118.01 

By Public Utility Companies 1,158.51 

By Municipalities 27.60 

By Co-operatives 931.90 

Total Mileage All Lines 4,626.80 

Total Construction Cost (Estimated) $4,897,269.98 

Total Customers Served 26,062 

By Lines Built 10,452 

By Lines Building 3,777 

By Authorized Lines 11,833 

It will be seen by these figures that the rural power lines already built, under con- 
struction, and authorized, are 77.9 per cent of the length of lines surveyed in the original 
investigation. This is significant as measuring both the successful activity of the State 
Authority and the desire of the rural people for the benefits of electric service. This 
necessarily involves a tremendous expenditure on the part of these 26,000 new customers, 
for house wiring and fixtures and for the purchase of electric farm and home equipment, 
such as radios, refrigerators, and household appliances. 



Colends* 



k,-i 



jogger hi 



Jasper 



244 North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 

Total Miles of Line Built 1,879.71 

By Public Utility Companies 1,439.57 

By Municipalities 393.54 

By N. C. FERA 22.60 

By Lees-McRae College 4.00 

By Co-operatives 20.00 

Lines Under Construction 629.08 

By Public Utility Companies 452.58 

By Municipalities 8.50 

By Co-operatives 40.00 

By Tidewater Power Company 128.00 

Lines Authorized 2,118.01 

By Public Utility Companies 1,158.51 

By Municipalities 27.60 

By Co-operatives 931.90 

Total Mileage All Lines 4,626.80 

Total Construction Cost (Estimated) $4,897,269.98 

Total Customers Served 26,062 

By Lines Built 10,452 

By Lines Building 3,777 

By Authorized Lines 11,833 

It will be seen by these figures that the rural power lines already built, under con- 
struction, and authorized, are 77.9 per cent of the length of lines surveyed in the original 
investigation. This is significant as measuring both the successful activity of the State 
Authority and the desire of the rural people for the benefits of electric service. This 
necessarily involves a tremendous expenditure on the part of these 26,000 new customers, 
for house wiring and fixtures and for the purchase of electric farm and home equipment, 
such as radios, refrigerators, and household appliances. 






Chapter XV 

TRANSPORTATION AND COMMUNICATION 
HIGHWAYS 

One of the fundamental requirements for the development of the resources of any 
area is an adequate system of transportation. In this respect, North Carolina may un- 
doubtedly be classed as one of the most progressive states of the Union. 

At the beginning of the present century the transportation facilities consisted 
principally of railways, of which there was a network of lines reaching almost every 
section of the State. This was supplemented by a limited mileage of navigable streams 
along the coast, chiefly on the Roanoke, Neuse and Cape Fear rivers, and the coastal 
sounds. Wilmington, New Bern, and Washington were the chief shipping points, Wil- 
mington far outranking the others. Paved or hard surface roads were few and far be- 
tween, and limited to the larger cities and for short distances therefrom. 

As late as 1911, out of an estimated mileage of public roads of over 48,000 miles, 
only 1,175 miles were macadamized, while 1,502 miles of sand-clay and 683 miles of 
gravel road were reported. At this time less than 90 miles of roads with special surfaces 
were in existence, and these were located in eight counties. 

Due to the continued efforts of the Good Roads Association, beginning in 1905, 
interest in good roads slowly developed until in 1911 the Legislature provided for the 
"Central Highway," extending from Morehead City to Tennessee. The first State High- 
way Commission was appointed in 1915, but because of limited appropriations acted 
only in an advisory capacity. 

Real highway construction began with the passage of the 1919 Highway Law, which 
greatly increased the financial resources for highway building. This Commission, in 
the two years of its existence, completed 200 miles of improved highways and started 
construction on 650 miles. In 1921, the Highway Commission was enlarged, its duties 
changed and a bond issue of $50,000,000 authorized for construction purposes. 

Thus was begun the gradual transfer of responsibility for both construction and 
maintenance of public roads, from the local communities to the county, and from the 
county to the State. North Carolina is now the only State in the Nation which maintains 
all public roads without resort to a tax on property. 

Since the State began the construction of public roads and highway structures neces- 
sary in connection therewith, a total investment of more than $210,000,000 has been 
made in the primary roads, through the close of the fiscal year, June 30, 1936. These 
funds were derived as follows: 

Bond Sales $115,000,000.00 

United States Government 41,832,888.10 

Contributions 11,796,000.47 

Loans from Counties, net balance 2,151,001.46 

Surplus from State Revenue 39,984,321.92 

Total $210,764,211.95 

The bonds issued for road purposes are being paid serially, out of revenue derived 
from taxes on the sale of gasoline. The last bond issue for these purposes was that of 
1927, in the amount of $30,000,000. The reduction of this debt has been steadily accom- 
plished. At present $92,796,000 is outstanding of these obligations, with a sinking fund 
of $8,369,827, making the net bonded State debt for highways $84,426,173. 




246 North Carolina : Today and Tomorrow 

In the tables given below, the State Highway System is considered to include the 
numbered routes of principal highways as shown on the State Highway Map attached 
hereto. The total length of these roads, of all types of surface, is 11,066.51 miles. 

The county system represents those roads which are included within the so-called 
County Road System of the State. These highways are not numbered and are not shown 
on the map of Highways above referred to. The expenditures listed above are the 
expenditures for the State System solely. 

Table LXXV 

NORTH CAROLINA HIGHWAY SYSTEM 

State County 

Type Surface (Miles) (Miles) Total 

Unimproved 197.15 9,943.55 10,140.70 

Graded 618.15 19,963.16 20,581.31 

Topsoil or Sand Clay 1,666.46 14,533.63 16,200.09 

Gravel 332.70 1,144.30 1,477.00 

Shale 55.10 70.10 125.20 

Traffic Bound Macadam 106.02 409.40 515.42 

Oil Treated 2,353.01 563.62 2,916.63 

Surface Treated Gravel 337.70 337.70 

Surface Treated Macadam 514.12 24.60 538.72 

Penetration Macadam 84.20 121.15 205.35 

Brick 9.40 32.60 42.00 

Asohalt 1,828.55 168.15 • 1,996.70 

Concrete 2,702.09 168.79 2,870.88 

Bridges over 500 feet in length 22.13 2.50 24.63 

In cities 239.73 239.73 

Total 11,066.51 47,145.55 58,212.06 

As a result of this remarkable era of highway improvement, almost every section 
of the State is now accessible throughout the entire year, over improved all-weather 
roads. There remain now only a few sparsely settled areas into which these modern 
highways do not reach. Some areas present unusual engineering difficulties which have 
first to be o\ercome. 

For example, in the eastern part of the State, the sounds and wide rivers penetrate 
deeply into the land area, and dependence was formerly placed upon ferries for crossing 
these waters. At first private interests built bridges across the Chowan River, Curri- 
tuck and Roanoke sounds, and Wrightsville Sound, leading to Wrightsville Beach. These 
and many other such toll conveniences have now been purchased by the State and made 
free, thus greatly facilitating travel to and from the regions formerly somewhat isolated. 
Similarly in the mountain areas, where road location and construction is more difficult 
and expensive, roads have been built into every county and to all important communi- 
ties, until all are now readily accessible by automobile. 

With the rapidly increasing automobile traffic, important roads have been straight- 
ened and widened, timber structures replaced by concrete and steel bridges and viaducts, 
curves eliminated, obstructions removed, roadsides beautified and landscaped, unsightly 
and eroding side slopes have been flattened, culverts widened, ditches reconstructed, 
until the entire system merits and receives praise from all users. 

Not the least significant fact about this highway development is the high degree of 
technical skill employed, which has resulted in the use of the best materials, excellent and 
economic design, and honest construction. The faithful performance of public duty, over 
a long period of time and involving the expenditure of a vast sum of money, with no 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 247 

slightest suggestion of impropriety, has set a high standard of public service. While 
many men have given loyally and untiringly of their time and thought, none gave more 
zealously or splendidly than Frank Page, for more than ten years Chairman and chief 
executive officer of the Highway Commission. It is very fitting that the 1935 General 
Assembly appointed a Commission to erect a memorial in his honor. 

Perhaps the most striking development in the highways of the State at the present 
time is the building of the Parkway in the mountains of western North Carolina. 
Designed to extend from the Shenandoah National Park in Virginia, to the Great Smoky 
Mountains National Park, this scenic highway will follow along the very highest part of 
the Blue Ridge Mountains to the Smoky Mountains, thence into Tennessee. Some of the 
finest mountain scenery in the United States will thus be brought within reach of every 
traveller who may desire to use and enjoy the privilege. Sufficient right-of-way has been 
obtained on either side of the road to insure the development of a true Parkway. Much 
of the road is now under construction, and when completed, this will become one of 
the greatest scenic resources of the State. 

Similarly in the eastern part of the State, roads are being developed, reaching to 
hitherto almost inaccessible areas along the barrier reefs and the areas bordering on 
the Pamlico and Albemarle sounds. Thus will soon be opened up, even more than at 
present, one of the finest game fishing and hunting areas in the country. Long a sport 
which only a few could have the means to enjoy, good roads have now made this the 
common privilege of all. 

Included in the highway system of the State are of course the important North- 
South and East-West Federal Highways, upon which tourists in ever increasing num- 
bers and from every part of the country come, to enjoy the splendid climate, interesting 
historical and scenic points, and the many resorts to be found in North Carolina. 

But still more significant for the development of the Commonwealth is the vast 
network of county roads reaching to the farms, mines, and forests, bringing not only a 
greater development of natural resources but bringing also to the rural people the pos- 
sibility of a life richer in opportunities for a higher standard of culture and in social 
contacts. 

The next great necessity will be the permanent improvement of the lesser roads, 
and the increased problems of maintenance of existing roads. 

To these tasks, the State is now addressing its attention. North Carolina may well 
be called "A Good Roads State." 

MOTOR TRANSPORTATION 

Close upon the completion of through routes on the highways came the development 
of motor freight and passenger services. Here as elsewhere these lines have been keen 
competitors to the railroads, and have become important carriers for short-haul service 
on all commodities and have made heavy inroads in the long-haul traffic in many com- 
modities, particularly in less than carload lots. 

There are now sixty-six licensed public motor freight and passenger companies 
with established routes engaged in intrastate operation. Of these, twenty-four provide 
passenger service on regular schedule, under the supervision of the State Utilities Com- 
mission. At least four of the motor lines are owned and operated by railways, in con- 
junction with their rail operations. 



248 North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 

Many of these bus lines serve to supplement the railroad service in reaching into 
isolated regions, and provide alternative shipping facilities for many communities of the 
State. Included in the list also are many through passenger and freight lines engaged 
in interstate traffic service, giving almost all parts of the State access to the north, south, 
and west. 

RAILWAY TRANSPORTATION FACILITIES 

One important factor in the rapid industrial development of North Carolina has 
been the excellent system of railroads which covers the State and reaches into prac- 
tically every county. Three great trunk lines, the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad, the 
Southern Railway, and the Seaboard Air Line Railway, extend entirely across the State, 
and have numerous branch lines connecting with their main lines. 

The Norfolk Southern Railroad crosses the center of the State in a general east 
and west course, extending from Norfolk to Charlotte. Two other important trunk 
lines have branches in the State, while there are now more than thirty independent 
short lines operating wholly within the State. 

It will thus be easily seen that North Carolina compares favorably with other 
southern states with reference to rail transportation. The railroads have shared the 
experiences of roads in other sections, in reduction of freight and passenger traffic, 
necesitating decrease in rail mileages. Several short lines have been entirely abandoned, 
but the total mileage of railroads in the State has not changed greatly. 

The tabulation given below gives outstanding facts concerning the railways: 

Total Operated Mileage, December 31, 1933 5,246.93 

Main Track Mileage 4,800 

Cost of Road and Equipment $ 300,962,900 

Funded Debt 126,216,375 

Capital Stock 99,181,758 

Operating Revenue 47,306,264 

Net Operating Income 10,815,609 

Studies made on ten of the principal roads, involving 4,229.23 miles of operated 
track, for the year ending December 31, 1933, show the following facts: 

Revenue Ton-Miles 2,556,789,526 

Revenue Ton-Miles per mile of road 604,528 

Number Revenue Passengers 2,131,635 

Revenue Passenger-Miles 163,822,041 

Number Revenue Passengers carried one mile 3,166 

Revenue Passenger-Miles per mile of road 38,735 

Percentage Total Mileage in Study 81 

The Atlantic Coast Line reaches approximately thirty counties in the eastern por- 
tion of the State, operating 1,053 miles of main track, of which the Company owns out- 
right 1,010 miles. The Seaboard Air Line Railway operates approximately 628 miles of 
main track, all of which it owns. The Southern Railway has a total operating mileage 
of 1,080 miles of main track. 

The Norfolk-Southern Railway now operates 814 miles, of which 628 miles is 
owned outright. 

The Norfolk and Western Railroad enters the State in two places, connecting to 
Durham from Lynchburg, and to Winston-Salem from Roanoke. These two lines repre- 
sent 112 miles of main line track, all owned by this Company. 




Dothan 



PLATE No XXV 
CHAPTER XVI. 



248 North Carolina : Today and Tomorrow 

Many of these bus lines serve to supplement the railroad service in reaching into 
isolated regions, and provide alternative shipping facilities for many communities of the 
State. Included in the list also are many through passenger and freight lines engaged 
in interstate traffic service, giving almost all parts of the State access to the north, south, 
and west. 

RAILWAY TRANSPORTATION FACILITIES 

One important factor in the rapid industrial development of North Carolina has 
been the excellent system of railroads which covers the State and reaches into prac- 
tically every county. Three great trunk lines, the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad, the 
Southern Railway, and the Seaboard Air Line Railway, extend entirely across the State, 
and have numerous branch lines connecting with their main lines. 

The Norfolk Southern Railroad crosses the center of the State in a general east 
and west course, extending from Norfolk to Charlotte. Two other important trunk 
lines have branches in the State, while there are now more than thirty independent 
short lines operating wholly within the State. 

It will thus be easily seen that North Carolina compares favorably with other 
southern states with reference to rail transportation. The railroads have shared the 
experiences of roads in other sections, in reduction of freight and passenger traffic, 
necesitating decrease in rail mileages. Several short lines have been entirely abandoned, 
but the total mileage of railroads in the State has not changed greatly. 

The tabulation given below gives outstanding facts concerning the railways: 

Total Operated Mileage, December 31, 1933 5,246.93 

Main Track Mileage 4,800 

Cost of Road and Equipment $ 300,962,900 

Funded Debt 126,216,375 

Capital Stock 99,181,758 

Operating Revenue 47,306,264 

Net Operating Income 10,815,609 

Studies made on ten of the principal roads, involving 4,229.23 miles of operated 
track, for the year ending December 31, 1933, show the following facts: 

Revenue Ton-Miles 2,556,789,526 

Revenue Ton-Miles per mile of road 604,528 

Number Revenue Passengers 2,131,635 

Revenue Passenger-Miles 163,822,041 

Number Revenue Passengers carried one mile 3,166 

Revenue Passenger-Miles per mile of road 38,735 

Percentage Total Mileage in Study 81 

The Atlantic Coast Line reaches approximately thirty counties in the eastern por- 
tion of the State, operating 1,053 miles of main track, of which the Company owns out- 
right 1,010 miles. The Seaboard Air Line Railway operates approximately 628 miles of 
main track, all of which it owns. The Southern Railway has a total operating mileage 
of 1,080 miles of main track. 

The Norfolk-Southern Railway now operates 814 miles, of which 628 miles is 
owned outright. 

The Norfolk and Western Railroad enters the State in two places, connecting to 
Durham from Lynchburg, and to Winston- Salem from Roanoke. These two lines repre- 
sent 112 miles of main line track, all owned by this Company. 






North Carolina : Today and Tomorrow 249 

Other smaller lines operating more than fifty miles of track are shown below: 

Company Miles Track Operated 

Carolina and Northwestern Ry. Co. 87 

Clinchfield Railroad Co. 117 

Yadkin Railroad Co. 51 

Winston-Salem Southbound Ry. Co BO 

Durham and Southern Ry. Co. 57 

Virginia and Carolina Southern Railroad Co 53 

It is interesting to note that the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad, the Seaboard Air Line 
Railway, and Southern Railway reach many other Southern States and have direct lines 
or connections to Washington, D. C, and other northern points. 

Connections through the Norfolk and Western Railway and by the Southern Rail- 
way to Tennessee points, give outlet to western lines, additional outlets in this direction 
being over the Virginian Railway and the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad, to the Ohio 
Valley. The Southern Railway reaches as far west as Chicago, through ownership of 
half interest, with the Louisville and Nashville Railroad, in the Monon Line, operating 
between Louisville and Chicago. The Atlantic Coast Line Railway, since it owns a con- 
trolling interest in the Louisville and Nashville Railroad, has this same advantage. 

This is important to the State, since these two connecting southern lines permit 
direct competition, in reaching this great western market area, with transcontinental 
lines from eastern metropolitan centers. 

RAILROAD RATES 

North Carolina lies in the Southern Region as far as rate structures go, the Official 
Classification Territory including only the rail lines across the southern part of Vir- 
ginia. For many years, therefore, the South has had to overcome an adverse differential 
as compared to states in the northern freight rate area. 

However, since freight rates on shipments from the South into the Official Classi- 
fication Territory, are composite rates representing the proportionate distances in areas 
of high and low rates, North Carolina has always enjoyed the advantage of her relatively 
close location to Official territory. Thus the proportion of high tariff haulage in North 
Carolina, for shipments out of the State has been lower than that for states to the 
south, making the average total rate smaller than for other southern states. Since the 
Interstate Commerce Commission has had control over intrastate rates as well as inter- 
state tariffs, rates on east-west intrastate shipments have also been relatively higher in 
many cases than out-of-state shipments to these same points. Recent decisions of the 
Interstate Commerce Commission, relative to the continuance of emergency intrastate 
rates, point to the hope that the adverse rate differential under which the Southern 
Region has been forced to operate may soon be entirely removed. 

In summary, while no attempt is here made to set forth the exceedingly complex 
situation as to the freight rates themselves, it may be very conservatively stated that 
North Carolina, in general, has as low or lower freight rates as any other Southern state. 

PULLMAN SERVICE 

The Pullman Company operated Pullman car services over 1,394 miles of railroad 
in North Carolina in 1935. 

They report earnings in intrastate service of $18,594 for the year, and paid taxes in 
the total amount of $6,488. 



250 North Carolina : Today and Tomorrow 

EXPRESS COMPANIES 

There were two Express Companies doing business in North Carolina in 1935. The 
largest of these, the Railway Express Agency, operated on 2,754 miles of steam roads, 
26.6 miles of electric lines, 171 miles on motor bus lines, and 87.0 miles on gas motor 
railway, a total of 3,038.65 miles. This is approximately 1.2 per cent of the total mileage 
operated by this Company. No details are available for toaffic carried in North Carolina. 

The Southeastern Express Company operated in 1935 on 1,353 miles of steam roads 
and 197 miles of other roads, a total of 1,550 miles, representing 14.7 per cent of the 
total mileage operated by this Company. Taxes paid in North Carolina during the year 
amounted to $32,549. 

WATERWAYS AND TERMINALS 

North Carolina now has two ports of entry for ocean-going vessels, at Wilmington 
on the Cape Fear River, and at Morehead City. 

Wilmington was for many years the only terminal to which deep-draft vessels had 
access, since the depths of water over the bars at the various inlets through the barrier 
reefs was nowhere else sufficient to pass any but light-draft coastwise steamers. 

Dredging over the bars at the mouth of the Cape Fear River permitted a channel 
depth of thirty feet at this point, and there developed a very considerable volume of 
export and import shipment at this port. Excellent railroad connections made this an ex- 
cellent port, through which this volume of freight moved to and from the entire State. 
In more recent years the thirty-foot channel has been maintained to the railroad 
terminals at this point. 

In 1935 and 1936, a channel of similar depth and adequate width for ocean-going 
vessels was dredged through Beaufort Inlet to a harbor and turning basin at Morehead 
City. With the assistance of a loan and grants by the Public Works Administration, a 
freight terminal has been completed at this point, connecting also with the Intracoastal 
Waterway, thus providing the State with an additional port which promises to become 
an important part of the transportation facilities. Rail connection is provided here by 
the Atlantic and North Carolina Railroad, from Beaufort and Morehead City to New 
Bern, Kinston, and Goldsboro. By means of this road and its continuation through the 
North Carolina Railroad now operated by the Southern Railway System, connection is 
made with the through north-south trunk lines of the Seaboard Airline Railway at 
Raleigh and the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad at New Bern, Kinston, Goldsboro, and Selma. 

Excellent dock and storage facilities are available to shippers at both Wilmington 
and Morehead City, and from both places rail connections and hard surface highways give 
ready access to all parts of the State. These improvements place North Carolina ports 
in direct competition with the ports at Norfolk, Va., and Charleston, S. C. 

Within the last year (1936), the construction of Lock and Dam No. 3 at Tolars 
Landing on the Cape Fear River makes slack-water navigation possible as far as Fayette- 
ville. Here the construction of a dock and terminal completes facilities for developing 
water-borne traffic at this point. 

Another great addition to the waterway facilities of North Carolina was made by 
the opening of the Intracoastal Waterway, or Inland Waterway, as it is sometimes called. 
Entering Currituck Sound from Chesapeake Bay, this Waterway traverses Albemarle 



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250 North Carolina : Today and Tomorrow 

EXPRESS COMPANIES 

There were two Express Companies doing business in North Carolina in 1935. The 
largest of these, the Railway Express Agency, operated on 2,754 miles of steam roads, 
26.6 miles of electric lines, 171 miles on motor bus lines, and 87.0 miles on gas motor 
railway, a total of 3,038.65 miles. This is approximately 1.2 per cent of the total mileage 
operated by this Company. No details are available for traffic carried in North Carolina. 

The Southeastern Express Company operated in 1935 on 1,353 miles of steam roads 
and 197 miles of other roads, a total of 1,550 miles, representing 14.7 per cent of the 
total mileage operated by this Company. Taxes paid in North Carolina during the year 
amounted to $32,549. 

WATERWAYS AND TERMINALS 

North Carolina now has two ports of entry for ocean-going vessels, at Wilmington 
on the Cape Fear River, and at Morehead City. 

Wilmington was for many years the only terminal to which deep-draft vessels had 
access, since the depths of water over the bars at the various inlets through the barrier 
reefs was nowhere else sufficient to pass any but light-draft coastwise steamers. 

Dredging over the bars at the mouth of the Cape Fear River permitted a channel 
depth of thirty feet at this point, and there developed a very considerable volume of 
export and import shipment at this port. Excellent railroad connections made this an ex- 
cellent port, through which this volume of freight moved to and from the entire State. 
In more recent years the thirty-foot channel has been maintained to the railroad 
terminals at this point. 

In 1935 and 1936, a channel of similar depth and adequate width for ocean-going 
vessels was dredged through Beaufort Inlet to a harbor and turning basin at Morehead 
City. With the assistance of a loan and grants by the Public Works Administration, a 
freight terminal has been completed at this point, connecting also with the Intracoastal 
Waterway, thus providing the State with an additional port which promises to become 
an important part of the transportation facilities. Rail connection is provided here by 
the Atlantic and North Carolina Railroad, from Beaufort and Morehead City to New 
Bern, Kinston, and Goldsboro. By means of this road and its continuation through the 
North Carolina Railroad now operated by the Southern Railway System, connection is 
made with the through north-south trunk lines of the Seaboard Airline Railway at 
Raleigh and the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad at New Bern, Kinston, Goldsboro, and Selma. 

Excellent dock and storage facilities are available to shippers at both Wilmington 
and Morehead City, and from both places rail connections and hard surface highways give 
ready access to all parts of the State. These improvements place North Carolina ports 
in direct competition with the ports at Norfolk, Va., and Charleston, S. C. 

Within the last year (1936), the construction of Lock and Dam No. 3 at Tolars 
Landing on the Cape Fear River makes slack-water navigation possible as far as Fayette- 
ville. Here the construction of a dock and terminal completes facilities for developing 
water-borne traffic at this point. 

Another great addition to the waterway facilities of North Carolina was made by 
the opening of the Intracoastal Waterway, or Inland Waterway, as it is sometimes called. 
Entering Currituck Sound from Chesapeake Bay, this Waterway traverses Albemarle 



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PLATE No XXVI 
CHAPTER XVI 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 251 

Sound, Alligator River, Pungo River, Pamlico Sound, crosses Carteret County to Beau- 
fort, and thence follows Bogue Sound and a channel cut through the shallow sounds 
behind the "banks" to the Waccamaw River and South Carolina points. Depths in this 
channel as now provided are as follows: from Norfolk, Va., to Wrightsville Causeway, 
12 feet; from Wrightsville Causeway to Cape Fear River, 10.5 feet; thence to Little 
River, S. C, 8.0 feet, the depth in the Cape Fear River channel proper being thirty 
feet. Connecting with the rivers and sounds along the entire length of the coast, with 
rail connections at Belhaven, Beaufort, Wilmington, and Southport, this Waterway is 
destined to play an ever increasing part in the development of the coastal area of the 
State. Reference to the chapter on Water Resources will show the extent to which the 
rivers of North Carolina have been made navigable. 

With the ports at Wilmington and Morehead City, navigation to Fayetteville, the 
Intracoastal Waterway and shallow-water navigation in other streams, the sounds and 
through the inlets, North Carolina is provided with combined resources for waterway 
transportation which, taken in connection with the abundant rail and highway facilities, 
provides the means for almost unlimited development of industry and commerce in this 
region. 

AIRWAYS 

North Carolina, the birthplace of aviation, is traversed by two regular scheduled 
mail and passenger air routes, operated by the Eastern Air Lines. The New York to 
Miami route, makes Raleigh the only stop between Waschington, D. C, and Charleston, 
S. C. The New York to Atlanta route crosses the State over Winston-Salem and Char- 
lotte. Additional schedules are announced for the near future. 

There are thirty airports and landing fields recorded in the Department of Com- 
merce, Bureau of Air Commerce, classified as follows : 

Municipal Airports: 

Asheville-Hendersonville, Black Mountain, Elizabeth City, Greensboro, Kinston, 
Marion, Morganton, Pinehurst-Southern Pines, Raleigh, Rocky Mount, Salisbury, Wil- 
mington, and Winston-Salem. Total, 13. 

Commercial Airports: 

Burlington, Chapel Hill, Charlotte, Hendersonville, Lumberton, and Rockingham. 
Total, 6. 

U. S. Army: 

Pope Field (Fort Bragg near Fayetteville). 

Intel-mediate Landing Fields (Department of Commerce) : 
Lexington, Maxton, Warrenton. Total, 3. 

Marked Auxiliary Landing Fields: 

Dunn, Gibsonville, Goldsboro, Lenoir, Tarboro. Total, 5. 

Seaplane Anchorages: 

Edenton, Ocracoke. Total, 2. 



I 



252 North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 

The most important airports, all fully equipped with lighting service and plane 
service and repair, both day and night, are: Charlotte, Greensboro, Pope Field (Fort 
Bragg) , Raleigh, Rocky Mount, and Winston-Salem. At all these ports, and at Maxton, 
Lexington, and Warrenton, revolving beacons are maintained. 

Radio range beacons are operated continuously at Raleigh and Greensboro ports. 

The two regular established routes above described are marked throughout their 
entire length with revolving beacons with on-course flashing signals, spaced at intervals 
of approximately ten miles. Numbers of emergency landing fields are located along 
these routes. 

A measure of the increasing importance of these airways as transportation facili- 
ties can be gathered from the following statistics of operation on the Eastern Air Lines 
Division for the six months ending June 30, 1936. 

New York to New Orleans via Atlanta: 

Miles Flown 804,626 

Passengers Carried 9,511 

Passenger-Miles Flown 4,828,163 

Mail (pounds) 258,737 

New York to Miami : 

Miles Flown 1,579,432 

Passengers Carried 32,762 

Passenger-Miles Flown 14,791,166 

Mail (pounds) 393,941 

While not to be classed as an adjunct to airway transportation, it seems fitting here 
to speak of the National Monument erected at Kill Devil Hill near Kitty Hawk, to honor 
Orville and Wilbur Wright and to mark the place where the first successful airplane 
flight was made. This beautiful monument attracts many visitors. 

RADIO BROADCASTING FACILITIES 
There are ten radio broadcasting stations now operating in North Carolina, listed 
as follows : 

City Call Letters Power (Watts) 

Asheville WWNC 1,000 

Charlotte WBT 50,000 

Charlotte WSOC 250 (Day) 

100 (Night) 

Durham WDNC 100 

Greensboro WBIG 1,000 (Day) 

500 (Night) 

High Point WMFR 100 

Raleigh WPTF 5,000 

Rocky Mount WEED 250 (Day) 

100 (Night) 

Wilmington WMFD 100 

Winston-Salem WSJS 100 

The Business Census for Broadcast Stations for 1935, covering all the above stations 
except High Point, reports revenue from sale of time for North Carolina stations as 
$665,866. This came from local advertisers, $403,306; from national networks and 
national and regional spot advertisers, $262,560. The station personnel totalled 116 per- 
sons. The payroll for these operatives was $182,837. 

TELEGRAPH COMPANIES 
The Western Union and Postal Telegraph Companies have lines and offer telegraphic 
services in North Carolina. 



North Carolina : Today and Tomorrow 253 

The Western Union Company collected $319,470 in intrastate revenue and $1,056,206 
in interstate revenue in 1935. Their total expenses amounted to $1,343,406, including 
taxes in the sum of $50,462, leaving a net operating income of $32,270. They maintained 
403 offices, 4,179 miles of pole lines, 30,747 miles of open wire, 382 miles of cable, and 
919 miles of underground and submarine cable. This Company serves, directly and 

indirectly, more than 1,300 communities in the State. 

i 

The Postal Telegraph Company operated approximately 700 miles of line in the 
State, from which they derived a total income of $321,236. Expenditures were $304,415, 
including $17,515 taxes, leaving a net operating income of $16,821. 

TELEPHONE SERVICE FACILITIES 

Telephone facilities are available to every community of any size in the State. A 
network of toll lines covers every county and connects all large cities with enough lines 
to insure prompt service. The major telephone companies, seventeen in number, re- 
port 112,357 telephones in actual service at the close of the year 1935. 

Revenue from this service amounted to $7,467,786. 

There are approximately 75 smaller telephone companies, operating exchanges. 
These companies report 5,620 telephones in use, from which $172,965 total revenue 
was collected. 

UTILITY RATE REDUCTIONS 

The Utilities Commission in recent years has pursued an aggressive policy of nego- 
tiations with various utility companies in the State, in an effort to effect reductions in 
consumer rates for service. As a result of this activity, and in many instances by 
voluntary reduction by the companies, substantial economies have been effected. 

It is estimated that, based on prevailing rates before reductions were made, non- 
accumulative reductions amount to approximately $6,000,000, while the total reduc- 
tions over the past four years for gas, electric, and telephone services, amount to 
approximately $20,000,000. 



Chapter XVI 

ECONOMIC STATISTICS AND INDICES 

FOR NORTH CAROLINA 

There is presented herewith various summaries and statistics which will serve to 
give additional measures of the commercial and economic development in North Caro- 
lina. Taken from various sources, which are indicated, they may not always be on a 
comparable basis, but may be useful as indications of the commercial activity and possi- 
bilities for further extension of business. 

The figures given on Wholesale, Retail, and Service Business are from recent releases 
of the Bureau of the Census. Figures on Banks were taken from records of the North 
Carolina Commissioner of Banks, Gurney P. Hood, while the data on Insurance Com- 
panies, risks, income, and losses, are from the reports of Dan C. Boney, Insurance Com- 
missioner for North Carolina. 

The miscellaneous statistics on Consumer Markets are taken from the Market Data 
Handbook for 1936, published by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce of the 
United States Department of Commerce. 

WHOLESALE BUSINESS IN NORTH CAROLINA 

The following summary is presented from the preliminary report of the Business 
Census for North Carolina for 1935. 

In this year there were 2,411 wholesale establishments in the State with net sales 
during the year of $547,328,000, a gain of 39 per cent over the year 1933, but still short 
of the 1929 peak by 21 per cent. These percentage changes are not corrected for varia- 
tion in the price levels for the two years. 

The total payroll for employees was $21,360,000, a gain of twenty per cent. This pay- 
roll was paid to 17,467 employees, not including 1,458 active proprietors and firm mem- 
bers of unincorporated businesses. Of the total payrolls, $20,107,000 was paid to full-time 
employees, a gain of 24 per cent over 1933, while the remainder, paid to part-time 
employees, declined 19 per cent. 

The stocks reported at the end of the year totalled $61,191,000, a gain of 15 per cent. 

The table below shows the distribution by types of operations or functions performed. 

Table LXXVI 
TYPES OF WHOLESALE BUSINESS 

Type of Operation Establishments Net Sales % Change 

Full service and limited-function wholesalers . . . .1,141 $179,089,000 +31 

Manufacturer's Sales Branches 159 75,120,000 +66 

Manufacturer's Sales Offices 42 33,449,000 +90 

Bulk Tank Stations 509 49,770,000 +35 

Agents and Brokers 299 153,541,000 +27 

Assemblers 261 56,359,000 +57 

RETAIL BUSINESS 

The summary of Retail Business for North Carolina presented herewith is taken 
from the Preliminary Report of the Business Census released as of October 5, 1936. 

The total sales amounted to $462,613,000 in 29,438 stores, an increase of 27 per 
cent over 1933. For the period 1929 to 1933 there had been a decrease of 44 per cent 
in total sales. 



256 North Carolina : Today and Tomorrow 

There were 60,150 employees, an increase of 13 per cent, who were paid a total of 
$44,082,000, an increase of 25 per cent. This number of employees does not include 
27,298 active proprietors of unincorporated businesses. 

The reports are subject to some correction in some parts of the State, because of 
incomplete coverage. 

The major groups report sales as following. 

Table LXXVII 
TYPES OF RETAIL BUSINESS 

Business Sales 9c Change Payrolls 

Food Stores $ 92,037,000 +19 $ 6,704,000 

Beer and Liquor 1,625,000 Not comparable 77,000 

General Stores (with food) 41,743,000 + 3 2,324,000 

General Merchandise 54,470,000 + 1 5,650,000 

Apparel Group 32,600,000 +64 3,659,000 

Automotive 85,364,000 +72 7,747,000 

Filling Stations 43,371,000 +22 3,315,000 

Furniture, etc 22,503,000 +33 3,563,000 

Lumber, hardware, etc 23,658,000 +43 2,655,000 

Eating Places 14,660,000 +21 2,331,000 

Drinking Places 1,104,000 Not comparable 163,000 

Drug Stores 18,674,000 +19 2,612,000 

Farmers' Supplies 11,936,000 +34 696,000 

Other Stores 17,932,000 +21 2,501,000 

Second-hand Stores 936,000 +12 162,000 

Total $462,613,000 $44,082,000 

SERVICE ESTABLISHMENTS 

The Business Census report on service establishments in North Carolina, in 1935, 
shows there were 8,103 such establishments, doing a volume of business amounting to 
$19,561,000, employing 10,399 persons, and with payrolls amounting to $5,844,000. 

The establishments were divided into Personal Service, Business Service, Repair 
Service and Custom Industries, and Miscellaneous Service. The most important of the 
first group were Barber Shops (1,659 in number), Beauty Parlors (650), Cleaning and 
Pressing Shops (526), Shoe Repair Shops (735), and Funeral Directors, etc. (310). This 
group includes more than half of the total number of establishments reporting, or 4,984, 
had receipts of $11,874,000 and payrolls amounting to $3,739,000. 

Under Business Service are listed adjustment and credit bureaus and collection 
services, blue printing plants, dental laboratories, mailing services, sign painting, and 
like services. 

The third group, repair services and custom industries, includes thirty or more 
classifications, the most important of which are shown in the following table. 

Table LXVIII 
CLASSIFICATION OF REPAIR, SERVICE, AND CUSTOM INDUSTRIES 

Kind of Employees, 

Establishment Number Proprietors Receipts Payrolls 

Grist Mills 670 909 $ 523,000 $88,000 

Saw Mills, etc 717 1,472 1,104,000 369,000 

Agricultural Service Threshing, etc. . . 515 840 384,000 59,000 

Blacksmith Shops 357 438 252,000 32,000 

Jewelry Repair 229 283 420,000 37,000 

Printing and Publishing 102 204 248,000 54,000 

Upholstery and Furniture Repair ... 112 231 269,000 78,000 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 257 

BANKING STATISTICS 
The Business Census report on Banking Institutions in North Carolina, for 1935, 
shows there are 338 banks in the State. This includes Federal Reserve banks, National 
and State commercial banks, savings banks, trust companies, industrial and Morris 
Plan banks, and Joint Stock Land banks. Building and Loan Associations, Federal Sav- 
ings and Loan Associations, and investment banks are not included. Separate statistics 
are given for unit and branch bank systems, a branch bank being defined as one office 
of an organization operating one or more banks or agencies in addition to the parent 
bank. There are 37 such systems in North Carolina, with 125 branches. 

Number Banks Employees Annual Payroll 

Unit Banks 213 1,548 $2,356,265.00 

Branch Banks 125 982 1,469,864.00 

Total 338 2,530 $3,826,129.00 

The number of employees includes 826 executives, with a payroll of $2,016,135.00; 

and 1,704 other employees, with a payroll of $1,809,994.00. 

"The Tarheel Banker," organ of the North Carolina Bankers Association, in the 

issue of July, 1936, lists the following banking institutions in North Carolina. 

State Banks 169 

State Bank Branches 70 

National Banks and Branches 47 

Industrial Banks and Branches 31 

Joint Stock and Land Banks 2 

Investment Banks 2 

A. I. B. Chapters 9 

Teller Window Branches 14 

Total 344 

The Consolidated Recapitulation for the National Banks, State Banks and Trust 
Companies, for December, 1935 statements, follows. 

Number National Banks 44 

Number State Banks and Trust Companies 170 

Total 214 

LIABILITIES 

Capital $ 27,133,000 

Surplus 12,400,000 

Undivided Profits and Reserves 9,165,000 

Deposits 366,895,000 

Other Liabilities 1,983,000 

Total $417,576,000 

RESOURCES 

Cash and Exchange due from Banks $132,987,000 

U. S. Government Securities 83,189,000 

Other Securities 60,239,000 

Loans and Discounts 125,659,000 

Other Resources 15,502,000 

Total $417,576,000 

BANKING RESOURCES 
The following figures are taken from the Commissioner of Banks for North Caro- 
lina, as of December 31, 1935. 



I 



258 North Carolina : Today and Tomorrow 



State Banks — December 31, 1935 

Number of Commercial Banks 171 

Number in Voluntary Liquidation 8 

Number of Branches 84 

Total Resources $305,051,060.88 

Number of Industrial Banks 29 

Number in Voluntary Liquidation 3 

Number of Branches 2 

Total Resources $ 13,267,784.05 

SUMMARY 

Total Assets State Banks (263) $305,051,060.88 

Total Assets National Banks (44) 98,856,000.00 

Total Assets Industrial Banks (34) 13,267,784.05 



Total $417,174,844.93 

COMMERCIAL BANKS 
Earnings, Expense, and Dividends 

Earnings $9,451,328.53 

Expense 6,496,631.95 

Net Operating Profit 2,954,696.58 

Ratio — Earnings to Capital 10.4% 

Undivided Profits, January 1, 1935 2,371,610.55 

Undivided Profits, December 31, 1935 3,156,151.19 

Dividends Paid and Accrued (Preferred) 192,618.76 

Addition to Surplus 779,654.00 

Dividends, Common Stock 746,314.00 

INSURANCE STATISTICS 
Companies Licensed to do Business in North Carolina 

Fire, and Fire and Marine Companies (Stock) 179 

Fire, and Fire and Marine Companies (Underwriters.) 18 

Fire, and Fire and Marine Companies (Mutuals) 40 

Fire — Factory Mutuals 25 

Reciprocal and Interinsurance Exchanges 10 

Fire Reinsurance Only 28 

Life Insurance — Legal Reserve, Stock and Mutual 79 

Life Insurance — Assessment 2 

Miscellaneous Companies, Casualty, Indemnity, etc 77 

Fraternal Orders • 21 

Non-Resident Brokers 206 

BUSINESS FOR YEAR ENDING DECEMBER 31, 1935 

Net Risks Net Premium Net Losses 

Written Receipts Incurred 



Stock Companies $1,247,516,778 $ 9,664,023 $3,906,512 

Stock Companies (Foreign) 167,347,131 1,215,685 418,678 

Mutuals (Other States) 187,972,842 1,231,340 319,799 

Mutuals (North Carolina) 3,645,542 85,773 32,992 

Reciprocals 374,299 214,721 

Total $1,606,482,293 $12,571,120 $4,892,702 

CLASSIFICATION OF MAJOR INSURANCE RISKS 

Fire $1,086,812,190 

Inland Navigation and Transportation 221,570,916 

Tornado, Windstorm and Cyclone 113,148,196 

Riot, Civil Commotion, Explosion 79,686,191 

Motor Vehicle 75,587,449 

Sprinkler Leakage 16,028,943 

Miscellaneous 13,648,408 

Total $1,606,482,293 






North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 259 

LIFE INSURANCE STATISTICS YEAR ENDING DECEMBER 31, 1935 

Ordinary Business — North Carolina Companies 

Number Policies Written 37,570 

Amount of Insurance $ 39,910,0'J 1 

Premiums Received $ 0,207,753 

Insurance in Force — Policies 134,873 

Insurance in Force — Amount $ 219,447,452 

Number of Companies 11 

Industrial Business — North Carolina Companies 

Number of Policies Written 497,755 

Amount of Insurance $ 81,933,812 

Premiums Received $ 4,046,130 

Insurance in Force — Policies 687,313 

Insurance in Force — Amount $ 112,236,545 

Number of Companies 8 

Ordinary Business — Companies of Other States 

Number of Policies Written 50,284 

Amount of Insurance $ 85,369,050 

Premiums Received $ 21,454,275 

Insurance in Force — Policies 327,431 

Insurance in Force — Amount $ 696,300,725 

Number of Companies 67 

Industrial Business — Companies of Other States 

Number of Policies Written 214,801 

Amount of Insurance $ 47,935,388 

Premiums Received . . $ 5,295,736 

Insurance in Force — Policies 801,544 

Insurance in Force — Amount $ 144,025,162 

Number of Companies 7 

Group Business 

Number of Policies Written 170 

Amount of Insurance $ 24,255,730 

Premiums Received $ 1,010,958 

Insurance in Force — Policies 640 

Insurance in Force — Amount $ 89,768,870 

Number of Companies 19 

Recapitulation — All Companies 

Total Number of Policies Written 800,580 

Amount of Insurance $ 279,404,074 

Premiums Received $ 38,014,852 

Losses Incurred $ 12,716,766 

Insurance in Force — Policies 1,951,801 

Insurance in Force — Amount $1,261,778,754 

Fidelity and Casualty Companies Premiums Losses 

Received Paid 

Accident $ 830,451 $ 440,859 

Health 650,389 380,077 

Auto Liability 1,869,445 1,270,963 

Other Liability 492,058 117,361 

Workmen's Compensation 2,410,784 1,071,897 

Fidelity 432,580 169,179 

Surety 458,856 201,659 

Burglary and Theft 219,664 66,736 

Auto Property Damage 675,920 226,650 

Steam Boiler 118,510 12,341 

Miscellaneous 531,531 390,467 

Total $8,690,188 $4,348,189 

Fraternal Insurance Orders 

Number Companies 22 

Net Premiums Received $1,049,459 

Claims Paid $ 591,996 



260 North Carolina : Today and Tomorrow 

MARKET DATA 

(U. S. Department of Commerce — Market Research Series No. 15) 

The following data is extracted from the Market Data Handbook for 1936, issued 
by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce. 

Population (1930) 3,170,276 

Retail Sales (1933) $363,111,000 

Sales per Capita $115 

Wholesale Sales (1933) $423,127,000 

Service, Amusements, and Hotel Receipts (1933) $26,840,000 

Postal Receipts (1934) 5,907,000 

Personal Income Tax Returns 30,886 

Number per 1,000 Population 9.7 

Number Homes Wired or Electricity (1930) 213,720,000 

Percentage Urban Population 25.54% 

Ratio Urban Retail Sales to Total 0.6945 

Ratio Urban Wholesale Sales to Total 0.7972 

Income Tax Returns per 1,000 Rural Population 32.8 

Number Passenger Cars Registered (July 1, 1934) 265,517 

Commercial Trucks, etc 43,364 

Residence Telephones (January 1, 1935) 90,158 

Business Telephones (January 1, 1935) 55,709 

Number Gas Customers (1931) 45,843 

Homes Having Radios (January 1, 1935) 266,924 

Total Electric Customers (1935) 278,344 

Number Domestic Service 219,842 

Number Farms Served 10,245 

Total Number Farms 300,967 

Savings Deposits $123,353,000 



Chapter XVII 
FUTURE PROGRESS IN NORTH CAROLINA 

In the foregoing chapters of this volume there has been presented a composite pic- 
ture of the abundant resources, both physical and human, to be found in North Caro- 
lina, together with a general statement of the development of these resources through 
extractive, agricultural, and manufacturing enterprises. 

The inventory discloses such a vast array of natural wealth that one may well 
agree with Walter Lippman's conclusion of a decade past, that "everything that was 
ever possible for civilized man is possible here." Or, as one geographer, quoted by Dr. 
Howard W. Odum in Southern Regions, has said, the South was "one of two regions on 
this earth and only two which will outdistance all others . . . Above all the regions, they 
are the gardens of the world." 

Any effort to present these excellencies adequately will require terms to express 
greatness in quantity and superlatives when related to quality. 

Physiographically the State is seen to be in a region of large extent and wide variety 
of formation. From the lofty mountains of the west, to the sandy barrier reefs of 
Cape Hatteras, there will be found steep mountain slopes and deep secluded valleys, roll- 
ing hills, wide valley basins, broad level coastal plains, great expanses of tidal marshes, 
inland sounds and ocean shores. Extending from the mountains to the Atlantic Ocean, 
across the State are eight extensive river basins providing every opportunity for the 
development of power, for water supplies and navigation, providing a habitat for food 
and game fish, and affording everywhere endless possibilities for recreation. 

North Carolina belongs to that small portion of the earth's surface where rainfall 
abounds, where mild temperatures prevail throughout the major portion of the year. 
While the extremes of average annual rainfall range from 40 to 80 inches per year, 
almost the entire area of the State has an average rainfall of about forty-eight inches, 
with comparatively little variation from that amount, and freedom from droughts and 
long periods of excess precipitation. 

In temperature, too, the greater portion of the State enjoys a mean annual tem- 
perature of approximately 60 degrees, and except for the higher mountain levels, with 
little snow and only short periods of extreme cold. This permits a long growing season, 
thus permitting wide-spread cultivation of cotton and in some regions the growing of 
two crops on the same land. 

The geology of the region is shown to be complex in its history and with such a 
wide variety of formations as to permit an unusual richness of mineral wealth, widely 
distributed throughout the State. 

The variety of topography and elevation permits an endless variety of plant and 
animal life, great forests of many species, and soils to make possible the growing of an 
unusually large number of crops and fruits. 

Living amid these abundant resources is to be found a people of superior quality, 
possessed of many distinctive and desirable traits, of strong loyalties and individualistic 
in customs and manners. In recent decades they have displayed their power and their 
capacity to achieve a notable progress. Through one crisis and another they have shown 
resourcefulness and ability that gives rich promise of the further development of a rich 



262 North Carolina : Today and Tomorrow 

cultural and economic heritage. Population studies presented show the characteristics 
and distribution of growth in numbers. There is shown to be an unusual percentage of 
native-born whites in a population where the ratio of the white people to the total 
population is small. Movements, migrations, changes in occupation and in racial ratios 
throw much light on past history and future possibilities. These studies show too the 
incidence of social problems relating to rapid increase in urbanization and changing age 
groups. 

In the chapter on Government, there was presented the structure of the govern- 
ment which this people have erected through the years, and a review of the manifold 
services which the State and its subdivisions perform for their citizens. Federal, State, 
County, and Municipal governments alike have responded to the growing demands of 
a rapidly changing State, demands due not only to an increasing population, but due 
also to the ever widening range of services which this people have come to expect from 
a government. The rapid expansion in personnel required to carry on these services 
and the corresponding increase in public revenues and expenditures is presented as 
another measure of progress in North Carolina. 

The chapter on Education attempts in brief compass to record the development 
of public education and the provision of facilities for elementary and higher learning 
and for the training of its citizens. From meagre beginnings, the last three decades has 
shown the rise of interest in and expenditures for public education which has attracted 
wide-spread attention. While much remains to be done, the present situation finds edu- 
cational opportunities presented to every child in the State, white and negro. 

Modern buildings, universal public transportation, high and constantly improving 
standards of teacher training and scholastic work, an efficient administration, are only 
a few of the criteria by which progress may be measured and the interest of the State 
in education may be shown. 

In a similar way, the review of the provisions made for the care, education, and 
rehabilitation of the dependent and defective wards of the State gives evidence of a keen 
sense of public responsibility actuated by kindly and humane motives. State, county, 
city, and private work for public welfare in all of its phases is described. 

The chapters on agriculture, forests, minerals, water, wildlife, fisheries, and recrea- 
tion, seek to present to the reader, summary statements of the extent and character of 
these resources, statistics of present production, employment and value, and in each 
instance to point the way to still further advances. 

In agriculture there is found a vast area of various soils adapted to successful pro- 
duction of many commercial and subsistence crops, to farm woodlands and forests, and 
pastures to support a far greater program for livestock production than has yet been 
adopted. Many significant changes in policy are indicated, in the need for conserving 
the soil fertility, of classification for better land use, for increased diversity and the 
development of self-sufficing farm production programs. 

In this as in other natural resources there is increasingly evident a need for better 
planning to conserve the unreplaceable resources, through more intelligent use and 
avoidance of waste, and to use and develop the remaining resources for the best use 
of the greatest number of people. 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 263 

Following this composite picture of the natural wealth, is the chapter on industry 
and industrial opportunities. Here an effort was made to present in summary form 
the industrial development of North Carolina, perhaps the greatest change in culture 
that any large region has experienced in the same length of time. Detailed description 
of the major industries was presented and analysis made of the many industrial oppor- 
tunities, for the extension of existing industries and the development of new fields for 
extractive and processing industry. 

Chapters on power, transportation and communications, describe the development 
and present facilities available. Power, perhaps the basic factor in industrial progress, 
is widely available in almost any quantity and at reasonable rates. Highways, railways, 
and waterways provide a facility and cheapness of transportation rarely excelled, per- 
mitting the free flow of goods and people, so necessary to the development of commerce 
and trade. Financial and business statistics are presented as additional measures and 
indices of progress. 

This inventory of natural and human wealth wholly justifies the appraisal of North 
Carolina by this criterion as possessing abundance almost unlimited. Measured by the 
progress and by the development of these resources, particularly during the last quarter 
of a century, one would be obliged to rank North Carolina as one of the most progressive 
states in the Union. However, if the measure be made the economy of use of these 
resources, the conservation of irreplaceable wealth, the development of adequate organi- 
zation and cultural advance, the achievement of high standards of living in city and on 
the farm alike, or if comparisons be made with other regions, the ranking may not always 
be so high. Many of these most valuable resources have been developed in wasteful 
ways, thousands of acres of burned-over lands have been allowed to lie in idleness, and 
forests have been cut and destroyed that might have been kept in continuous production. 
Soil fertility has been exhausted by crops and washed into the stream beds or allowed to 
fill reservoirs or cover fertile bottom meadows, and land has been cultivated for years 
that in many instances was never suitable for agriculture, while thousands of farmers 
have lived barely above the subsistence level. Adherence to habits of tenancy and share- 
cropping, poor credit and financing methods and over-emphasis upon the production of 
cash crops, has long taken its toll of agricultural income. Millions of dollars have been 
spent for feed stuffs for man and beast, that could have been raised at home, and for 
fertilizers that would have been unnecessary if soil improvement crops and adequate 
livestock production had been a universal custom instead of an occasional venture 
by a few. 

Wholesale taking of wild game, birds, and fish, and unregulated commercial fisheries 
had made heavy inroads into these resources before adequate conservation and protec- 
tion laws were adopted. Only the most vigilant efforts will restore the abundance that 
once was found here. 

While a few daring souls were laying the foundations for the development of resorts 
and facilities for recreation, the great areas of the mountains and the coast are only 
now on the way to an adequate recognition of their possibilities as a great source of 
income to the State and a great source of inspiration, health, and pleasure. 

The task is not complete. It is not too late to begin to stop these wasteful processes, 
to correct these maladjustments, and in every sense plan and build the North Carolina 
of Tomorrow. 



\ 



264 North Carolina : Today and Tomorrow 

In the following sections of this chapter there will be presented some of these great 
problems arising in the areas of deficiency and suggestions made for policies and steps 
to be taken to correct these faults and to point out anew the opportunities for future 
progress. 

There are many reasons for believing that the most important next step towards 
the wiser use of resources and the correction of many existing unfavorable trends lies 
in the field of agriculture and in the conservation of what is perhaps our basic resource, 
the fertility of the soil. 

This will be presented under four general heads: desirable land use adjustments, 
soil conservation, an agricultural production program, and the building of a finer stand- 
ard of rural living. These are so closely related to each other as to be almost inseparable, 
but will be discussed under these headings. 

LAND USE ADJUSTMENTS 

Rural distress may be caused by many factors, some external and economic, some 
internal and social. Shrinking demand through loss of export markets, domestic depres- 
sion or industrial prosperity, a credit system poorly adapted to agriculture must always 
be considered and from time to time may become of first importance, but the process of 
land utilization itself must be considered. 

This process may be affected by institutional factors as size of farms, the effect of 
tenancy and share-cropping, or by improper adjustment of use of specific areas to the 
character of that land. The adjustments that can be made fall into six categories: (1) Re- 
placement of crop farming by less intensive types of use. This is the adjustment widely 
referred to as that related to "sub-marginal" land. Land may become unsuited to crop 
farming because of comparative advantage given to other areas, new and more produc- 
tive, mechanized agricultural production, loss of fertility through erosion and depletion 
by cropping; availability of poor land to poor people; (2) Instituting constructive use 
and management of forest and cut-over lands; (3) Increasing the size of farms to pro- 
vide adequate income and permit soil maintenance; (4) Changes in cropping system to 
reduce erosion; (5) Improving land drainage, preventing flood damage on existing farms. 

A review of North Carolina farms shows that some or all of these adjustments are 
needed in wide areas of the State. In the Southern Highlands and their margins, where 
generally every foot of arable land has been occupied, it is very probable that many 
acres of this land, now depleted and subject to serious erosion, should be withdrawn 
from crop farming and converted to more constructive use in forests, pasture, and 
recreation. Existing and future forest areas should be constructively managed, farms 
in less rugged areas increased in size and erosion control measures should be actively 
carried out on all areas where cropping will continue. In the hilly cotton and tobacco 
regions these same four adjustments should be made. Forest production is mainly 
indicated on much of the depleted and eroded lands. The raising of more subsistence 
crops or livestock should be encouraged, and credit systems and tenant supervision 
should be adjusted accordingly. 

Even in the coastal plain areas, where agriculture is relatively stable, the average 
farm income is low. The very considerable areas of forest land greatly need a more con- 
structive management. Here, as in the nearby large cut-over regions, the forests are 
largely composed of fast-growing species of high utility and the area has a high advan- 



North Carolina : Today and Tomorrow 265 

tage in wood production. The scattered settlements or poor land through these areas 
should be eliminated. Improvement in tenure and increase in subsistence crops for man 
and beast, with consequent lesser emphasis on cash-cropping, is urgently needed. 

SOIL CONSERVATION 

The combination of high rainfall, highly erodible soils and a large proportion of 
"clean-tilled" crops, make for losses incurred in soil erosion in North Carolina that are 
almost beyond comprehension. Investigation discloses that accelerated erosion is active 
on nearly 40 per cent of the total area, exclusive of cities and water areas, in the State. 
From one-third of this area, three-fourths of the original topsoil has been lost, while 
from one-fourth to three-fourths of the topsoil has been lost from over 9,000,000 acres 
of land. Worse yet, 5,647,000 acres of land have been affected by gullying or erosion 
in its later stages, while 1,410,000 acres, four and one-half per cent of the total area of 
the State, is lost or destroyed for tillage purposes. Erosion has been greatest in the 
Piedmont, but occurs widely in other areas. This soil goes into the streams, to pollute 
the water, fill up the reservoirs with silt, cover bottom lands and fill flood channels. 
Consequently, floods increase in frequency and height, and water supplies become more 
uncertain. 

Measures of control have been well developed. These practical measures include 
adaptations of thick growing vegetation, the use of terraces and other engineering 
devices, to reduce the rate of run-off and permit greater percolation, and in many cases 
the retirement of excessively erosive land from cultivation. These methods, when care- 
fully adapted to particular areas, and desirable adjustments of land use, will conserve 
and guard the soil and water resources for this day and also for tomorrow. 

Every effort should be put forth, by every agency interested in public welfare, to 
extend the work of soil conservation in every part of North Carolina. 

AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION PROGRAM 
Not only should adjustments be made in land use, and comprehensive measures 
taken to stop waste through soil erosion, but also every effort should be made to bring 
about a more balanced agricultural production for the State as a whole and for every 
farm in the State. For years North Carolina has grown too many acres of cash crop and 
not enough feed and soil improvement crops. The agricultural leaders long ago began 
to realize this fact, and through every agency of education and demonstration sought to 
bring about a change. The Agricultural Extension Service, through its field agents and 
publications, has endeavored to impress this need upon the farmers of the State. 

During the administration of Governor O. Max Gardner, and under his leadership, 
emphasis was placed on the Live-at-Home program, and undoubtedly this program was 
very effective. The depression, with lowered prices of farm products, and the various 
efforts of the Agricultural Adjustment Administration, have brought many more to 
realize this need, but the end is not yet. There is still a great need in North Carolina 
for the adoption of rational farm production programs, based on the best use of the soil 
on each farm, the provision for adequate living for all the occupants, conservation of the 
soil fertility and a balanced production of money crops, subsistence crops, and livestock. 
No uniform standard may be established, since some farms would be better adapted to 
money crops, while others will be operated best for livestock. However, having regard to 
the dominant type of farm enterprise, the adaptation of crops to soil, the general rela- 



266 North Carolina : Today and Tomorrow 

tion of the area to commerce and industry, it is possible to prepare for every farm a pro- 
duction program that would be best for the land, best for the farmer, and best for the 
whole community. 

Not only would the farmer live at home and his farm become self-sufficing to a 
greater degree than ever before, but the maximum productivity of the land would be 
secured without drawing upon the basic capital resource, the fertility of the soil. 

In Extension Circular No. 308, issued hy the North Carolina Agricultural Extension 
Service, the following needs are described as applying generally to the agriculture of 
the State: 

1. Definite crop rotations. 

2. Fewer areas of row-crops, especially cash crops. 

3. More acres of leguminous soil-improvement crops. 

4. More acres of erosion-preventing crops, such as small grains, winter legumes, 
and clover. 

5. Sowing of soil-improvement and erosion-preventing crops on idle lands. 

6. More food and feed crops for home use. 

7. Higher yields and quality of all crops. 

8. Better pastures. 

9. More livestock, to give more products for home use and to improve the soil. 
10. Terraces on all rolling lands. 

In this same Bulletin will be found general recommendations for each area of the 
State, showing crops best adapted to each soil type commonly found therein, fertilizer 
requirements, normal yields, rates of seeding, recommended crop rotations, and specifi- 
cations for the permanent pastures. 

If means could be provided to put these programs into actual production, the im- 
provement in agricultural income in the position of the State on the balance sheet of 
resources would be tremendous. Progress has been made. It remains for the future to 
see whether it will be maintained. 

Another marked deficiency in the State, closely related to agricultural progress, is 
in the standard of farm housing. Surveys recently made in ten sample counties show 
that a very large proportion of farm houses are inadequate and deficient in equipment. 
Water supply and sanitation conditions fall far short of adequacy, in many farm 
homes. Many of the conveniences upon which a modern home has come to depend are 
lacking. As with the home, so with the farm buildings and farming equipment. North 
Carolina ranks far too low in the proportion of farms equipped with modern farm 
machinery, in the comparative values of farm buildings and in the proportion of this 
value to the total value of the farm. 

With the improvement in farm income that has marked the recent years and in the 
hope that better production programs will continue to raise the level of this income, 
many of these deficiencies will doubtless be overcome. The rapid progress in building 
rural electric lines will have a most helpful effect, bringing this additional facility for 
comfort and convenience. The educational and demonstration work of the Agricultural 
Extension Service, particularly in the field of Home Economics, the continued develop- 
ment of courses in Vocational Education in agriculture in the schools and for adults, the 
growth of interest in 4-H Club work, in organizations of farmers as the Grange, are 
potent instrumentalities for improvement. These and all movements of similar purpose 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 267 

deserve ever increasing support, for by such means will Tomorrow be made a greater 
day in rural North Carolina. 

STREAM POLLUTION 

The rapid increase in population, and particularly the concentration of this popula- 
tion in growing cities and the development of industry in North Carolina, has brought 
sharply into focus the problem of stream pollution. It is apparent here as in many other 
parts of the Nation that the pollution of streams by municipal and industrial wastes is 
increasing so rapidly as to outstrip the best efforts of those whose function it is to effect 
an economical and rational balance between a sensible regulation and industrial and 
urban expansion. 

Having in mind on one hand the manifold uses to which the waters of these streams 
are put, as sources of water supply, as the natural habitat of fish and game, as a place 
and means for recreation and scenic enjoyment, and on the other hand the fact that these 
same streams are the natural channels for drainage of the wastes of the people who live 
upon their banks, it can be seen that the solution must be one of adjustment 
of conflicting interests. 

Such adjustment must be made upon sound basis of fact, and with rare judgment, 
lest industry be so hampered as to produce undesirable social and economic consequences. 

At present the laws of North Carolina are inadequate to control and regulate stream 
pollution. The State Board of Health has certain powers over the pollution by sewage 
wastes, of any stream that is to be used as a source of public water supply. Other regu- 
lations, with exemptions for certain industries, are aimed at the conservation of fish 
and game, but administrative personnel and funds for enforcement are entirely 
inadequate. 

Additional research and experimentation should be conducted so that fair standards 
of water for various uses such as domestic, aquatic and wildlife, and industrial, might be 
determined and used as a basis for regulation. Additional powers should be given the 
agencies upon which the administration of the acts be placed, but, more important than 
that, public apathy and indifference to the losses and wastes that are so rapidly increas- 
ing in extent and seriousness, must be removed. Sportsmen's organizations such as the 
Isaac Walton League have done much to awaken the interest of the public while edu- 
cational programs by the Department of Conservation and Development, over the radio 
and by pamphlets, will doubtless be of great influence. 

The problem daily becomes more difficult of solution, and if these great water 
resources are to be secured for permanent use and enjoyment, strong and effective 
measures must be taken at once. 

COASTAL DEVELOPMENT 
Two large areas of the State, one on the extreme east and one on the west, present 
unusual opportunities for further regional development. The first of these is an area 
extending along the Atlantic Coast from the Virginia State Line southerly to an indeterm- 
inate boundary below Beaufort Inlet, a distance of some two hundred miles and covering 
portions of twelve or more counties. This region has a land area of over five thousand 
square miles, and includes within its borders Currituck, Albemarle, Croatan. Roanoke. 
Pamlico, Core, and Bogue sounds. These sounds, with their many large tributary rivers, 



268 North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 

their estuaries and several large inland lakes, comprise a vast area of fresh and salt 
waters of moderate depth, providing unsurpassed opportunities for commercial and sport 
fishing, boating and recreation, and for transportation. On the land areas are to be 
found large cut-over areas, from which great quantities of timber have been removed, 
which could be reforested and under proper management made to yield in time profitable 
timber production. Here also may still be found considerable areas of standing timber, 
capable, under proper management and development, of continuous production of timber 
for years to come. 

In this area will be found a veritable treasure-house of resources, which waits only 
the widespread application of definite policies of conservation, restoration, and develop- 
ment, to become available for the use and enjoyment of the whole State. The establish- 
ment of the Croatan National Forest and the purchase by the Forestry Department of 
State College of large forest holdings, will lead the way to better forest management 
and serve to demonstrate the possibilities of this area. 

The barrier reef, which is so distinctive a feature of the coast line, was once cov- 
ered throughout the greater part of its extent with forests and grass. Through neglect, 
natural agencies, and the uncontrolled grazing of wild cattle, this ground cover was 
destroyed and wind and wave erosion have destroyed all traces of vegetation from 
large areas of land. By the construction of sand fences and the replanting of native 
grasses, it is believed that this unique and beautiful coastal area can be restored and 
made available as a recreation area for future generations. Maintaining the several inlets 
through this barrier will preserve the vast areas of the sounds for breeding and growing 
shell fish, and restore an industry that has suffered greatly in the past from dredging, 
storms, and deficiency in salinity of the water. 

A part of the area is now being developed as a park and wildlife sanctuary, which 
can be made the nucleus of a great recreational center where hunting, fishing, surf bath- 
ing, boating, sailing, and camping would be available in perpetuity to the many rather 
than be the privilege of a few. To insure this, the projects now being carried out for 
erecting sand fences and sand control planting should be sustained until the whole area 
has been restored. 

To make this area more accessible, improved roads should be extended in the land 
area between Albemarle and Pamlico sounds, and bridges erected to cross Alligator 
River, Croatan Sound, and the inlets between Nags Head and Hatteras Inlet. The pur- 
chase of bridges across Currituck and Roanoke sounds and the construction of highways 
to Manteo, Fort Raleigh, and Wanchese, has provided the necessary links to open up the 
entire area. The building of the bridge across Albemarle Sound, now under construc- 
tion, is another link in the necessary highway system. These improvements to the 
highways will make for easier access to the interesting Wright Memorial at Kitty 
Hawk, the great sand dunes at Nags Head, and Fort Raleigh on Roanoke Island. Here, 
in 1585, was made the first English settlement in the New World, by the colonists sent 
out under the direction of Sir Walter Raleigh. The Fort has now been restored, after the 
pattern of the original settlement, and has already become a great attraction to visitors. 

The work of replanting and restoring the oyster beds within the area has been ex- 
tensive, but there are vast acres of potential oyster "bottoms" that should be restored to 
production, in an area famous for the superior quality of its oysters. 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 269 

Much of the work required to develop this great area is already under way, and 
should be carried forward steadily to completion. Thus can be added to the State and 
made available to thousands, an area now relatively isolated and unused. Here can be 
tapped a great reservoir of natural resources, which through conservation and wise 
use will add greatly to the wealth and income of the people. 

THE MOUNTAINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 

On the western side of North Carolina lies an area of a totally different character 
from that just described above: namely, the southern extension of the Appalachian 
Mountains. Here, in an area of approximately 40,000 square miles, of which perhaps one- 
fourth lies within the boundaries of North Carolina, is found a region of unequalled 
scenic and cultural interest, which can be made into a great center of recreational 
activities. 

The conservation of the natural resources of the region, as represented in the work 
and proposed development by the National Park Service (Great Smoky Mountain Na- 
tional Park), the United States Forestry Service, the Park to Park Scenic Highway, and 
the Tennessee Valley Authority, have called renewed attention the region. 

The predominant characteristic of the region is its areas and points of high elevation, 
there being more than one hundred mountains in the area which are more than one mile 
high. Included in the region are Blue Ridge Mountains on the east, with Mt. Mitchell, 
the highest point east of the Rocky Mountains; and the Great Smoky Mountains on the 
southwestern boundary of the State, with many other mountain ranges of great height 
and beauty in between. 

With forests covering great areas, much of which is still untouched, wildlife in 
great variety, great mountain heights, bold escarpments with their wealth of scenic 
attractions, gorges, waterfalls, and lakes, this region possesses an exceptional wealth of 
recreational resources needing only a reasonable development to become easily available 
to more than 50,000,000 people living in the eastern United States. 

Much of this area is as yet unspoiled, presenting an opportunity for sound and 
orderly development, administration and control, that will preserve these natural 
resources for the benefit of the people of the region and for the use and enjoyment of 
many visitors. 

The present facilities and accommodations for visitors are inadequate and need to 
be extended, improved in quality, and placed under more strict control. While much of 
the area is already controlled by various Federal agencies, there remain many points 
and areas of scenic and recreational significance and value, which should be added to 
these holdings, acquired by the State or properly developed and controlled by local 
interests. 

The accomplishment of a full realization of these opportunities calls for a high 
degree of co-operation with all agencies which have immediate interest in the region. 
Proper control measures should be adopted and developmental agencies erected, properly 
to advertise the exceptional recreational advantages of this Mountain section. 

This would serve greatly to increase the per capita income of the region, now far 
below that of the national average and in many cases below a subsistence level. If co- 
ordinated properly with other scenic and recreational resources of the State, there would 



[ 



270 



North Carolina: Today and Tomorrow 




result a greatly increased income to other areas from tourist travel. Comparison with 
other recreational areas, such as New England, indicates that from one-quarter to one- 
half billion dollars of annual income would be realized by the inhabitants of the Southern 
Highlands through proper development. This would be equal to the estimated value of all 
the products of farm and forest, mines and industry of this region for the year 1935. 
Such an opportunity should be seized at once. 

The opportunities for development which have been presented above are only some 
of the many ways in which existing waste may be eliminated, income increased, and 
the future welfare of all the people made more secure. Sound planning procedures must 
be adopted to insure that the abundance of natural resources may be conserved, properly 
used, and wisely developed. Only by such methods can North Carolina transmute its 
natural wealth into a higher and richer life for her people. 

If this volume may seem to have placed too great an emphasis upon material ad- 
vancement, it is because these are the problems to which it is chiefly addressed. These 
improvements can never be fully realized nor the benefits from them be properly enjoyed, 
unless there shall take place a corresponding universal development in the cultural and 
social life of the people. The only sound reason why these material advances should be 
made would be to save and use them for the building of a happier Tomorrow, for all the 
people, who, after all, constitute the real Commonwealth of North Carolina. 



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